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Tudor period

The Tudor period occurred between 1485 and 1603 in England and Wales and includes the Elizabethan period during the reign of Elizabeth I until 1603. The Tudor period coincides with the dynasty of the House of Tudor in England whose first monarch was Henry VII. Historian John Guy argued that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, more optimistic under the Tudors" than at any time in a hundred years. Following the Black Death and the agricultural depression of the late 15th century, the population began to increase, it was less than 2 million in 1600. The growing population stimulated economic growth, accelerated the commercialisation of agriculture, increased the production and export of wool, encouraged trade, promoted the growth of London; the high wages and abundance of available land seen in the late 15th century and early 16th century were replaced with low wages and a land shortage. Various inflationary pressures due to an influx of New World gold and a rising population, set the stage for social upheaval with the gap between the rich and poor widening.

This was a period of significant change for the majority of the rural population, with manorial lords beginning the process of enclosure of village lands, open to everyone. The Reformation transformed English religion during the Tudor period; the five sovereigns, Henry VII, Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabeth I had different approaches, with Henry VIII replacing the pope as the head of the Church of England but maintaining Catholic doctrines, Edward imposing a strict Protestantism, Mary attempting to reinstate Catholicism, Elizabeth arriving at a compromise position that defined the not-quite-Protestant Church of England. It began with the insistent demands of Henry VIII for an annulment of his marriage that Pope Clement VII refused to grant. Historians agreed that the great theme of Tudor history was the Reformation, the transformation of England from Catholicism to Protestantism; the main events, constitutional changes, players at the national level have long been known, the major controversies about them resolved.

Historians until the late 20th century thought that the causes were: a widespread dissatisfaction or disgust with the evils, corruptions and contradictions of the established religion, setting up an undertone of anti-clericalism that indicated a rightness for reform. A secondary influence was the intellectual impact of certain English reformers, such as the long-term impact of John Wycliffe and his “Lollardy” reform movement, together with a stream of Reformation treatises and pamphlets from Martin Luther, John Calvin, other reformers on the continent; the interpretation by Geoffrey Elton in 1960 is representative of the orthodox interpretation. He argued that: The existing situation proved untenable because the laity feared and despised much about the Church, its officers, its courts and its wealth.... A poverty-stricken and ignorant lower clergy, wealthy bishops and abbots, a wide ramification of jurisdiction, a mixture of high claims and low deeds did not make for respect or love among the laity.

Social historians after 1960 investigated English religion at the local level, discovered the dissatisfaction had not been so widespread. The Lollardy movement had expired, the pamphleteering of continental reformers hardly reached beyond a few scholars at the University of Cambridge—King Henry VIII had vigorously and publicly denounced Luther's heresies. More important, the Catholic Church was in a strong condition in 1500. England was devoutly Catholic, it was loyal to the pope, local parishes attracted strong local financial support, religious services were quite popular both at Sunday Mass and at family devotions. Complaints about the monasteries and the bishops were uncommon; the kings backed the popes and by the time Luther appeared on the scene, England was among the strongest supporters of orthodox Catholicism, seemed a most unlikely place for a religious revolution. Henry VII, founder of the House of Tudor, became King of England by defeating King Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the culmination of the Wars of the Roses.

Henry engaged in a number of administrative and diplomatic initiatives. He paid close attention to detail and, instead of spending lavishly, concentrated on raising new revenues, his new taxes were unpopular, when Henry VIII succeeded him, he executed Henry VII's two most hated tax collectors. Henry VIII, energetic and headstrong, remains one of the most visible kings of England because of his six marriages, all of which were designed to produce a male heir, his heavy retribution in executing many top officials and aristocrats. In foreign-policy, he focused on fighting France—with minimal success—and had to deal with Scotland and the Holy Roman Empire with military mobilisation or actual expensive warfare that led to high taxes; the chief military success came over Scotland. The main policy development was Henry's taking full control of the Church of England; this followed from his break from Rome, caused by the refusal of the Pope to annul his original marriage. Henry thereby introduced a mild variation of the Protestant Reformation.

There were two main aspects. First Henry rejected the Pope as the head of the Church in England, insisting that national sovereignty required the Absolute supremacy of the king. Henry worked with Parliament in passing a series of laws that implemented the break. Englishmen could no longer appeal to Rome. All the decisions were to be made in England by the King himself, in practice by top aides such as Cardinal Wolsey and Thomas Cromwell. Parliament proved

Mirai to wa?

"Mirai to wa?" is the 14th single by SKE48. It was released on March 19, 2014, it debuted in number one on the weekly Oricon Singles Chart. It was the best-selling single in March and it was the 7th best-selling single of the year, as of June 18, 2014, it has sold a total of 503,075 copies. It debuted in number one on the Billboard Japan Hot 100, it was the 13th best-selling single of the year in Japan, with 503,917 copies. Team S: Anna Ishida, Masana Ona, Yuria Kizaki, Matsui Jurina Team KII: Mina Oba, Aya Shibata, Akari Suda, Akane Takayanagi, Airi Furukawa, Mizuho Yamada Team E: Rion Azuma, Madoka Umemoto, Kanon Kimoto, Nao Furuhata, Rena Matsui Kenkyuusei: Ryoha Kitagawa Team S: Anna Ishida Team KII: Rumi Kato, Akari Suda, Akane Takayanagi, Mai Takeuchi, Haruka Futamura, Airi Furukawa Team E: Madoka Umemoto, Yukiko Kinoshita Team S: Yuria Kizaki, Jurina Matsui Team KII: Aya Shibata, Akari Suda, Akane Takayanagi, Airi Furukawa Team E: Kanon Kimoto, Nao Furuhata, Rena Matsui Kenkyuusei: Ryoha Kitagawa Team S: Riho Abiru, Anna Ishida, Kyoka Isohara, Yuna Ego, Masana Oya, Yuria Kizaki, Risako Goto, Makiko Saito, Rika Tsuzuki, Aki Deguchi, Yuka Nakanishi, Jurina Matsui, Manatsu Mukaida, Miki Yakata Team KII: Mikoto Uchiyama, Mina Oba, Tomoko Kato, Rumi Kato, Ami Kobayashi, Mieko Sato, Aya Shibata, Akari Suda, Yumana Takagi, Akane Takayanagi, Mai Takeuchi, Haruka Futamura, Airi Furukawa, Rina Matsumoto, Yukari Yamashita, Mizuho Yamada Team E: Rion Azuma, Shiori Iguchi, Narumi Ichino, Tsugumi Iwanaga, Madoka Umemoto, Shiori Kaneko, Momona Kito, Yukiko Kinoshita, Kanon Kimoto, Mei Sakai, Nao Furuhata, Rena Matsui, Honoka Mizuno, Ami Miyamae, Reika Yamada Team S: Riho Abiru, Anna Ishida, Kyoka Isohara, Makiko Saito, Manatsu Mukaida Team KII: Mikoto Uchiyama, Tomoko Kato, Rumi Kato, Akane Takayanagi, Airi Furukawa, Rina Matsumoto Team E: Shiori Iguchi, Momona Kito, Reika Yamada

Tajalli

Tajalli is the appearance and disclosure of God as truth in Islamic theoretical mysticism. Tajalli is a process. Tajalli means "manifestation", "revelation", "disclosure" or "epiphany / theophany". Mystics use the term to refer to the manifestation of divine truth in the microcosm of the human heart and the macrocosm of the universe, interrelated in God's creation and constituting a reflection of the majesty of his Tawhid or indivisible oneness; the concept is used five times in the Quran, notably in the following verse: When Musa arrived at our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said: "O Lord, reveal Yourself to me that I may behold You." "You cannot behold Me," He said. "But look at the mountain: If it remains firm in its place you may behold Me." But when his Lord appeared on the mountain, making it crumble to a heap of dust, Musa fell unconscious. When he recovered, he said: "All glory to You. I turn to You in repentance, I am the first to believe." Theologians interpreting the Quran understand tajalli as appearance.

They Ro ` ya. The traditional Ash'aris use the Quranic concept to argue for the possibility of seeing God. To the contrary and Muta'zilas interpret this verse to prove the impossibility of seeing God. Divine self-manifestation has an important role in ontology for mystics. Two concepts are important to Tajalli. According to the symbolical language of mysticism, the sun is a password of Truth and the mirror is the key to the universe and the heart. According to epistemological semantics, truth manifests itself in the heart of the human being on a mystical journey. By means of divine manifestation within one's self, the mystic could attain to a realization of the truth to such a degree that those attributes he embodies shine forth as reflections of The Divine Attributes within his being; the spiritual wayfarer discovers this through the ascetic or Sufi conduct during his spiritual journey inward to attain to God Consciousness, which he unleashes within himself into the world as a kind of divine charisma.

Some mystics of the Sufi path recognize this charisma as a divine presence and regard it as sufficient reason to conclude that the Divine is manifest in the heart of the charismatic. Alternatively, Tajalli is use to denote a removal of the conceptual veils which occult the truth of The Divine Manifestation - namely every thing that veils Creation's True End, to act as a Revelation of God's Divine Attributes. Mystics have many levels to achieve intuitive knowledge of God: The level of muhazarah or the place of self-effacement or "Mahv"; this level is called a place of manifestation of conducts of God. The level of revealing or the place of "Tams"; the level is the manifestation of God's attributes. The level of revealing the essence of God unto ascetic's heart; this stage is called Mahq. According to ontological sense, the absolute truth manifests itself in the universe like the appearing of the sun of truth in the mirror of universe in the heart of the Mystic; the absolute manifests itself in multitude forms in different beings.

Http://www.ibnarabisociety.org/articles/osmanyahya.html http://islamicencyclopedia.org/public/index/topicDetail/id/965/page/20 Great encyclopedia of Islam, Asghar Dadbeh, Tajalli. Vol. 14, p.p. 587-591. 1367 of the Solar Hijri Calendar. ISBN 978-9647025546 Toshihiko Izutsu and Taoism: A Comparative Study of Key Philosophical Concepts, University of California Press, 1984, ISBN 9780520052642