Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king
The Chronicon Pictum is a medieval illustrated chronicle from the Kingdom of Hungary from the second half of fourteenth century. It represents the international artistic style of the royal courts in the court of Louis I of Hungary, its full name is: Chronicon pictum, Marci de Kalt, Chronica de gestis Hungarorum, Illustrated Chronicle, Mark of Kalt's Chronicle About the Deeds of the Hungarians. The chronicle was written by Márk Kálti shortly after the year 1358, with the last of the illuminations being finished between 1370 and 1373; the chronicle was given by the Hungarian king Louis I to the French king Charles V, when the daughter of Louis, was engaged to Charles's son Louis I, Duke of Orléans. The chronicle was given to Đorđe Branković in 1456, where it was copied, lost spending some time in Turkish possession; the chronicle reappears in the first half of the 17th century in royal archives of Vienna by unknown means, why it is referred as the Vienna Illuminated Chronicle. The manuscript is now kept in the National Széchényi Library in Budapest.
The 147 pictures of the chronicle are great source of information on medieval Hungarian cultural history and court life in the 14th century. Many miniatures seen inside this chronicle are painted with gold; the artistic value of the miniatures are quite high, if we compare similar miniatures from other parts of Western Europe from the same time. The characters are drawn with knowledge of anatomy. All miniatures showing Attila the Hun are disrupted or rubbed out; the miniatures make use of symbolism, i.e. "primus ingressus" is with a camel, while the "secundus ingressus" is with a white horse meaning that entering the Carpathian Basin the first time was not a successful or was a culturally diverted act. The text of Latin is representing a high quality. A digitized version of the Chronicon itself at the Wayback Machine Podhradczky József. Chronicon Budense. Buda. – A more readable Latin text, with notes in Latin Geréb László. Képes Krónika. Magyar Hírlap and Maecenas. ISBN 963 8164 07 7. – Hungarian translation at the Hungarian Electronic Library
Eötvös Loránd University
Eötvös Loránd University is a Hungarian public research university based in Budapest. Founded in 1635, ELTE is one of the largest and most prestigious public higher education institutions in Hungary; the 28,000 students at ELTE are organized into eight faculties, into research institutes located throughout Budapest and on the scenic banks of the Danube. ELTE is affiliated with 5 Nobel laureates, as well as winners of the Wolf Prize, Fulkerson Prize and Abel Prize, the latest of, Abel Prize winner Endre Szemerédi in 2012; the predecessor of Eötvös Loránd University was founded in 1635 by Cardinal Péter Pázmány in Nagyszombat, Kingdom of Hungary, as a Catholic university for teaching theology and philosophy. In 1770, the University was transferred to Buda, it was named Royal University of Pest until 1873 University of Budapest until 1921, when it was renamed Pázmány Péter University after its founder Péter Pázmány. The Faculty of Science started its autonomous life in 1949 when The Faculty of Theology was separated from the university.
The university received its current name in 1950, after one of its most well-known physicists, Baron Loránd Eötvös. The university was founded in 1635 in Nagyszombat, Kingdom of Hungary, by the archbishop and theologian Péter Pázmány. Leadership was given over to the Jesuits; the university only had two colleges. The College of Law was added in 1667 and the College of Medicine was started in 1769. After the dissolution of the Jesuit order, the university was moved to Buda in 1777 in accordance with the intention of the founder; the university moved to its final location in Pest in 1784. The language of education was Latin until 1844, when Hungarian was introduced as an official language. Women have been allowed to enroll since 1895; the Lágymányosi campus is home to the Faculty of Science, the Faculty of Informatics and the Faculty of Social Sciences. The campus is located in the 11th district of Budapest; the Savaria Campus is created for producing best Mechanical Engineers. Only Mechanical Engineering courses are conducted here with modern facilities of labs and work shops.
Furthermore, It has great industry collaboration with industry to make sure advanced Mechanical Engineering studies. Dual education system of mechanical engineering are available here; the principal goal of the dual education system is to synchronize the requirements of higher education and the job market. This education system is implemented by reforming a traditional Mechanical Engineering BSc program based on its professional practical background. ELTE is Hungary's largest scientific establishment with 118 PhD programs at 17 doctoral schools, offers 38 bachelor's programs, 96 master's programs, over 50 degree programs in foreign languages; the course credits awarded. The eight faculties are: Faculty of Law and Political Sciences Bárczi Gusztáv Faculty of Special Education Faculty of Humanities Faculty of Informatics Faculty of Education and Psychology Faculty of Social Sciences Faculty of Elementary and Nursery School Teachers' Training Faculty of Science In the 2013-14 QS World University Rankings, Eötvös Loránd University was ranked 551-600th.
In the 2018, according to the Times Higher Education World University Ranking, ELTE ranked between 601-800. Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked the university among the best 301-400. International Colleges and Universities ranked the university as the 158th globally. Nobel prize winners: Lénárd Fülöp, Nobel Prize for Physics Albert Szent-Györgyi, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of Vitamin C Hevesy György, Nobel Prize for Chemistry Békésy György, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine Harsányi János, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences Other notable alumni: Miklós Ajtai, computer scientist.
Kingdom of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century. The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the coronation of the first king Stephen I at Esztergom around the year 1000. By the 12th century, the kingdom became a European middle power within the Western world. Due to the Ottoman occupation of the central and southern territories of Hungary in the 16th century, the country was partitioned into three parts: the Habsburg Royal Hungary, Ottoman Hungary, the semi-independent Principality of Transylvania; the House of Habsburg held the Hungarian throne after the Battle of Mohács until 1918 and played a key role in the liberation wars against the Ottoman Empire. From 1867, territories connected to the Hungarian crown were incorporated into Austria-Hungary under the name of Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen; the monarchy ended with the deposition of the last king Charles IV in 1918, after which Hungary became a republic.
The kingdom was nominally restored during the "Regency" of 1920–46, ending under the Soviet occupation in 1946. The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia and other parts of what is now Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia, Vojvodina and other smaller territories surrounding present-day Hungary's borders. From 1102 it included Croatia, being in personal union with it, united under the King of Hungary. Today, the feast day of the first king Stephen I is a national holiday in Hungary, commemorating the foundation of the state; the Latin forms Ungarie. The German name Königreich Ungarn was used from 1784 to 1790 and again between 1849 and the 1860s; the Hungarian name was used in the 1840s, again from the 1860s to 1946. The unofficial Hungarian name of the kingdom was Magyarország, still the colloquial, the official name of Hungary; the names in the other native languages of the kingdom were: Polish: Królestwo Węgier, Romanian: Regatul Ungariei, Serbian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Croatian: Kraljevina Ugarska, Slovene: Kraljevina Ogrska, Slovak: Uhorské kráľovstvo, Italian, Regno d'Ungheria.
In Austria-Hungary, the unofficial name Transleithania was sometimes used to denote the regions of the Kingdom of Hungary. The term Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen was included for the Hungarian part of Austria-Hungary, although this term was in use prior to that time; the Hungarians led by Árpád settled the Carpathian Basin in 895, established Principality of Hungary. The Hungarians led several successful incursions to Western Europe, until they were stopped by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor in Battle of Lechfeld; the principality was succeeded by the Christian Kingdom of Hungary with the coronation of St Stephen I at Esztergom on Christmas Day 1000. The first kings of the kingdom were from the Árpád dynasty, he fought with Bavarian help, defeated him near Veszprém. The Catholic Church received powerful support from Stephen I, who with Christian Hungarians and German knights wanted a Christian kingdom established in Central Europe. Stephen I of Hungary was canonized as a Catholic saint in 1083 and an Orthodox saint in 2000.
After his death, a period of revolts and conflict for supremacy ensued between the royalty and the nobles. In 1051 armies of the Holy Roman Empire tried to conquer Hungary, but they were defeated at Vértes Mountain; the armies of the Holy Roman Empire continued to suffer defeats. Before 1052 Peter Orseolo, a supporter of the Holy Roman Empire, was overthrown by king Samuel Aba of Hungary; this period of revolts ended during the reign of Béla I. Hungarian chroniclers praised Béla I for introducing new currency, such as the silver denarius, for his benevolence to the former followers of his nephew, Solomon; the second greatest Hungarian king from the Árpád dynasty, was Ladislaus I of Hungary, who stabilized and strengthened the kingdom. He was canonized as a saint. Under his rule Hungarians fought against the Cumans and acquired parts of Croatia in 1091. Due to a dynastic crisis in Croatia, with the help of the local nobility who supported his claim, he managed to swiftly seize power in northern parts of the Croatian kingdom, as he was a claimant to the throne due to the fact that his sister was married to the late Croatian king Zvonimir who died childless.
However, kingship over all of Croatia would not be achieved until the reign of his successor Coloman. With the coronation of King Coloman as "King of Croatia and Dalmatia" in Biograd in 1102, the two kingdoms of Croatia and Hungary were united under one crown. Although the precise terms of this relationship became a matter of dispute in the 19th century, it is believed that Coloman created a kind of personal union between the two kingdoms; the nature of the relationship varied through time, Croatia retained a large degree of internal autonomy overall, while the real power rested in the hands of the local nobility. Modern Croatian and Hungarian historiographies view the relations between Kingdom of Croatia and Kingdom of Hungary from 1102 as a form of a personal union, i.e. that
Johannes de Thurocz
Johannes de Thurocz, was a Hungarian historian and the author of the Latin Chronica Hungarorum, the most extensive 15th-century work on Hungary, the first chronicle of Hungary written by a layman. Thurocz's parents came from Turóc County, Upper Hungary where they were members of a yeoman family recorded since the first half of the 13th century. Johannes' uncle Andreas received a property at Pýr as a donation from King Sigismund of Luxembourg, Johannes' father Peter inherited this estate. Thurocz was educated in a Premonstratensian monastery in Ipolyság, where he studied law. In 1465 he appeared as a prosecutor of the Premonstratensian monastery of Ipolyság. From 1467 to 1475 he served as a notary of the judge royal Ladislaus Pálóci, from 1476 to 1486 as the main notary of the judge royal Stephen Báthory at the royal court, from 1486 to 1488 as a head notary and judge of the royal personnel clerk Thomas Drági. No evidence of any university studies has been preserved, it is possible that the title Latin: "magister" in front of his name was a polite title for an official or civil servant.
Thurocz's chronicle was written in three main parts: The first part is Thurocz's interpretation of a poem by Lorenzo de Monacis of Venice. It deals with the rule of King Charles II of Hungary, was written on the initiative of Thurocz's superior Stephen of Haserhag, or that of the country judge Thomas Drági. Physically, this part is attached to part c) below. Thurocz wrote the second part was written in 1486 and describes the deeds of Hungarian kings up to Louis the Great; this part in turn consists of three sub-sections:the so-called Hunnish chronicle based on old Hungarian chronicles and preserved manuscripts, in which Thurocz attempts to correct the errors of his predecessors. The third part describes events from the death of King Charles II the Small until the conquest of Vienna and Wiener Neustadt by King Matthias Corvinus in August 1487, it was inspired by the famous historico-geographical lexicon Cosmographia by Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini and was based on existing diplomatic documents and letters.
However, information from the Cosmographia was selected somewhat haphazardly. According to his own words in the work's dedication, Thurocz had no ambitions as an historian. In fact, his chronicle omits a number of significant events. Besides more reliable sources, the work relies extensively on oral tradition, folk songs and anecdotes, contains many references to "miraculous" events and wonders. Destiny and fortune play a significant role in history. Like many of his contemporaries he was convinced of the close relationship between human fortune, historical events and the motion of celestial bodies. Thurocz sought an explanation of a number of events in the moral imperative, he gave much attention to describing the inner feelings of historical characters, but had an evident tendency to idealize the Hungarian heroes Attila and Matthias Corvinus, while downplaying the significance of Hungary's queens. The first editions of Chronica Hungarorum were published in 1488 in Brno, Augsburg. Further editions followed over the following centuries in Frankfurt, Vienna and Buda.
Extant early editions include: Illuminations the hand coloured woodcut illustrations, the initial letters Inc C 75, accession number F 1450/76 Slovak National Library at Matica slovenská in Martin, the second edition, Augsburgian, 2. Version Bucharest, National Library of Romania, Inc. I 41 Datare sigura: 03/07/1488 III Non. Jun. 1488 The Brno edition, published 20 March 1488, printed by Couradus Stahel and Matthias Preinlein. One copy is preserved at the Biblioteca Mănăstirii Brâncoveanu in Romania; the Augsburg Augusta Vindelicorum edition, dated 3 June 1488. Publisher Erhard Ratdolt for Theobald Feger, a citizen of Buda. German 1490 manuscript: one copy at Heidelberg. Sources of early Hungarian history Chronica Hungarorum The German illuminated manuscript and the German text The original Latin text of the chronicle
History of Hungary
Hungary in its modern borders corresponds to the Great Hungarian Plain. During the Iron Age, it was at the boundary of Celtic and Iranian cultural spheres. Named for the Pannonians, the region became the Roman province of Pannonia in AD 20. Roman control collapsed with the Hunnic invasions of 370–410 and Pannonia was part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom during the late 5th to mid 6th century, succeeded by the Avar Khaganate; the Magyar invasion takes place during the 9th century. The Magyars were Christianized at the end of the 10th century, the Christian Kingdom of Hungary was established in AD 1000, ruled by the Árpád dynasty for the following three centuries. In the high medieval period, the kingdom expanded to the Adriatic coast. In 1241 during the reign of Béla IV, Hungary was invaded by the Mongols under Batu Khan; the outnumbered Hungarians were decisively defeated at the Battle of Mohi by the Mongol army. King Béla fled to the Holy Roman Empire and left the Hungarian population under the mercy of the Mongols.
In this invasion more than 500,000 Hungarian population were massacred and the whole kingdom reduced to ashes. After the extinction of the Árpád dynasty in 1301, the late medieval kingdom persisted, albeit no longer under Hungarian monarchs, reduced due to the increasing pressure by the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. Hungary bore the brunt of the Ottoman wars in Europe during the 15th century; the peak of this struggle took place during the reign of Matthias Corvinus. The Ottoman–Hungarian wars concluded in significant loss of territory and the partition of the kingdom after the Battle of Mohács of 1526. Defense against Ottoman expansion shifted to Habsburg Austria, the remainder of the Hungarian kingdom came under the rule of the Habsburg emperors; the lost territory was recovered with the conclusion of the Great Turkish War, thus the whole of Hungary became part of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the nationalist uprisings of 1848, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 elevated Hungary's status by the creation of a joint monarchy with the Austrian Empire, ruled in personal union as Austria-Hungary by the Austrian emperors during 1867–1918.
The territory grouped under the Habsburg Archiregnum Hungaricum was much larger than modern Hungary, following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868 with settled the political status of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia within the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen. After the First World War, the Central Powers enforced the dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy; the treaties of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and Trianon detached around 72% of the territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, ceded to Czechoslovakia, Kingdom of Romania, Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, First Austrian Republic, Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. Afterwards a short-lived People's Republic was declared, followed by a restored Kingdom of Hungary, but governed by the regent, Miklós Horthy who represented the Hungarian monarchy of Charles IV, Apostolic King of Hungary. Between 1938 and 1941, Hungary recovered part of her lost territories. During World War II Hungary became under German occupation in 1944, followed by the Soviet occupation and the loss of the war.
After World War II, the Second Hungarian Republic was established in Hungary's current-day borders, as a socialist People's Republic during 1949–1989 and as the Third Republic of Hungary under an amended version of the constitution of 1949 since October 1989, with a new constitution adopted in 2011. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004. Middle Paleolithic presence of Homo heidelbergensis is evidenced by the discovery of the "Samu" fossil, dated to c. 300,000 years old, with traces of habitation as old as 500,000 years ago. Presence of anatomically modern humans dates to c. 33,000 years ago. Neolithization began with the Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș culture, c. 6000 BC. The Bronze Age begins with the Vučedol culture, c. 3000 BC. The Iron Age commenced around 800 BC, associated with "Thraco-Cimmerian" artefact types, representing the overlap of the pre-Scythian and pre-Celtic cultural spheres. Hallstatt occupation of western Transdanubia is evident from about 750 BC Early Greek ethnography locates the Agathyrsi and the Sigynnae in the region.
By the 4th century BC, the Pannonian basin was occupied by Celts. Following 279 BC, the Celtic Scordisci after their defeat at Delphi, settled in southern Transdanubia; the northeastern part of the Carpathian basin was reached by the Boii in the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire conquered territory west of the Danube River between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century AD, the western part of the Carpathian Basin, was part of the Roman Empire. In the final stages of the expansion of the Roman empire in the early centuries of the first millennium AD, the Carpathian Basin fell under the Mediterranean influence of Greco-Roman civilization for a short period – town centers, paved roads, written sources were all part of the advances put to an end by the "Migration of peoples" that characterized the Early Middle Ages in Europe; the Goths established themselves in Dacia by the 4th century. After the Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century AD under the stress of the migration of Germanic tribes and Carpian pressure, the Migration Period continued to bring many invaders into central Europe, beginning with the Hunnic Empire.
After the disintegration of Hunnic rule, the Ostrogoths, vassalized by the Huns, established their own Ostrogothic kingdom. Other groups which reached the Carp
National Széchényi Library
The National Széchényi Library is a library in Budapest, Hungary. It is one of the other being University of Debrecen Library; the library was founded in 1802 by the patriotic Hungarian aristocrat Count Ferenc Széchényi. Széchényi traveled the world buying Hungarian books, which he donated to the nation. In the following year the public library was opened in Pest. Széchényi's example resulted in a nationwide movement of book donations to the library. In 1808, the Hungarian National Assembly created the Hungarian National Museum to collect the historical and natural relics of Hungary; the Museum was merged into the Library and for the last 200 years this is how it has existed, a national depository for written and objective relics of the Hungarian past. In 1846, the Hungarian National Museum moved into its new building but it was not until 1949 that the Library became a separate entity again, with its current name. In 1985, the library moved to its new home at the Buda Castle Palace; the NSZL works on its catalogue's semantic availability.
1985—1993 Gyula Juhász Hungarian publishing houses printed copies for every printed material: publications and prints of any kind produced in Hungary works published abroad in the Hungarian language or written by Hungarian authors. Non-book materials. Microfilm copies of more than 272,000 documents. Collection of Early Books the first book printed in Hungary, the Chronica Hungarorum, printed and published in 1473 8,600 copies of works published before 1711 1,814 incunabula dating from the first century of book printing the oldest existing text in Hungarian: the 12th century Funeral Sermon and Prayer is the first known continuous prose text in Hungarian; the first known Hungarian poem the oldest surviving manuscript of the first Hungarian law-book 35 Corvina codices from the library of King Matthias Corvinus. In 2014, a Hungarian librarian discovered four pages of Mozart's original score of the sonata in Budapest's National Széchényi Library; until only the last page of the autograph survived.
The paper and handwriting of the four pages matched that of the final page of the score, held in Salzburg. Zoltán Kocsis gave the first performance of the discovered score in September 2014. Codex of Bécs List of libraries in Hungary Official Site Hungarian National Museum Buda Castle and Hungarian National Library Video