The Christian Democratic Appeal is a Christian-democratic political party in the Netherlands. The CDA was formed in 1977 from a confederation of the Catholic People's Party, the Anti-Revolutionary Party and the Christian Historical Union, has participated in all but three governments since then. Sybrand van Haersma Buma has been the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal since 18 May 2012; the party suffered severe losses in the 2010 general election, losing half of its seats and falling to fourth place in the House of Representatives. From 2010 to 2012 the CDA was a junior coalition partner in a right-wing minority First Rutte cabinet with the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, supported in the States General by the Party for Freedom. Subsequently, the CDA again lost a considerable number of seats in the 2012 general election, dropping to fifth place. During the 2017 general election, the party won 19 seats and is part of the current centre-right Third Rutte cabinet with the VVD, D66 and CU.
Since 1880 the sizeable Catholic and Protestant parties had worked together in the so-called Coalitie. They shared a common interest in public funding of religious schools. In 1888 they formed the first Christian-democratic government, led by the Anti-Revolutionary Æneas Baron Mackay; the cooperation was not without problems and in 1894 the more anti-papist and aristocratic conservatives left the Protestant Anti-Revolutionary Party, to found the Christian Historical Union. The main issues dividing Protestants and Catholics was the position of the Dutch Representation at the Holy See and the future of the Dutch Indies. By 1918, there were three major Christian Democratic parties in the Netherlands—the General League of Roman Catholic Caucuses, the Protestant Anti-Revolutionary Party and the Protestant Christian Historical Union; the General League evolved into the Roman Catholic State Party by 1926, the Catholic People's Party in 1945. From 1918 to 1967, the three Christian Democratic parties had a majority in both houses of the States General, at least two of them were included in every cabinet.
The KVP and its antecedents had been in government without interruption since 1918. In the sixties, the Dutch society became more secularised and the pillars faded, voters began to move away from the three Christian-democratic parties. In 1963 general election the three parties held 51% of the vote, whilst in 1972 general election they held only 32%; this decline forced the three parties to work closer together. In 1967 the Group of Eighteen was formed: it was a think-tank of six prominent politicians per party that planned the future cooperation of the three parties. In 1968 the three political leaders of the parties (Norbert Schmelzer, Barend Biesheuvel and Jur Mellema made a public appearance, stating that the three parties would continue to work together; this caused progressive forces within the three parties the ARP and KVP, to regret their political affiliation. In 1968 they founded the Political Party of Radicals, a left-wing party that sought cooperation with the Labour Party. Locally and provincially however the three parties had long cooperated well, in some areas they formed one Christian-democratic parliamentary party and proposed one list of candidates.
In the 1971 general election, the three parties presented a common political program, which lay the foundation for the first Biesheuvel cabinet. After the disastrous elections of 1972 the cooperation was given new momentum. Piet Steenkamp, a member of the Senate for the KVP was appointed chairman of a council, to lay the foundation for a federation of the three parties, provide a common manifesto of principles. In 1973 this federation was formed, with Steenkamp as chairperson; the cooperation was frustrated by the formation of the Den Uyl cabinet, established by the leader of the social-democratic PvdA and Prime Minister of the Netherlands Joop den Uyl. Den Uyl refused to allow members of the CHU in the cabinet; this led to a situation where the CHU, ARP and KVP sat as a single faction in both houses of parliament, but only the KVP and ARP supplied ministers and junior ministers. The cabinet Den Uyl was riddled with personal conflicts. Another issue that split the three parties was the place. In 1976, the three parties announced that they would field a single list at the 1977 general election under the name Christian Democratic Appeal.
The KVP minister of Justice, Dries van Agt, was the top candidate. In the election campaign he made clear the CDA was a centrist party, that would not lean to the left or to the right; the three parties were able to stabilise their proportion of the vote. The election result forced Van Agt to start talks with Den Uyl. Although Van Agt had been Deputy Prime Minister in the cabinet Den Uyl, the two had never gotten along well; the animosity between them frustrated the talks. After more than 300 days of negotiations, they officially failed, Van Agt was able to negotiate a cabinet with the conservative-liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy; the first Van Agt cabinet had a narrow majority. The unexpected cabinet with the VVD led to split within the newly founded CDA between more progressive and more conservative members; the progressives remained within the party, were known as loyalists. On 11 October 1980, the three original parties ceased to exist and the CDA was founded as a unitary party.
After the 1981 general election, the VVD and the CDA lost their majority, the CDA was forced to cooperate with the PvdA. Den Uyl became deputy prime min
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The Chinese Athletic Association is the national governing body for the sport of athletics in the People's Republic of China. It became a member of the International Association of Athletics Federations in 1978 and is a member of the Asian Athletics Association; the headquarters is located at Beijing. CAA was founded in Beijing in 1954, it is a non-governmental organization. The CAA has the corporate membership of the All-China Sports Federation; the CAA is a national sports association in charge of the athletic sports in China recognized by the China Olympic Committee. Under the CAA there are seven committees, namely the Training Committee, the Tournament Committee, the Development Committee, the Publicity Committee, the Facility and Equipment Committee, the Medical Affairs Committee and the Secretariat. CAA has 44 branches nationwide. List of Chinese records in athletics China at the World Championships in Athletics Official website athletic.sport.org.cn