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Elizabethan era

The Elizabethan era is the epoch in the Tudor period of the history of England during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Historians depict it as the golden age in English history; the symbol of Britannia was first used in 1572, thereafter, to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, naval triumph over Spain. The historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a thousand years; this "golden age" represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry and literature. The era is most famous for theatre, as William Shakespeare and many others composed plays that broke free of England's past style of theatre, it was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became more acceptable to the people, most after the Spanish Armada was repelled. It was the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland.

The Elizabethan age contrasts with the previous and following reigns. It was a brief period of internal peace between the English Reformation and the religious battles between Protestants and Catholics and the political battles between parliament and the monarchy that engulfed the remainder of the seventeenth century; the Protestant/Catholic divide was settled, for a time, by the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, parliament was not yet strong enough to challenge royal absolutism. England was well-off compared to the other nations of Europe; the Italian Renaissance had come to an end under the weight of Spanish domination of the peninsula. France was embroiled in its own religious battles that were settled in 1598 by a policy of tolerating Protestantism with the Edict of Nantes. In part because of this, but because the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent by Spain's tercios, the centuries-long conflict between France and England was suspended for most of Elizabeth's reign.

The one great rival was Spain, with whom England clashed both in Europe and the Americas in skirmishes that exploded into the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. An attempt by Philip II of Spain to invade England with the Spanish Armada in 1588 was famously defeated, but the tide of war turned against England with an unsuccessful expedition to Portugal and the Azores, the Drake-Norris Expedition of 1589. Thereafter, Spain provided some support for Irish Catholics in a debilitating rebellion against English rule, Spanish naval and land forces inflicted a series of reversals against English offensives; this drained both the English Exchequer and economy, so restored under Elizabeth's prudent guidance. English commercial and territorial expansion would be limited until the signing of the Treaty of London the year following Elizabeth's death. England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, effective government a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII, as well as Elizabeth's harsh punishments for any dissenters.

Economically, the country began to benefit from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade and persistent theft of Spanish treasure. The Victorian era and the early 20th century idealised the Elizabethan era; the Encyclopædia Britannica maintains that "he long reign of Elizabeth I, 1558–1603, was England's Golden Age...'Merry England', in love with life, expressed itself in music and literature, in architecture and in adventurous seafaring". This idealising tendency was shared by an Anglophilic America. In popular culture, the image of those adventurous Elizabethan seafarers was embodied in the films of Errol Flynn. In response and reaction to this hyperbole, modern historians and biographers have tended to take a more dispassionate view of the Tudor period. Elizabethan England was not successful in a military sense during the period, but it avoided major defeats and built up a powerful navy. On balance, it can be said that Elizabeth provided the country with a long period of general if not total peace and increased prosperity due in large part to stealing from Spanish treasure ships, raiding settlements with low defenses, selling African slaves.

Having inherited a bankrupt state from previous reigns, her frugal policies restored fiscal responsibility. Her fiscal restraint cleared the regime of debt by 1574, ten years the Crown enjoyed a surplus of £300,000. Economically, Sir Thomas Gresham's founding of the Royal Exchange, the first stock exchange in England and one of the earliest in Europe, proved to be a development of the first importance, for the economic development of England and soon for the world as a whole. With taxes lower than other European countries of the period, the economy expanded; this general peace and prosperity allowed the attractive developments that "Golden Age" advocates have stressed. The Elizabethan Age was an age of plots and conspiracies political in nature, involving the highest levels of Elizabethan society. High officials in Madrid and Rome sought to kill Elizabeth, a Protestant, replace her with Mary, Queen of Scots, a Catholic; that would be a prelude to the religious recovery of England for Catholicism.

In 1570, the Ridolfi plot was thwarted. In 1584, the Throckmorton Plot was discovered, after Francis Throckmorton confessed his involvement in a plot to overthrow the Queen and restore the Catholic Church in England

William Middleton (American football)

William Middleton is a former American football cornerback in the National Football League. He was drafted by the Atlanta Falcons in the fifth round of the 2009 NFL Draft, he played college football at Furman. Middleton was a member of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Jacksonville Jaguars and San Diego Chargers. Middleton attended Marist High School where he totaled 148 tackles, 10 interceptions, six pass deflections, two kickoff returns for touchdowns, two blocked punts, he recorded a school record 103-yard interception return and averaged 27.0 yards on 21 kickoff returns. He was named First-team All-county and All-region honors in 2003 after helping his squad to a 14-1 record and state championship; as a senior at Furman he started 12 games, making 95 tackles, 8.5 tackles for loss, 13 passes defensed, 5.0 sacks and four interceptions. He was All-Conference selection; as a junior in 2007 he started at right cornerback in all 11 games and totaled 53 tackles, including three for-loss, three interceptions, nine pass deflections.

In 2006 Middleton won starting job at right cornerback and helped Furman to an 8-4 campaign that included a third straight playoff appearance. He compiled 38 tackles, including four for a loss, four passes defensed, a pair of fumble recoveries, he led the team in kickoff returns averaging 23.1 yards on 25 returns, good for fourth in the Southern Conference. In 2005, he registered playing time as both kickoff return specialist, he averaged 22.0 yards on 32 returns and ranked fourth in the Southern Conference in kickoff return average. Middleton was drafted by the Atlanta Falcons in the fifth round of the 2009 NFL Draft, he was waived by the team on September 5, 2009. Middleton was claimed off waivers by the Tampa Buccaneers on September 6, 2009, only to be released on September 10. Middleon was re-signed to the Atlanta Falcons' practice squad on September 14, 2009. Middleton was signed off the Falcons' practice squad by the Jacksonville Jaguars on September 20, 2009, he was placed on injured reserve on November 27, 2012.

On July 28, 2013, Middleton signed with the San Diego Chargers. He was released on August 30, 2013. Furman Paladins bio Tampa Bay Buccaneers bio

√Član Chalon

Élan Sportif Chalonnais known as Élan Chalon, is a French professional basketball club, based in Chalon-sur-Saône, France. The team's main colors are red and white, their mascot is a moose, they play their national domestic league games in the LNB Pro A league and internationally in the Basketball Champions League. The team's home arena is called Le Colisée. Founded in 1955, the club has traditionally been playing in the Pro A. In 2012, the club captured its first domestic championship by winning the Pro A Final over Le Mans. In 2017, Élan won its second domestic title; the club has been a regular in European competitions, as the team has been runners-up in three different FIBA competitions. The club was founded in 1955, after the merger of Association Sportive Chalonnaise and Élan de Saint-Jean des Vignes; the club merged with the football club Bourgneuf Val d'Or Mercurey of Bourgneuf Mercurey in 1970. The club reached full professional status in 1994. In the 2011–12 season, Chalon won the LNB Pro A title which meant they had won their first French championship.

Élan Chalon won the Final of the league 95–76 over Le Mans Sarthe Basket. Billy Ouattara and Clint Capela 24 points and 22 points, led the team to the win in the Final. In the 2012–13 season, Élan played its first Euroleague season in history: the club was eliminated after the regular seasons in which the club recorded 3 wins and 7 losses. In the 2016, Chalon reached the Final Four of the FIBA Europe Cup; the club hosted the Final Four at Le Colisée and ended on the third place after beating Russian side Enisey in the third-place game. The following 2016–17 season was another successful one for the club. Élan reached one further stage of the FIBA Europe Cup Final this time, by reaching the Final. In the double-legged Final, Chalon lost to other French side Nanterre 92. In the Pro, A the club captured its second national title after defeating SIG Strasbourg 3–2 in the Finals. Total titles: 5 French LeagueWinners: 2011–12, 2016–17French CupWinners: 2011, 2012Leaders CupWinners: 2012 Runners-up: 2011, 2016French Super CupRunners-up: 2011, 2012, 2017 FIBA Saporta CupRunners-up: 2000–01FIBA EuroChallengeRunners-up: 2011–12FIBA Europe CupRunners-up: 2016–17 3rd place: 2015–16 Philippe Hervé Gregor Beugnot Jean-Denys Choulet Official website Eurobasket.com Team Page