Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices belonging to the metaphysical family of new religious movements. It was developed in 19th-century New England by Mary Baker Eddy, who argued in her 1875 book Science and Health that sickness is an illusion that can be corrected by prayer alone; the book became Christian Science's central text, along with the Bible, by 2001 had sold over nine million copies. Eddy and 26 followers were granted a charter in 1879 to found the Church of Christ, in 1894 the Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, was built in Boston, Massachusetts. Christian Science became the fastest growing religion in the United States, with nearly 270,000 members there by 1936, a figure that had declined by 1990 to just over 100,000, by 2009 to under 50,000; the church is known for its newspaper, The Christian Science Monitor, which won seven Pulitzer Prizes between 1950 and 2002, for its public Reading Rooms around the world. Eddy described Christian Science as a return to "primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing".
There are that of traditional Christianity. In particular, adherents subscribe to a radical form of philosophical idealism, believing that reality is purely spiritual and the material world an illusion; this includes the view that disease is a mental error rather than physical disorder, that the sick should be treated not by medicine but by a form of prayer that seeks to correct the beliefs responsible for the illusion of ill health. The church does not require that Christian Scientists avoid all medical care—adherents use dentists, obstetricians, physicians for broken bones, vaccination when required by law—but maintains that Christian-Science prayer is most effective when not combined with medicine. Between the 1880s and 1990s, the avoidance of medical treatment led to the deaths of several adherents and their children. Parents and others were prosecuted for, in a few cases convicted of, manslaughter or neglect. Several periods of Protestant Christian revival nurtured a proliferation of new religious movements in the United States.
In the latter half of the 19th century these included what came to be known as the metaphysical family: groups such as Christian Science, Divine Science, the Unity School of Christianity, the United Church of Religious Science. From the 1890s the liberal section of the movement became known as New Thought, in part to distinguish it from the more authoritarian Christian Science; the term metaphysical referred to the movement's philosophical idealism, a belief in the primacy of the mental world. Adherents believed that material phenomena were the result of mental states, a view expressed as "life is consciousness" and "God is mind." The supreme cause was referred to as Divine Mind, God, Life, Principle or Father–Mother, reflecting elements of Plato, Berkeley, Hegel and transcendentalism. The metaphysical groups became known as the mind-cure movement because of their strong focus on healing. Medical practice was in its infancy, patients fared better without it; this provided fertile soil for the mind-cure groups, who argued that sickness was an absence of "right thinking" or failure to connect to Divine Mind.
The movement traced its roots in the United States to Phineas Parkhurst Quimby, a New England clockmaker turned mental healer, whose motto was "the truth is the cure." Mary Baker Eddy had been a patient of his, leading to debate about how much of Christian Science was based on his ideas. New Thought and Christian Science differed in that Eddy saw her views as a unique and final revelation. Eddy's idea of malicious animal magnetism marked another distinction, introducing an element of fear, absent from the New Thought literature. Most she dismissed the material world as an illusion, rather than as subordinate to Mind, leading her to reject the use of medicine, or materia medica, making Christian Science the most controversial of the metaphysical groups. Reality for Eddy was purely spiritual. Christian Science leaders place their religion within mainstream Christian teaching, according to J. Gordon Melton, reject any identification with the New Thought movement. Eddy was influenced by her Congregationalist upbringing.
According to the church's tenets, adherents accept "the inspired Word of the Bible as sufficient guide to eternal Life... acknowledge and adore one supreme and infinite God... acknowledge His Son, one Christ. When founding the Church of Christ, Scientist, in April 1879, Eddy wrote that she wanted to "reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing", she suggested that Christian Science was a kind of second coming and that Science and Health was an inspired text. In 1895, in the Manual of the Mother Church, she ordained the Bible and Science and Health as "Pastor over the Mother Church". Christian Science theology differs in several respects from that of traditional Christianity. Eddy's Science and Health reinterprets key Christian concepts, including the Trinity, divinity of Jesus and resurrection. At the core of Eddy's theology is the view that the spiritual world is the only reality and is good, that the material world, with its evil and death, is an illusion. Eddy saw humanity as an "idea of Mind", "perfect, eternal and reflects the divine", according to Bryan Wilson.
James Richard Tracy is an American author and activist living in Oakland, California. He is the co-author of Hillbilly Nationalists, Urban Race Rebels and Black Power: Community Organizing in Radical Times. Tracy was born in Oakland, California in 1970, his family moved shortly thereafter to California. His father was a kindergarten teacher in the Richmond Unified School District, his mother worked a variety of jobs in the social work field. Tracy has two younger brothers. Tracy credits several formative events in shaping his early political outlook, his first job was as a paper delivery person for the Vallejo Independent Press, a worker-owned newspaper founded by striking newspaper workers. This introduced the idea of worker self-management to him. In early 1989, the presence of Neo-Nazi organizers in Vallejo helped him form an anti-racist commitment. Tracy attended anti-nuclear and environmental demonstrations as early as 1987. In 1992, Tracy co-founded the Eviction Defense Network an organization which utilized direct action to prevent evictions.
The EDN was invited to work alongside public housing residents organizing for the right-of-return in the federal HOPE VI program. Subsequently, he was a member of the Coalition On Homelessness, Mission Agenda, the Mission Anti-Displacement Coalition; the Civil Disobedience Handbook: A Brief History and Practical Guide for the Politically Disenchanted The Military Draft Handbook: A Brief History and Practical Guide for the Curious and Confused Molotov Mouths Outspoken Word Troupe: Explosive New Writing Avanti Popolo: Italian Americans Sail Beyond Columbus Sparks and Codes Hillbilly Nationalists, Urban Race Rebels and Black Power: Community Organizing in Radical Times Dispatches Against Displacement: Field Notes From San Francisco's Housing Wars No Fascist USA!: The John Brown Anti-Klan Committee and Lessons for Today’s Movements A Decade of Displacement in The Political Edge Rising Up: Poor and Angry in the New Left in The Hidden 1970s, Histories of Radicalism Henry David Thoreau Housing Movements Young Patriots Organization Official website "Recipes For Recovery" "A World Of Possibilities at 45 Westpoint" "Amnesia: President Ronald Reagan RIP"
Christmas is the name of the 2001 English-language holiday themed album by contemporary Christian singer Jaci Velasquez. The album was released under Word Entertainment, she toured in December 2001 to support the album. A Spanish-langue version of the album, was released November 6, 2001. Velasquez described the album, "For my ideal Christmas album, I wanted to record the songs I have always loved, done in their original arrangements, to make an album that will sound good now but will sound good years from now." The related review indicated that the it blends traditional 1950s style arrangements with the pop Velasquez had come to be known for. Reviewer John DiBiase called it "a creative, traditional Christmas project that will touch the hearts of all ages" and "one of the best-orchestrated Christmas projects put out in the contemporary Christian music to date."AllMusic gave the album 3 out of 5 stars saying it is "beautifully orchestrated with touches of traditional Christmas-style jazz and contemporary pop."
The album peaked on the Billboard 200 at No. 102 and No. 5 on Billboard's Top Contemporary Christian Albums charts. Notes The album contains three original tracks plus a series of covers of Christmas classics. "The Chipmunk Song" duet with Alvin and the Chipmunks "Feliz Navidad" "The First Noel"
The Sillim Line is a future subway line scheduled to open in December 2021, in Seoul, South Korea. The following list of stations is subject to change as the line is constructed and as various sources give updated information; the "Seoul National University" station listed here, which will be located near the front entrance of Seoul National University, is distinct from the existing Seoul National University Station on Line 2, located ~1.75 km north of the university. A two-station extension of the line into the Seoul National University campus was considered but cancelled. A five-station branch line from Boramae Park is being considered. Citizens of Geumcheon District have lobbied for an extension of the branch to Geumcheon-gu Office station; the proposed stations are listed below
Xi2 Canis Majoris, Latinized from ξ2 Canis Majoris, is an astrometric binary star system in the southern constellation of Canis Major. With an apparent visual magnitude of +4.54, it is visible to the naked eye. Based upon an annual parallax shift of 8.35 mas, the system is 390 light years distant from Earth. It is receding with a radial velocity of +26 km/s; the binary nature of this system was determined based on changes in the proper motion of the visible component. Buscombe gave the white-hued primary a stellar classification of A0 V, indicating it is an A-type main-sequence star; however and Smith-Moore list it with a class of A0 III, which would match a more evolved giant star of the A-type. It is 339 million years old with a high rate of spin, having a projected rotational velocity of 145 km/s; the star is radiating 224 times the Sun's luminosity from its photosphere at an effective temperature of 8,799 K
Haider Ali is a Pakistani painter best known for his work as a truck artist. Around the world, he has painted murals, structures and trucks in the distinctive truck art style of Pakistan, he first gained international attention in 2002 when he worked on the first authentic Pakistani truck in North America for the Smithsonian and has since exhibited at museums and institutions globally. Ali was born in Karachi, Pakistan to a family from Jalandhar in Punjab, which moved to Lahore and Karachi before partition. Ali received rigorous training in truck art as a child apprentice, he was trained from the age of eight by his truck artist father, Muhammad Sardar, who insisted on an ability to draw straight vertical and horizontal lines. By age 16, he had painted his first truck under master supervision. Ali founded for Phool Patti, an organization that promotes truck artists from Pakistan across the world. Phool Patti means "flowers and leaves" and is a term Pakistani artists working in the truck use to describe the art themselves.
One of his aims is to train young artists to continue his legacy. He taught at the Indus Valley School of Architecture as a visiting faculty member. On most projects, Ali blends his own set of visual vocabulary with imagery and motifs suggested by the client. In his Karachi workshop, he sketches his ideas on the ground. If necessary, he has painted scenes that he has never seen, a task he enjoys. Ali will paint portraits of famous Pakistani political and cultural figures, which appear on the rear of trucks. Upon request, he paints truck owner's children, a task he finds more challenging as the clients scrutinize the work. Ali appreciates the sentimental quality of truck art and believes that love is at the core of the art. According to Ali, truck art is to Pakistan; as part of the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in 2002, Ali painted a Bedford truck in Washington, DC. Jamal Uddin, another Pakistani artist, completed the body and metal work while Haider handled the painting, it is the only complete and authentic recreation of a Pakistani truck in North America and is noteworthy for conveying the totality of truck art, not reducing it to painting, metalwork, or other elements that are prized by elite art audiences.
In 2011, Ali painted a truck in Luton, United Kingdom for a special Truck Art exhibition at the Stockwood Discovery Centre. Now part of the Center's transport collection, the truck is only one of its kind in the U. K. and Europe. Initiated as part of the festivities for London 2012, the project celebrated ties between Luton and Pakistan, as Bedford trucks manufactured in Luton in the 1950s are still used in Pakistan. Ali collaborated with 20 artists including Rory Coxhill, a British Gypsy artisan and folk wagon artist who apprenticed for eight weeks in Pakistan as part of the project. In 2013, Ali visited Kolkata and decorated a truck as part of the city's Durga Puja annual celebrations in honor of the goddess Durga. With the help of two assistants, Ali painted a pandal, or one of the colorful religious structures used for the event; the pandal structure was designed to give visitors the feeling of standing in the cargo hold of a truck while the head of the truck, or taj, was used to hold the representations of the goddess.
The installation was accompanied by a truck art exhibition introducing visitors to the art. Ali understood his participation as supporting India - Pakistan friendship. In 2014, as part of a fellowship at the USC Pacific Asia Museum, Ali painted a van as a gift to the university for their patronage. Ali included California references including the bear from the state of California flag bear, the Hollywood sign, a bald eagle, ocean sunsets, his work was shown as part of the museum's exhibit, "From the Grand Trunk Road to Route 66," which linked the culture of travel in the US and Pakistan and the explosion of vehicular-related art in the 1950s. Ali and his team painted a mural on the wall of the Karachi Press Club which features notable Pakistani women including Yasmeen Lari, Pakistan's first female architect and prominent activist Sabeen Mahmud; the work was commissioned as part of the I am Karachi campaign. It was the subject of local protests while it was being painted and became a target of vandalism and graffiti.
Ali restored the mural in 2017