click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Christopher Marlowe

Christopher Marlowe known as Kit Marlowe, was an English playwright and translator of the Elizabethan era. Marlowe was the foremost Elizabethan tragedian of his day, he influenced William Shakespeare, born in the same year as Marlowe and who rose to become the pre-eminent Elizabethan playwright after Marlowe's mysterious early death. Marlowe's plays are known for the use of their overreaching protagonists; some scholars believe that a warrant was issued for Marlowe's arrest on 18 May 1593. No reason was given for it, though it was thought to be connected to allegations of blasphemy—a manuscript believed to have been written by Marlowe was said to contain "vile heretical conceipts". On 20 May, he was brought to the court to attend upon the Privy Council for questioning. There is no record of their having met that day, his being commanded to attend upon them each day thereafter, until "licensed to the contrary". Ten days he was stabbed to death by Ingram Frizer. Whether or not the stabbing was connected to his arrest remains unknown.

Marlowe was born in Canterbury to his wife Catherine. His date of birth is not known but he was baptised on 26 February 1564 and is to have been born a few days before, making him two months older than William Shakespeare, baptised on 26 April 1564 in Stratford-upon-Avon. Marlowe attended The King's School in Canterbury and Corpus Christi College, where he studied on a scholarship and received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1584. In 1587, the university hesitated to award him his Master of Arts degree because of a rumour that he intended to go to the English college at Rheims to prepare for ordination as a Roman Catholic priest, his degree was awarded on schedule when the Privy Council intervened on his behalf, commending him for his "faithful dealing" and "good service" to the Queen. The nature of Marlowe's service was not specified by the Council, but its letter to the Cambridge authorities has provoked much speculation, notably the theory that Marlowe was operating as a secret agent working for Sir Francis Walsingham.

No direct evidence supports this theory, although the Council's letter itself is an evidence that Marlowe had served the government in some secret capacity. Of the dramas attributed to Marlowe, Queen of Carthage is believed to have been his first, it was performed by the Children of the Chapel, a company of boy actors, between 1587 and 1593. The play was first published in 1594. Marlowe's first play performed on the regular stage in London in 1587, was Tamburlaine the Great, about the conqueror Timur, who rises from shepherd to warlord, it is among the first English plays in blank verse, with Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy, is considered the beginning of the mature phase of the Elizabethan theatre. Tamburlaine was a success and was followed by Tamburlaine the Great, Part II; the two parts of Tamburlaine were published in 1590. All Marlowe's other works were published posthumously; the sequence of the writing of his other four plays is unknown. The Jew of Malta, about the Jew Barabas' barbarous revenge against the city authorities, has a prologue delivered by a character representing Machiavelli.

It was written in 1589 or 1590 and was first performed in 1592. It remained popular for the next fifty years; the play was entered in the Stationers' Register on 17 May 1594 but the earliest surviving printed edition is from 1633. Edward the Second is an English history play about the deposition of King Edward II by his barons and the Queen, who resent the undue influence the king's favourites have in court and state affairs; the play was entered into the Stationers' Register on 6 July five weeks after Marlowe's death. The full title of the earliest extant edition of 1594, is The troublesome reigne and lamentable death of Edward the second, King of England, with the tragicall fall of proud Mortimer; the Massacre at Paris is a short and luridly written work, the only surviving text of, a reconstruction from memory of the original performance text, portraying the events of the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre in 1572, which English Protestants invoked as the blackest example of Catholic treachery.

It features the silent "English Agent", whom tradition has identified with Marlowe and his connexions to the secret service. The Massacre at Paris is considered his most dangerous play, as agitators in London seized on its theme to advocate the murders of refugees from the low countries, it warns Elizabeth I of this possibility in its last scene; the full title was The Massacre at Paris: With the Death of the Duke of Guise. Doctor Faustus, based on the German Faustbuch, was the first dramatised version of the Faust legend of a scholar's dealing with the devil. Versions of "The Devil's Pact" can be traced back to the 4th century, Marlowe deviates by having his hero unable to "burn his books" or repent to a merciful God to have his contract annulled at the end of the play. Marlowe's protagonist is instead carried off by demons and in the 1616 quarto his mangled corpse is found by several scholars. Doctor Faustus is a textual problem for scholars as two versions of the play exist: the 1604 quarto known as the'A text', the 1616 quarto or'B text'.

Both were published after Marlowe's death. Scholars have disagreed which text is more representative of Marlowe's original and some editions are based on a combination of the two. The

Francis of Marchia

Francis of Marchia was an Italian Franciscan theologian and philosopher. He was an ally of William of Ockham and Michael of Cesena, opponent of Pope John XXII, in the struggles of the Franciscan Spirituals, leading to his expulsion from the order in 1329, he was commenting on the Sentences of Peter Lombard around 1320, but no longer bound to Lombard. He was nicknamed Doctor Succinctus. After his initial education Francis of Marchia became an instructor at various places to include a studia, his most famous teachings were his commentaries on the Sentences at the University of Paris. It is that Marchia's lectures were transcribed by his students, which he edited resulting in several versions of his commentary in manuscript form. Before leaving for Avignon around 1324 to teach at a Franciscan convent, Marchia composed several scholarly commentaries, including two on Aristotle's Metaphysics and one on Physics; the Quodlibet was written afterwards, between 1324 and 1328. Marchia supported the Franciscan Minister General, Michael of Cesena, renounced Pope John XXII’s concept of poverty in 1328.

Following the renunciation he fled with William of Ockham to Munich. The Improbatio, a rebuttal to the Pope's Papal bull titled Quia vir reprobus, was written during this time, as well as the Allegationes Religiosorum Vivorum, co-authored by Marchia and Ockham and assembled by Michael. In 1343 Marchia died shortly after. In the Improbatio, Francis of Marchia focuses on determining when and where property rights originated to support the Franciscan belief that Christ lived in absolute poverty, he distinguishes between two types of dominia: the dominium before the dominium after. The dominium before the fall known as the dominion of the prelapsarian state, was a time where all of God's creatures rejoiced in happiness, were connected to one another, shared in God's creation; the dominium after the fall was caused by the first sin of Adam, making the issue of property rights distinctly human. The Pope had denied that the origin of property was linked to humans, claiming that it was sin itself, the cause.

Marchia agreed that without sin there would be no property rights, sin did not bring about the concept of property. Francis maintained it was human law, responsible for the formation of property rights, not Divine law, used the story of Cain and Abel, citing Cain's corrupted will to support his belief. Francis of Marchia's theory of projectile motion, referred to as virtus derelicta, is described in the sections of his commentaries on Sentences explaining the consecration of the Eucharist. Virtus derelicta states: the motion of an object is caused by a force left behind by the object that acted upon it. Unlike the theory of inertia meant to explain natural phenomenon, Marchia formulates virtus derelicta to be an all-inclusive explanation of both natural and supernatural phenomena. Virtus derelicta explains several different kinds of motion – perpetual and finite - and is meant to account for unnatural changes. Key elements of virtus derelicta include: An object is put in motion by another object, which leaves virtus derelicta in the moving object.

At the beginning of any given motion, virtus derelicta can work with or against the natural disposition of the object in motion. If it works against the moving object, virtus derelicta will dissipate and leave the body, ceasing motion. If it works with the moving object, virtus derelicta stays in the object causing the potential for perpetual motion. There are several philosophers before Marchia's time, such as Richard Rufus of Cornwall from the 13th century, that seem to form their own versions of virtus derelicta, so it is unclear whether this theory originated from Marchia, it is evident, that philosophers such as Jean Buridan and Gerard Odonis used Marchia's theory to refine their own concepts of virtus derelicta, confirming that the Franciscan played a key role in the evolution of philosophy on physics. Another focus of Francis of Marchia's commentary on the Sentences posed in Book II was how the will could act against reason resulting in moral culpability: whether the will could either act prior to, or against rational judgment.

Marchia argued. After a judgment is made, the will decides to act either in accordance with that judgment or against it; the will constitutes the middle term between action. Without it, the judgment would necessitate action, negating the concept of free will and moral culpability. In addition, the will is under a law. Without this obligation there would be no sin. To answer how the will could go against this obligation, Marchia distinguishes between apprehensive and a judicative acts. Apprehensive acts are necessary for the will to function, are result of intellectual cognitions and judgments. Judicative acts are formed from more complex knowledge. Volition does not require judicative acts to be performed, which explains how humans are able to sin. In other words, the will does not depend on rational judgment. To avoid the objection that judgment is required for reasoning and cannot be ignored in the deliberative process, Marchia offers a further distinction between apprehensive and judicative knowledge, two types of rational reflective judgments.

These distinctions allow for one judgment to be selected over another due to the strength it receives from being selected by the will. Folger-Fonfara, Sabine. Das'Super'-Transzendentale und die Spaltung der Metaphysik: Der Entwurf des Franziskus von Ma

Battle of Jenipapo

The Battle of Jenipapo was fought near the river Jenipapo in the province of Piauí, on 13 March 1823, between the Brazilian Army and the Portuguese Army during the Brazilian War of Independence. The battle was decisive for consolidation of the national territory. Consisted in the fight Piauí, Ceará and Maranhão against the troops of Major John Fidié José da Cunha, the commander of the Portuguese troops, charged with keeping the north of the former Portuguese colony loyal to the Crown; the Brazilians fought with simple tools, not with weapons of war, had no experience, i.e. knowing the condition of struggle, they departed for combat. They made the troop divert their destination. If the Major continued to march Oeiras capital, may not find strength and fulfill its goal, it was one of bloodiest battles fought in the war of independence of Brazil. Painting depicting the Battle of Jenipapo, available in the museum at the monument in Campo Maior Unfortunately the date is forgotten, not in the history books and few know of the incident in Piauí, where the battle occurred.

But, after a few moves by politicians and the public, the date was added to the flag of Piaui and is ongoing deployment of the Battle of Jenipapo study in the discipline of history. During the celebrations and reflections on the 13th of March the city of Campo Maior takes delivery of Merit Medal Heroes Jenipapo and Governor of Piauí, the Order of Merit of the Piaui Renaissance, during which uses the same track government; the population of Campo Maior, to learn that Fidié came from Parnaíba bound to Oeiras and would there be mobilized in order to prevent him from continuing journey. On the night of March 12, the men of the city and surrounding areas were regimented. Everyone wanted to fight to rid the Piauí Portuguese rule. Women encouraged their husbands and friends, packed up what they could have sold their jewelry, all were committed to unite in one ideal: to fight; the dawn on March 13, 1823 heralded a clear day with few clouds and hot. It was a year; the command signal, all men gathered in front of the Church of St. Anthony.

The combatants Piauí and Ceará were not wearing uniforms. Outside the city, to meet Fidié, there was a performance with the band music in which there was a military parade; the mass of fighters who would fight for Brazil left elated to the drums. Without predict the steps they took with them the flame of freedom burning in the chest; the certainty of death did not take the spirits of those. About two thousand men marched into battle; the weapons they used were old swords, axes and sickles, sticks and stones and some rifles used. Without any experience in wars, piauienses reached the shores of Rio Jenipapo, where they intended to prevent the passage of Fidié; as the creek was dry, most patriots hid himself in the bed of the stream, while the other part is hidden in the thickets of scrub drain near the ravine. And they were waiting for the Portuguese army. Where were you could see when the Portuguese were close to the scene of the fight because the terrain was quite flat, with vast plains, open without shelter algum.

O minded people to become independent was entrenched and knew that ahead of them was a road was divided into two, one for right and one left. Only they were in doubt which of the paths coming Fidié. Shortly after eight o'clock, Captain Rodrigues Chaves sent a patrol to probe where the battle would be fought. Fidié to arrive at the place where the road was divided decided to send one half of the army on one side and half on the other side, he was one of the halves with the left and the cavalry was on the right. The independent, not knowing that the division Fidié had done in his contingent were right by the road meeting with the Portuguese cavalry, being surprised, they advanced bravely against cavalry. The Portuguese were dismayed with the bravery of Piaui, where they ended up retreating. At this time the piauienses chased the Portuguese inland road; the combatants Piaui, hearing the shooting, found. Came out of the trenches in which used as a defensive position and were precitadamente the road right behind the enemy, only the Portuguese troops were no longer there.

Fidié to learn of the incident crossed the river Jenipapo the left road, hastily built a barricade, distributed heavy weapons, organized the shooters position battlefront in the trenches where they were before the Piaui and hoped they return there. Before the piauienses were in a favorable position now everything is reversed; when piauienses saw the adverse situation only found an alternative, attacking Fidié the same time and in all directions along the banks of the river. In the first moment of the fight were many casualties on the part of Piaui. Dozens of bodies fell by the bullets of the Portuguese army; the few who managed to cross the line of fire gave their last breath to the mouth of the cannon, with great boldness not fearing anything against life but for country representation in tremendous love for the same. With this demonstration of love for the motherland and bravery that piauienses had meant that the Portuguese stay scared, because they have never seen such audacity anywhere in the world.

Successive attacks as a result of Piauí had many dead on the floor. The musketry and cannon fire of the Portuguese swept the battlefield from one side to the other; those who could pass by blocking fire could grapple with the Portuguese. At noon, the piauienses were tired and not sure that would win the Portuguese, this time no longer fought over crawled to the encounter with death. At two o'clock in

Otros Aires

Otros Aires is an Argentine XXI century Tango music project, founded in 2003 in Barcelona by Argentine musician/architect Miguel Di Genova. Otros Aires mixes the first tangos and milongas structures from the beginning of the last century with electronic sequences and lyrics of the 21st century; this project counts with many collaborators like: Diego Ramos, Chloë Pfeiffer, Lalo zanelli, Martin Bruhn, Martin Paladino, Manu Mayol Pablo Potenzoni, Javier Saume Mazzei, Christian Maturano, Carlos Ocorso, Hugo Satorre, Lisandre Donoso, Herve Esquis, Emmanuel Trifilio, Simone Van Der Veerden, Joe Power, Nick Wadlew, Pablo Meketa, Marcelo Sofia, Charly Fiorentino Miru Trigo and Santiago Saponi between others. On December 11, 2004, known as "Tango day", Otros Aires presented its first CD at the Carlos Gardel's House Museum, commemorating the birthday of the singer. With about 40 tours around, including more that 200 cities of Europe, North America and South America, OTROS AIRES was presented in some of the most important venues and world music festivals of the world like: Lincoln Center, Dublin National Concert Hall, Bardentreffen Festival, Amsterdam Roots Festival, Greensound Festival, Pirineos Sur Festival, between others and at the most relevant tango festivals of the planet including Buenos Aires Tango Festival several times.

OTROS AIRES songs are featured in TV shows like ¨Dancing with the Stars¨ and ¨America's Got Talent¨ in US and ¨Strictly Come Dancing¨ in UK. 2004 Otros Aires:Sin Rumbo Percanta La Pampa Seca Barrio de Tango Milonga Sentimental Aquel muchacho bueno Rotos en el Raval De puro curda Amor que se baila En dirección a mi casa 2007 Otros Aires Dos:Allerdings Otros Aires Otro Puente Alsina Otra Noche en'La Viruta Los Vino Niebla del Riachuelo Un Baile a Beneficio La Yumba Junto a las Piedras Otra Esquina A Veces2008 Vivo En Otros Aires:Introducción Milonga Sentimental Sin Rumbo Rotos En El Raval Allerdings Otros Aires Un Baile A Beneficio Otra Noche En La Viruta Aquel Muchacho Bueno Barrio De Tango La Pampa Seca Amor Que Se Baila Percanta Los Vino La Yumba Allerdings Otros Aires /* listed twice */2010 Otros Aires Tricota:Tristeza de Arrabal Essa Quisiera Que Estés Conmigo Barrio De Amor Tangwerk Junto A La Aurora Mariposita El Misionero No Sé La Otra Orilla2013 Otros Aires 4:Big Man Dancing Perfume De Mujer Buenos Aires Va Raro El Porteñito Poema Con Un Hachazo Al Costado Perfect Day Otro Puente Alsina Reloaded Volver a Verte Catedral Big Man Dancing Los Vino Movilo 2016 Otros Aires Perfect Tango:¨Amor o Nada¨ Like a Tango Bailando sin Paraiso'Solo esta Noche¨ Perfect Tango Todo Baila Perro Viejo ¨Digital Ego¨ Un Matecito y un Beso I´ve seen That Face Before' The quick international success of the band got them touring all around the world since 2006 till now.

Otrosaires.com, official website Sin Rumbo videoclip

Bruno Meyer

Bruno Meyer is a Swiss religious leader, founder of the Menorah church, a small fundamentalist Christian, evangelical congregation based in Wetzikon, canton of Zürich. He was convicted for rape and child sexual abuse in two cases in 2010. Meyer founded the congregation in 1986, seceding from the "Schweizer Pfingstmission" SPM, where he had been active as a pastor. Gatherings of the congregation took place in Wetzikon, in Rottweil, in Märstetten, canton of Thurgau; the Wetzikon group as of 1999 had 190 regular participants, the Rottweil chapter about 25. Meyer advocated a strict, conservative lifestyle, denouncing television, magazines, most books, recorded music as well as sports or any other distraction from focussing on Jesus Christ, he denounces humour, jokes and anything that may distract from a state of sobriety. He further denounces the celebration of Christmas, identified as a pagan practice, discourages followers from attending ceremonies such as weddings or baptisms in other Christian communities.

He advocates a subordinate role of women, a authoritative approach to parenting, explained by the sinful nature of children. However though not everyone followed these rules they were still permitted to remain in the congregation, showing that Meyer had no absolute control over its members, which calls into question the congregation's definition of a cult. What makes it difficult to define the congregation as a cult is that while Meyer was the main pastor, male members, most of them fathers regularly preached and held services. After Meyer's arrest in 2009, the congregation lost about half of its 50 members; the remaining group has distanced itself from Meyer and renamed their congregation to Bachtel-Gemeinde. In 2009, Meyer was arrested on suspicion of child sexual abuse, in August 2010, the Zürich state attorney filed charges against Meyer on the count of sexual abuse of a girl from within his congregation over a period of several years, beginning in 2006 when the victim was seven years old until Meyer's arrest in 2009.

He was convicted of multiple cases of rape of two girls, at the time aged seven and ten, in December 2010. Kwasizabantu Uriella Georg Schmid, relinfo

Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building

The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States federal government complex located at 200 N. W. 5th Street in Downtown Oklahoma City, United States. On April 19, 1995, at 9:02 am the building was the target of the Oklahoma City bombing, which killed 168 people, including 19 children in a daycare. Half of the building collapsed seconds; the remains were imploded a month after the attack, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was built on the site. The building was designed by architect Wendell Locke of Locke and Associates and constructed by J. W. Bateson using reinforced concrete in 1977 at a cost of $14.5 million. The building, named for federal judge Alfred P. Murrah, an Oklahoma native, opened on March 2, 1977. By the 1990s, the building contained regional offices for the Social Security Administration, the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, the United States Secret Service, the Department of Veterans Affairs vocational rehabilitation counseling center, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the Bureau of Alcohol and Firearms.

It contained recruiting offices for the US Military. It housed 550 employees, it housed America's Kids, a children's day care center. In October 1983, members of the white supremacist group The Covenant, The Sword, the Arm of the Lord, including founder James Ellison and Richard Snell plotted to park "a van or trailer in front of the Federal Building and blow it up with rockets detonated by a timer." While the CSA was building a rocket launcher to attack the building, the ordnance accidentally detonated in one of the member's hands. The CSA called off the planned attack. Convicted of murder in an unrelated case, Richard Snell was executed on April 19, 1995, the same day the bombing of the federal building was carried out, after Associate Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas declined to hear further appeal. Snell spent his last day watching news coverage of the bombing and laughing to himself. At 9:02 a.m. local time on April 19, 1995, a Ryder rental truck, containing 7,000 pounds of ammonium nitrate fertilizer and diesel fuel was detonated in front of the building, destroying a third of it and causing severe damage to several other buildings located nearby.

As a result, 168 people were killed, including 19 children, over 800 others were injured. It remains the deadliest domestic terrorist attack, with the most property damage, on American soil. Timothy McVeigh, a US Army veteran, was found guilty of the attack in a jury trial and sentenced to death, he was executed in 2001. A co-conspirator, Terry Nichols, is serving multiple life sentences in a federal prison. Third and fourth subjects, Michael Fortier and his wife, assisted in the plot, they testified against both McVeigh and Nichols in exchange for a 12-year prison term for Michael and immunity for Lori. Michael was released into the witness protection program in January 2006. McVeigh said that he bombed the building on the second anniversary of the Waco siege in 1993 to retaliate for U. S. government actions there and at the siege at Ruby Ridge. Before his execution, he said that he did not know a day care center was in the building and that, had he known, "It might have given me pause to switch targets."

The FBI said that he scouted the interior of the building in December 1994 and knew of the day care center before the bombing. Many works of art were in the building; the Oklahoma City National Memorial displays art. Lost works are as follows: Sky Ribbons: An Oklahoma Tribute, Fiber sculpture by Gerhardt Knodel Columbines at Cascade Canyon, Photograph by Albert D. Edgar Winter Scene, Photography by Curt Clyne Morning Mist, Photograph by David Halpern Charon's Sentinels, Photograph by David Halpern Soaring Currents and rayon textile by Karen Chapnick Monolith, Porcelain sculpture by Frank Simons Through the Looking Glass, Wool Textile by Anna Burgress Palm Tree Coil, Bronze sculpture by Jerry McMillan. An untitled acrylic sculpture by Fred Eversley was damaged, but survived the blast. Rescue and recovery efforts were concluded at 11:50 pm on May 1, with the bodies of all but three victims recovered. For safety reasons, the remains were to be demolished shortly afterward. However, McVeigh's attorney, Stephen Jones, called for a motion to delay the demolition until the defense team could examine the site in preparation for the trial.

More than a month after the bombing, at 7:01 am on May 23, the remains were demolished. The final three bodies, those of two credit union employees and a customer, were recovered. For several days after the remains' demolition, trucks hauled 800 tons of debris a day away from the site; some of it was used as evidence in the conspirators' trials, incorporated into parts of memorials, donated to local schools, sold to raise funds for relief efforts. Several remnants of the building stand on the site of the Oklahoma City National Memorial; the plaza has been incorporated into the memorial. The east wall is intact, as well as portions of the south wall; the underground parking garage survived the blast and is used today, but is guarded and closed to the public. The General Services Administration sought to replace the facility; the building site is a transition zone between the Central Business District and the North Downtown neighborhood. The new 185,000 square foot building was designed by Ross Barney Architects of Chicago, with Carol Ross Barney as the lead designer.

Constructed on a two city block site, one block north a