Chromatin is a complex of DNA and protein found in eukaryotic cells. Its primary function is packaging long DNA molecules into denser structures; this prevents the strands from becoming tangled and plays important roles in reinforcing the DNA during cell division, preventing DNA damage, regulating gene expression and DNA replication. During mitosis and meiosis, chromatin facilitates proper segregation of the chromosomes in anaphase; the primary protein components of chromatin are histones, which bind to DNA and function as "anchors" around which the strands are wound. In general, there are three levels of chromatin organization: DNA wraps around histone proteins, forming nucleosomes and the so-called "beads on a string" structure. Multiple histones wrap into a 30-nanometer fibre consisting of nucleosome arrays in their most compact form. Higher-level DNA supercoiling of the 30-nm fiber produces the metaphase chromosome. Many organisms, however, do not follow this organization scheme. For example and avian red blood cells have more packed chromatin than most eukaryotic cells, trypanosomatid protozoa do not condense their chromatin into visible chromosomes at all.
Prokaryotic cells have different structures for organizing their DNA. The overall structure of the chromatin network further depends on the stage of the cell cycle. During interphase, the chromatin is structurally loose to allow access to RNA and DNA polymerases that transcribe and replicate the DNA; the local structure of chromatin during interphase depends on the specific genes present in the DNA. Regions of DNA containing genes which are transcribed are less compacted and associated with RNA polymerases in a structure known as euchromatin, while regions containing inactive genes are more condensed and associated with structural proteins in heterochromatin. Epigenetic modification of the structural proteins in chromatin via methylation and acetylation alters local chromatin structure and therefore gene expression; the structure of chromatin networks is poorly understood and remains an active area of research in molecular biology. Chromatin undergoes various structural changes during a cell cycle.
Histone proteins are the basic packer and arranger of chromatin and can be modified by various post-translational modifications to alter chromatin packing. Most of the modifications occur on the histone tail; the consequences in terms of chromatin accessibility and compaction depend both on the amino-acid, modified and the type of modification. For example, Histone acetylation results in loosening and increased accessibility of chromatin for replication and transcription. Lysine tri-methylation can either be correlated with transcriptional activity or transcriptional repression and chromatin compaction. Several studies suggested. For example, it was proposed. Polycomb-group proteins play a role in regulating genes through modulation of chromatin structure. For additional information, see Histone modifications in chromatin regulation and RNA polymerase control by chromatin structure. In nature, DNA can form three structures, A-, B-, Z-DNA. A- and B-DNA are similar, forming right-handed helices, whereas Z-DNA is a left-handed helix with a zig-zag phosphate backbone.
Z-DNA is thought to play a specific role in chromatin structure and transcription because of the properties of the junction between B- and Z-DNA. At the junction of B- and Z-DNA, one pair of bases is flipped out from normal bonding; these play a dual role of a site of recognition by many proteins and as a sink for torsional stress from RNA polymerase or nucleosome binding. Main articles: Nucleosome and Histone The basic repeat element of chromatin is the nucleosome, interconnected by sections of linker DNA, a far shorter arrangement than pure DNA in solution. In addition to the core histones, there is the linker histone, H1, which contacts the exit/entry of the DNA strand on the nucleosome; the nucleosome core particle, together with histone H1, is known as a chromatosome. Nucleosomes, with about 20 to 60 base pairs of linker DNA, can form, under non-physiological conditions, an 10 nm "beads-on-a-string" fibre... The nucleosomes bind DNA non-specifically. There are, large DNA sequence preferences that govern nucleosome positioning.
This is due to the varying physical properties of different DNA sequences: For instance and thymine are more favorably compressed into the inner minor grooves. This means nucleosomes can bind preferentially at one position every 10 base pairs - where the DNA is rotated to maximise the number of A and T bases that will lie in the inner minor groove. With addition of H1, the beads-on-a-string structure in turn coils into a 30 nm diameter helical structure known as the 30 nm fibre or filament; the precise structure of the chromatin fiber in the cell is not known in detail, there is still some debate over this. This level of chromatin structure is thought to be the form of heterochromatin, which contains tr
Julian Kestrel is a fictional character in a four book mystery series by Kate Ross. The books in the series include Cut to the Quick, A Broken Vessel, Whom the Gods Love, The Devil in Music; the Lullaby Cheat, a short story featuring Kestrel, is included in the mystery anthology Crime Through Time, edited by Miriam Grace Monfredo and Sharan Newman. The novels and short story in the series are set in the English Regency era in Great Britain. Kestrel is a trend-setting dandy, similar in influence to Beau Brummel, who takes up detection as a response to boredom with the emptiness of society. Over the course of the series, it is revealed that Kestrel is the son of a talented actress, who died giving birth to him, the younger son of a Yorkshire squire, disowned by his well-to-do family after his marriage, he was mentored by a French nobleman who helped him learn the ways of society and the appropriate way to dress. Kestrel's partner in detection is his valet Thomas Stokes, known as Dipper. Dipper got his nickname from his first career as a pickpocket.
Kestrel hired Dipper. Other characters in the series include Dr. Duncan MacGregor, a gruff Scottish-born physician who assists Kestrel in some of his cases; the novels are influenced by other fictional British detectives, such as Lord Peter Wimsey and Sherlock Holmes. Kate Ross died of cancer. However, fans speculated that she might have intended for Kestrel to marry a grown-up Philippa Fontclair. In Cut to the Quick, the plain but clever and witty 11-year-old Philippa asks Kestrel if he might marry her one-day because "I will have money and I am a Fontclair." Kestrel advises the young girl that she should look for a husband, more interested in her for herself than for her pocketbook and pedigree. He says it is best to be "the one radiant Circe in a season of dreary Helens" and to enchant others with her wit than to be pretty. Philippa vows to marry Kestrel when she grows up. "I Will Follow," a memorial Web site for Kate Ross
The following is a list of mayors of the city of Maceió, in Alagoas state, Brazil. Ricardo Brennand Monteiro, 1890 Napoleão Goulart, 1890 Manoel Eugênio do Prado, 1890-1891 Antônio Pereira Caldas, 1891 Joaquim José de Araújo Lima Rocha, 1891-1892, 1894-1897 Bonifácio Magalhães da Silveira, 1892 Antônio Francisco Leite Pindaíba, 1892-1894 Clarêncio da Silva Jucá, 1897-1899 Antônio José Duarte, 1899-1901 José de Barros Wanderley de Mendonça, 1901-1903 Joaquim José de Araújo, 1903-1904 José Rodi Braga, 1904 Cândido de Almeida Botelho, 1904-1905 Manoel Sampaio Marques, 1905-1907 Antonio Guedes Nogueira, 1907-1909 Demócrito Brandão Gracindo, 1909-1911 Luís de Mascarenhas, 1911 Roberto Otaviano de Sousa Machado, 1911-1913 Firmino de Aquino Vasconcelos, 1913-1915 Ignácio Uchôa d’Albuquerque Sarmento, 1915-1917 Firmino de Aquino Vasconcelos, 1917-1920, 1921-1924 Leôncio Correa de Oliveira, 1920-1921 Ernani Teixeira Basto, 1924 Crisanto de Carvalho, 1924-1925 José Moreira da Silva Lima, 1925-1927 Jaime de Altavila, 1927-1928 Ernandi Teixeira Bastos, 1928 José Carneiro de Albuquerque, 1928-1930 António Baltazar de Mendonça, 1930-1933 Orlando Valeriano de Araújo, 1933 Alfredo Elias da Rosa Oiticica, 1933-1934 Edgar de Góes Monteiro, 1934-1935 Álvaro Guedes Nogueira, 1935 Cipriano Jucá, 1935 Afonso da Rocha Lira, 1935-1937 Eustáquio Gomes de Melo, 1937-1941 Francisco Abdon Arroxelas, 1941-1945 Antônio Maria Mafra, 1945 Reinaldo Carlos de Carvalho Gama, 1945-1948 João Teixeira de Vasconcelos, 1948-1950 Luiz Campos Teixeira, 1950-1951 Joaquim de Barros Leão, 1951-1952 Abelardo Pontes Lima, 1952-1953, 1955-1960 José Lucena de Albuquerque Maranhão, 1953-1955 Cleto Marques Luz, 1955 Manoel Valente de Lima, 1960-1961 Sandoval Ferreira Caju, 1961-1964 Vinícius Cansanção Filho, 1964-1966 Divaldo Suruagy, 1966-1970 Henrique Equelman, 1970-1971 Juvêncio Calheiros Lessa, 1971 João Rodrigues Sampaio Filho, 1971-1975, 1990-1992 Dílton Falcão Simões, 1975-1979 Fernando Collor, 1979-1982 Corintho Onélio Campelo da Paz, 1982-1983 José Bandeira de Medeiros, 1983-1985 Djalma Falcão, 1986-1988 Guilherme Palmeira, 1989-1990 Pedro Vieira da Silva, 1992 Ronaldo Lessa, 1993-1996 Kátia Born, 1997-2004 Cícero Almeida, 2005-2012 Rui Palmeira, 2013- Maceió history Alagoas history History of Alagoas List of mayors of largest cities in Brazil List of mayors of capitals of Brazil This article incorporates information from the Portuguese Wikipedia
Riyaz Punjabi, is a former Professor and Vice Chancellor at the University of Kashmir. He was granted the Padma Shri, one of India's highest civilian awards, in 2011. In 2008 he was granted an Honorary Professorship at the International University Vienna for his contribution in "Strengthening International Relations in the Sphere of Education", he won the Amity Academic Excellence Award from Amity International Business School, in 2009, the Fzil Memorial Award in 2009, the Adbi Markaz Kamraz award in 2010. Riyaz Punjabi has lectured in the Universities and research institutions in different parts of Asia, Africa and Australia, he has participated in more than 21 International Conferences and Seminars in U. S. A, U. K. Switzerland, the Netherlands, Australia, Turkey, South Africa, Bangladesh, Kenya and New Delhi. Prof. Punjabi holds a degree of Doctorate in Laws and has taught and conducted researches in Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, Universities of Jammu and Kashmir, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi and Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla.
He has held the positions of Professor, Centre for the Study of Social Systems, Faculty of Social Science Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. He has been University of Kashmir. Punjabi has been a Visiting Research Fellow on Human Rights in the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Visiting Professor, Academy of Third World Studies, Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi and Visiting Research Fellow in the Centre for South Asian Studies, Switzerland, he has been affiliated with research centres at the National level as a member, Board of Management, Nelson Mandela Centre for Peace and Conflict Resolution, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi. Prof. Punjabi is President, International Centre for Peace Studies, New Delhi and Honorary Co-Director European Institute, New Delhi, he is the founding Editor of the quarterly Journal of Peace Studies New Delhi, since 1994. Riyaz Punjabi has authored six books, contributed chapters in 12 edited volumes, authored more than 20 occasional papers and monographs on diverse themes and subjects.
He has contributed more than 200 research papers in National and International journals on diverse themes and subjects. He has written on various topics, but his main areas of work have been Peace Studies, Human Rights, Global Terrorism, Composite Culture, Inter-religious conflicts and rise of fundamentalism in South Asia and Sufism, his favourite subject has been the projection of spiritual and cultural unity of people in South Asia as reflected in Sufi-Bakhti traditions of the region. In his latest edited book U. S. A. and Muslim World Prof. he described the Global Islamist Movements and projected their declining fortunes. In 1994, Punjabi set up a voluntary research group called the Centre for Peace Studies in New Delhi to encourage researches and debate on human rights, spiritual unity and human brotherhood; this group became the International Centre for Peace Studies and sustains itself on voluntary contributions and donations. This Centre has facilitated to disseminate Punjabi’s publications, organize public lectures and debates to promote the cause of human rights and religious harmony and inter faith dialogue.
Riyaz Punjabi has made written extensively in the field of Kashmir Studies. Through his publications, public lectures and discussions he has been projecting the syncretic culture of Kashmir Valley, he has described the spiritual continuity of different faiths in Kashmir which culminated in the form of Kashmiriyat in Kashmir. His article "Kashmiriyat: The Mystique of an Ethnicity" published in the India International Centre quarterly in 1990 was translated in several Indian languages and reproduced in several national and international publications, he has authored several articles on Sikh faith. He has worked on the spiritual content of Guru Granth Sahib - the Sikh Book of faith
Vinegar Hill is an unincorporated community in Markham, Canada bounded by Highway 7 to the north, Highway 407 to the south, streets just west and east of Main Street South, bordered by the Rouge River. The name of the community is believed to be linked to a cider mill on the east side of the river valley or barrel makers that filled them with vinegar to test their straightness when rolling down Markham Road; the community is located just south of the historic village of Markham, has several historic homes reflecting its rich history of being one of the first neighbourhoods settled in Markham. With walking paths along the Rouge River, its abundant wildlife and flora, its proximity to 407, walking distance to Historic Main Street, this small neighbourhood has many amenities; the Main Street Markham South Bridge was a small concrete beam girder bridge with 2 lanes of traffic traversed over the Rouge River and connected Vinegar Hill to the Historic Village of Markham. The bridge was repaired in 1980-1981.
In 2014 the old Main Street Markham Bridge was demolished and replaced with a new three lane box girder bridge and will be completed by end of 2015. There are three significant properties north of the bridge: 2 Fisher Court - worker's cottage 53 Main Street Markham South - Markham First Post Office 29 James Walker Court - Archibald Barker House and Store There are two cemeteries on either side of Markham Road: At the end of Princess Street is Grace Anglican Cemetery. Rouge Street and Schouten Crescent is St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Cemetery; the south end of community near Highway 407 is now home to a newer residential development. On some of the older streets there has been in-fill building with larger homes being built giving the older streets an eclectic full range. Both Milne Dam Conservation Park and the banks of the Rouge River are part of the Rouge Park system. Rouge Haven Parkette is a small city owned park on the east side of Markham Road; the community is a car oriented area with much of the area within a few minutes reach of Highway 407 as well as Markham Road / Main Street Markham South as the key arterial road.
Public transit is served by Toronto Transit Commission bus route 102D, contracted by York Region Transit. There is only one stop at James Scott Road. More transit options are made by walking north to Highway 7 in Markham Village to the north. How Vinegar Hill got its name
Marc Peter Tierney is an English former professional footballer who played as a left back most for Football League Championship club Bolton Wanderers. Predominantly a left back, Tierney could play in other positions, such as centre-back, his brother Paul is a retired professional footballer. A graduate of the Oldham Athletic Academy where he made his debut in 2003, he has played for Carlisle United, Shrewsbury Town, Colchester United, Norwich City. Born in Prestwich, Greater Manchester, Tierney rose through the youth ranks at Oldham Athletic, making his professional debut for Oldham in a League Cup match in August of the 2003–04 season, against Scunthorpe United. In December 2004 he went to Carlisle United on loan for a three-month spell under Paul Simpson. In January 2007, Tierney was signed by Shrewsbury Town in a two and a half year deal, he was a regular in the Shrewsbury side during the closing months of the 2006–07 season, as Town reached the League Two playoff final at Wembley. Notably, Tierney was sent off in the dying minutes of that game, making him only the second player to suffer this fate at the new stadium, meaning he would miss the first game of the 2007–08 season.
In spite of Shrewsbury's disappointing 2007–08 season, Tierney enjoyed excellent personal form. His dependable performances earned him both the fans' and players' player of the year awards. On 27 November 2008 Tierney joined Colchester United on an initial five-week loan; the move was made permanent in the January transfer window. Tierney received his 1st red card against former employers Oldham. On 12 January 2011, Tierney signed for Championship side Norwich City and was handed the number 32 shirt; the move came despite Tierney saying he would not move to Norwich "in a million years". He made his debut for The Canaries against Crystal Palace at Selhurst Park as a substitute for Adam Drury in a 0–0 draw, made his first start in the 2–1 win over Millwall at Carrow Road. Once Norwich had completed promotion he joined in with the mass celebrations by doing numerous cartwheels on the pitch, he repeated a similar celebration during a pre-season friendly against Real Zaragoza when two of the floodlights failed after a lightning strike to "entertain the fans".
Tierney was given squad number 23 ahead of the 2011–12 Premier League season and started on the opening day of the season. He was the only player to start the first 6 games of the season, establishing himself as first choice left back, he is affectionately known as "Mad Marc" by the Norwich fans. Tierney continued his run in the team, starting all of the games up to Christmas until a serious injury ruled him out for the rest of the season of what was an impressive season for the team. At the end of the 2012–13 season, it was announced Tierney was not to be given a new contract, allowing him to look for other clubs on a free transfer. Following his release from Norwich City, Bolton Wanderers announced that Tierney would be joining the club when his contract with Norwich expired on 30 June 2013, he made his debut for Bolton in their 1-1 draw with Lancashire rivals Burnley on 3 August 2013. Tierney established himself as Bolton's first choice left-back before suffering an ankle injury in the club's 1-1 draw with Yeovil Town at the Reebok Stadium meaning a lengthy spell on the sidelines.
On 23 April 2015, Tierney announced his retirement from professional football after failing to recover from his ankle injury. Aside from England, Tierney is eligible to play for the Republic of Ireland national team, his brother Paul has represented Republic of Ireland at U21 level. Giovanni Trapattoni and Marco Tardelli were reported to have been keeping an eye on him ahead of Ireland's participation in UEFA Euro 2012. Source:Does not include Football League Trophy appearances. Norwich City Football League Championship runners-up: 2010–11 Marc Tierney at Soccerbase Marc Tierney at ESPN FC