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Chromolithography

Chromolithography is a unique method for making multi-colour prints. This type of colour printing stemmed from the process of lithography, includes all types of lithography that are printed in colour; when chromolithography is used to reproduce photographs, the term photochrome is used. Lithographers sought to find a way to print on flat surfaces with the use of chemicals instead of raised relief or recessed intaglio techniques. Chromolithography became the most successful of several methods of colour printing developed by the 19th century. Hand-colouring remained important; the initial technique involved the use of multiple lithographic stones, one for each colour, was still expensive when done for the best quality results. Depending on the number of colours present, a chromolithograph could take very skilled workers months to produce; however much cheaper prints could be produced by simplifying both the number of colours used, the refinement of the detail in the image. Cheaper images, like advertisements, relied on an initial black print, on which colours were overprinted.

To make an expensive reproduction print as what was once referred to as a "chromo", a lithographer, with a finished painting in front of him created and corrected the many stones using proofs to look as much as possible like the painting, sometimes using dozens of layers. Chromolithography is a chemical process; the process is based on the rejection of grease by water. The image is applied to stone, grained zinc or aluminium surfaces, with a grease-based crayon or ink. Limestone and zinc are two used materials in the production of chromolithographs, as aluminium corrodes easily. After the image is drawn onto one of these surfaces, the image is gummed-up with a gum arabic solution and weak nitric acid to desensitize the surface. Before printing, the image is proved before inking up the image with oil based transfer or printing ink; the inked image under pressure is transposed onto a sheet of paper using a flat-bed press. This describes the direct form of printing; the offset indirect method uses a rubber-covered cylinder that transfers the image from printing surface to the paper.

Colours may be overprinted by using additional stones or plates to achieve a closer reproduction of the original. Accurate registration for multi-coloured work is achieved by the use of a key outline image and registration bars which are applied to each stone or plate before drawing the solid or tone image. Ben-Day medium uses a raised gelatin stipple image to give tone gradation. An air-brush sprays ink to give soft edges; these are just two methods used to achieve gradations of tone. The use of twelve overprinted colours would not be considered unusual; each sheet of paper will therefore pass through the printing press as many times as there are colours in the final print. In order that each colour is placed in the right position, each stone or plate must be precisely'registered,' or lined up, on the paper using a system of register marks. Chromolithographs are considered to be reproductions that are smaller than double demi, are of finer quality than lithographic drawings which are concerned with large posters.

Autolithographs are prints where the artist draws and prints his or her own limited number of reproductions. This is the true lithographic art form. Alois Senefelder, the inventor of lithography, introduced the subject of colored lithography in his 1818 Vollstaendiges Lehrbuch der Steindruckerey, where he told of his plans to print using colour and explained the colours he wished to be able to print someday. Although Senefelder recorded plans for chromolithography, printers in other countries, such as France and England, were trying to find a new way to print in colour. Godefroy Engelmann of Mulhouse in France was awarded a patent on chromolithography in July 1837, but there are disputes over whether chromolithography was in use before this date, as some sources say, pointing to areas of printing such as the production of playing cards; the first American chromolithograph—a portrait of Reverend F. W. P. Greenwood—was created by William Sharp in 1840. Many of the chromolithographs were purchased in urban areas.

The paintings were used as decoration in American parlours as well as for decoration within middle-class homes. They were prominent after the Civil War because of their low production costs and ability to be mass-produced, because the methods allowed pictures to look more like hand-painted oil paintings. Production costs were only low if the chromolithographs were cheaply produced, but top-quality chromos were costly to produce because of the necessary months of work and the thousands of dollars worth of equipment that had to be used. Although chromos could be mass-produced, it took about three months to draw colours onto the stones and another five months to print a thousand copies. Chromolithographs became so popular in American culture that the era has been labeled as "chromo civilization". Over time, during the Victorian era, chromolithographs populated children's and fine arts publications, as well as advertising art, in trade cards and posters, they were once used for advertisements, popular prints, medical or scientific books.

Though chromolithographs served many uses within society at the time, many were opposed to the idea of them because of their perceived lack of authenticity. The new forms of art were sometimes tagged as "

Yarmouth Beach railway station

Yarmouth Beach railway station is a former railway station in Great Yarmouth, Norfolk. It was opened in 1877 by the Great Stalham Light Railway. In 1893 it was taken over by the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway which had built a large network of track over East Anglia conceived to transport holidaymakers from the Midlands to their destinations on the Norfolk coast. Acquiring Yarmouth Beach station fitted into this grand strategy; the line was dependent on used by local travellers. Use of the line began to decline and by the 1950s competition from the roads diminished passenger numbers. Yarmouth Beach and the line it stood on closed in 1959 along with most of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway network, now in British Railways hands, it was converted into a coach station and demolished in 1982/83 and is now a car & coach park. It lacked the direct route of its rival at Yarmouth Vauxhall, taking a winding path across Norfolk without stops at major towns. Instead of connecting Great Yarmouth directly with Norwich, passengers would have to change at the rural Melton Constable.

Yarmouth Beach station on navigable 1946 O. S. map Yarmouth Beach station on 1887 O. S. map with current overlay Aerial photograph from 1926 by Aerofilms

Alsophila incisoserrata

Alsophila incisoserrata, synonym Cyathea incisoserrata, is a species of tree fern native to the Malay Peninsula and the state of Sarawak on the island of Borneo, where it grows in forest and forest margins from the lowland to 1250 m. The trunk is about 4 m tall and 12 cm in diameter. Fronds may be bi - or 1 -- 2 m in length; the stipe of this species is persistent and is sometimes retained on the upper trunk. It is warty, bears conical spines, is sparsely covered with scales; these scales may bullate. Sori are borne near the fertile pinnule midvein, they are protected by small bilobed indusia. Large and Braggins note that A. incisoserrata is similar to Alsophila latebrosa, from which it differs in pinnule morphology and in having scales throughout the length of the stipe