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Chrysippus of Soli was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was a native of Soli, but moved to Athens as a young man, where he became a pupil of Cleanthes in the Stoic school; when Cleanthes died, around 230 BC, Chrysippus became the third head of the school. A prolific writer, Chrysippus expanded the fundamental doctrines of Zeno of Citium, the founder of the school, which earned him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism. Chrysippus excelled in logic, the theory of knowledge and physics, he created an original system of propositional logic in order to better understand the workings of the universe and role of humanity within it. He adhered to a deterministic view of fate, but sought a role for personal freedom in thought and action. Ethics, he thought, depended on understanding the nature of the universe, he taught a therapy of extirpating the unruly passions which depress and crush the soul, he initiated the success of Stoicism as one of the most influential philosophical movements for centuries in the Greek and Roman world.

Of his written works, none have survived except as fragments. Segments of some of his works were discovered among the Herculaneum papyri. Chrysippus, the son of Apollonius of Tarsus, was born at Cilicia, he was slight in stature, is reputed to have trained as a long-distance runner. While still young, he lost his substantial inherited property when it was confiscated to the king's treasury. Chrysippus moved to Athens, where he became the disciple of Cleanthes, the head of the Stoic school, he is believed to have attended the courses of Arcesilaus and his successor Lacydes, in the Platonic Academy. Chrysippus threw himself eagerly into the study of the Stoic system, his reputation for learning among his contemporaries was considerable. He was noted for intellectual audacity and self-confidence and his reliance on his own ability was shown, among other things, in the request he is supposed to have made to Cleanthes: "Give me the principles, I will find the proofs myself." He succeeded Cleanthes as head of the Stoic school when Cleanthes died, in around 230 BC.

Chrysippus was a prolific writer. He is said to have gone without writing 500 lines a day and he composed more than 705 works, his desire to be comprehensive meant that he would take both sides of an argument and his opponents accused him of filling his books with the quotations of others. He was considered diffuse and obscure in his utterances and careless in his style, but his abilities were regarded, he came to be seen as a preeminent authority for the school, he died during the 143rd Olympiad at the age of 73. Diogenes Laërtius gives two different accounts of his death. In the first account, Chrysippus was seized with dizziness having drunk undiluted wine at a feast, died soon after. In the second account, he was watching a donkey eat some figs and cried out: "Now give the donkey a drink of pure wine to wash down the figs", whereupon he died in a fit of laughter, his nephew Aristocreon erected a statue in his honour in the Kerameikos. Chrysippus was succeeded as head of the Stoic school by his pupil Zeno of Tarsus.

Of his written works, none survived except as fragments quoted in the works of authors like Cicero, Galen and others. Segments from Logical Questions and On Providence were discovered among the Herculaneum papyri. A third work by Chrysippus may be among them. Chrysippus had a long and successful career of resisting the attacks of the Academy and hoped not to defend Stoicism against the assaults of the past, but against all possible attack in the future, he took the doctrines of Zeno and Cleanthes and crystallized them into what became the definitive system of Stoicism. He elaborated the physical doctrines of the Stoics and their theory of knowledge and he created much of their formal logic. In short, Chrysippus made the Stoic system, it was said that "without Chrysippus, there would have been no Stoa". Chrysippus created a system of propositional logic. Aristotle's term logic had been concerned with the interrelations of terms such as "Socrates" or "man". Stoic logic, on the other hand, was concerned with the interrelations of propositions such as "it is day".

Though the earlier Megarian dialecticians – Diodorus Cronus and Philo – had worked in this field and the pupils of AristotleTheophrastus and Eudemus – had investigated hypothetical syllogisms, it was Chrysippus who developed these principles into a coherent system of propositional logic. Chrysippus defined a proposition as "that, capable of being denied or affirmed as it is in itself" and gave examples of propositions such as "it is day" and "Dion is walking." He distinguished between simple and non-simple propositions, which in modern terminology are known as atomic and molecular propositions. A simple proposition is an elementary statement such as "it is day." Simple propositions are linked together to form non-simple propositions by the use of logical connectives. Chrysippus enumerated five kinds of molecular propositions according to the connective used: Thus several types of molecular propositions, familiar to modern logic, were listed by Chrysippus, including the conjunction, the disjunction, the conditional, Chrysippus studied their criteria of truth closely.

The first logicians to debate conditional statements were his pupil Philo. Writing five-hundred years Sextus Empiricus refers to a debate between Diodorus and Philo. Philo regarded all conditionals as true except those which with


Softenni is a Japanese manga written and illustrated by Ryō Azuchi. Beginning serialization in Mag Garden's Comic Blade in 2008, Softenni consists of five volumes as of 2011. An anime adaptation by Xebec aired on April 7, 2011 on Tokyo MX and finished on June 24, 2011; the series follows Shiratama Middle School student Asuna Harukaze and her teammates, who are all members of their school's Soft Tennis club. Their team are intent on winning the soft tennis national championship but must deal with the trials and turns of their comedic, adventurous school life. Asuna Harukaze Voiced by: Kanae Itō The main protagonist of the series. She's quite enthusiastic about tennis to the point, she has a bad habit of misunderstanding certain comments made by others taking them as sexual innuendos. Asuna has terrible luck with the tennis court's white lines and continually trips over them as a gag, she joined the team in order to achieve the perfect woman's body and pictures herself as a much older, lewder woman.

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Kurusu Fuyukawa Voiced by: Satomi Akesaka A stoic and rather emotionless girl who speaks in monotone and has a habit of wearing animal costumes. Despite her cosplay fetish Kurusu is one of the best players on the team. Yayoi Hiragishi/Uzuki Hiragishi Voiced by: Haruka Tomatsu The newest member of the team. Yayoi is a shy girl with a strong spiritual sense; when playing she can be possessed by the spirit of her dead sister Uzuki, a self proclaimed soft tennis genius. Uzuki's personality is the complete opposite of Yayoi's possessing arrogance and sadistic inclinations. While Uzuki is an excellent tennis player she can only retain control of Yayoi for short periods of time. Hiroshi Mishimagi Voiced by: Shinobu Matsumoto Nicknamed Mishi by the girls, Hiroshi is the coach of the Shiratama Soft Tennis team and a former national champion. While he may be rather lazy and a bit of a drunkard, he cares for each of the girls as any teacher would and wish nothing more than to see them succeed, he seems to have a fear of spirits as seen when he would go to a church or Shinto shrine after he sees Yayoi speaking with spirits.

Leo Amachi Voiced by: Miyuki Sawashiro The manager of Akadama Middle School Soft Tennis Club. Leo has an obsession of providing massage services to his team members although his massages causes sexual arousal for the girls, he has a little fetish for cross-dressing going by the name Leona Tenchi while in drag, seems to have a crush on Asuna. Sumino Kiba Voiced by: Marina Inoue The captain of Akadama Middle School Soft Tennis Club, she is the same as Kotone in terms of personality. As a result the pair have developed a friendly rivalry. Misaki Shidou Voiced by: Minako Kotobuki The current national champion. Despite her cool appearance Misaki has a child like love of cats Nyan taro, her training methods are extreme and brutal which the other girls soon discovered. Despite her skills and title, Misaki seems self-conscious about her body, exclaiming "There's something to grab!" when Asuna accidentally grabs her chest and notes that there isn't much there. She sometimes ends up in compromising positions which her assistant Yura always manages to capture on tape.

Yura Hiratsuka Voiced by: Aki Toyosaki She was assigned to spy on Shiratama Middle School Soft Tennis team by Misaki Shidou. Instead of getting their information, she'enjoyed' her stay with them and indulged her obsession of taking'sadistic' photos for her own masochist satisfaction, she seems to be somewhat obsessed with taking lewd videos of her captain. Shiki Nishioka Voiced by: Ayahi Takagaki The former captain of the Soft Tennis Club, in High school, she is Mishimagi's cousin. The original manga by Ryō Azuchi began serialization in Mag Garden's Monthly Comic Blade magazine from 2008; the series will be added to legal manga reading site JManga on June

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