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Chuck Berry

Charles Edward Anderson Berry was an American singer and songwriter, one of the pioneers of rock and roll music. Nicknamed the "Father of Rock and Roll", Berry refined and developed rhythm and blues into the major elements that made rock and roll distinctive with songs such as "Maybellene", "Roll Over Beethoven", "Rock and Roll Music" and "Johnny B. Goode". Writing lyrics that focused on teen life and consumerism, developing a music style that included guitar solos and showmanship, Berry was a major influence on subsequent rock music. Born into a middle-class African-American family in St. Louis, Berry had an interest in music from an early age and gave his first public performance at Sumner High School. While still a high school student he was convicted of armed robbery and was sent to a reformatory, where he was held from 1944 to 1947. After his release, Berry worked at an automobile assembly plant. By early 1953, influenced by the guitar riffs and showmanship techniques of the blues musician T-Bone Walker, Berry began performing with the Johnnie Johnson Trio.

His break came when he traveled to Chicago in May 1955 and met Muddy Waters, who suggested he contact Leonard Chess, of Chess Records. With Chess, he recorded "Maybellene"—Berry's adaptation of the country song "Ida Red"—which sold over a million copies, reaching number one on Billboard magazine's rhythm and blues chart. By the end of the 1950s, Berry was an established star, with several hit records and film appearances and a lucrative touring career, he had established his own St. Louis nightclub, Berry's Club Bandstand, he was sentenced to three years in prison in January 1962 for offenses under the Mann Act—he had transported a 14-year-old girl across state lines. After his release in 1963, Berry had several more hits, including "No Particular Place to Go", "You Never Can Tell", "Nadine", but these did not achieve the same success, or lasting impact, of his 1950s songs, by the 1970s he was more in demand as a nostalgic performer, playing his past hits with local backup bands of variable quality.

In 1972 he reached a new level of achievement when a rendition of "My Ding-a-Ling" became his only record to top the charts. His insistence on being paid in cash led in 1979 to a four-month jail sentence and community service, for tax evasion. Berry was among the first musicians to be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on its opening in 1986. Berry is included in several of Rolling Stone magazine's "greatest of all time" lists; the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll includes three of Berry's: "Johnny B. Goode", "Maybellene", "Rock and Roll Music". Berry's "Johnny B. Goode". Born in St. Louis, Berry was the fourth child of four, he grew up in the north St. Louis neighborhood known as the Ville, an area where many middle-class people lived, his father, Henry William Berry, was a deacon of a nearby Baptist church. Berry's upbringing allowed him to pursue his interest in music from an early age, he gave his first public performance in 1941 while still a student at Sumner High School.

Berry's account in his autobiography is that his car broke down and he flagged down a passing car and stole it at gunpoint with a nonfunctional pistol. He was convicted and sent to the Intermediate Reformatory for Young Men at Algoa, near Jefferson City, where he formed a singing quartet and did some boxing; the singing group became competent enough that the authorities allowed it to perform outside the detention facility. Berry was released from the reformatory on his 21st birthday in 1947. On October 28, 1948, Berry married Themetta "Toddy" Suggs, who gave birth to Darlin Ingrid Berry on October 3, 1950. Berry supported his family by taking various jobs in St. Louis, working as a factory worker at two automobile assembly plants and as a janitor in the apartment building where he and his wife lived. Afterwards he trained as a beautician at the Poro College of Cosmetology, founded by Annie Turnbo Malone, he was doing well enough by 1950 to buy a "small three room brick cottage with a bath" on Whittier Street, now listed as the Chuck Berry House on the National Register of Historic Places.

By the early 1950s, Berry was working with local bands in clubs in St. Louis as an extra source of income, he had been playing blues since his teens, he borrowed both guitar riffs and showmanship techniques from the blues musician T-Bone Walker. He took guitar lessons from his friend Ira Harris, which laid the foundation for his guitar style. By early 1953 Berry was performing with Johnnie Johnson's trio, starting a long-time collaboration with the pianist; the band played ballads as well as country. Berry wrote, "Curiosity provoked me to lay a lot of our country stuff on our predominantly black audience and some of our black audience began whispering'who is that black hillbilly at the Cosmo?' After they laughed at me a few times they began requesting the hillbilly stuff and enjoyed dancing to it."Berry's showmanship, along with a mix of country tunes and R&B tunes, sung in the style of Nat King Cole set to the music of Muddy Waters, brought in a wider audience affluent white people. In May

Capetian–Plantagenet rivalry

The Capetian–Plantagenet rivalry was a series of conflicts and disputes that covered a period of 100 years, during which the House of Capet, rulers of the Kingdom of France, fought against the House of Plantagenet in order to suppress the growing power of the Plantagenet-controlled Angevin Empire. Some historians refer to that series of events as the "First Hundred Years War". During this period, the English kings' respective continental possessions were considered more important than their island possessions, greater than those of the French sovereign, despite the latter being the respective overlords of the former, in the context of most of the possessions respective English kings held on continental Europe; this conflict was a French one, since both dynasties were French, the nobles who made up the English army were of French origin, the foot soldiers of the English king were local recruits in "France". Their rivalry, the many wars that accompanied it, saw the gradual "re-conquest", by the Capetians, of own their kingdom.

In fact, the real royal power of the King of France had not yet become extensive, though the suzerainty of his dynasty did extend far beyond the small domain of Île-de-France, to the entire territory of France, including the marches of the Holy Roman Empire to the east. The kings of England would remain vassals to the French king after the conflict ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1259—specifically, until the Treaty of Brétigny in 1360. In 1150, Henry II received the Duchy of Normandy from his father Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou, when he died in 1151, he became Count of Anjou and Maine. On May 18, 1152, he became Duke of Aquitaine in right of his wife by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine in Poitiers after her first marriage with the King of France Louis VII the Younger was annulled at the Council of Beaugency. Several children were born of this marriage. On November 6, 1153, by the Treaty of Wallingford, he was recognized as the successor of King Stephen of England; when the latter died on October 25, 1154, he ascended the throne of England under the name of Henry II.

On Sunday, December 19, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey. Henry introduced some legislative reforms. In 1155, he appointed Thomas Becket chancellor. In 1156, he seized the viscounty of Thouars, thereby controlling communications between the northwest and south-west France. In 1159, continuing his expansionist policy, he besieged Toulouse with the help of Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona and prince of Aragon. Louis VII came to the aid of his brother-in-law Raymond Count of Toulouse. Henry II withdrew, annexing part of Cahors. Two cases tarnished his reign: The conflict with former Chancellor Thomas Becket; the latter opposed the abolition of ecclesiastical privileges, including judicial, the influence of the Church on the King of England. The assassination of the Archbishop of Canterbury in his cathedral in 1170 by knights who sought to please the king weakened the royal authority; the division of his considerable territories between his sons. Eager to inherit, his sons rebelled against him with the help of their mother, the King of France, King William the Lion of Scotland, the counts of Blois and Flanders.

He imprisoned William the Lion in 1174 after defeating him at the Battle of Alnwick. His wife was subjected to a long captivity. Henry acquired considerable prestige in Europe; the new King of France, Philip Augustus, was determined to fight Henry II, whose immense territories threatened the Capetian monarchy. The King of France allied with the surviving sons of Henry Richard and John Lackland. By the Treaty of Azay-le-Rideau 4 July 1189, Henry II had to recognise his son Richard as sole heir, he died only a few days in his castle of Chinon. He is buried at the abbey of Fontevrault; when Philip Augustus came to the throne in 1180, he was the king of a territory comparable in area to the Île-de-France of today and faced against an Angevin Empire more powerful than ever. Having strengthened his position within his own kingdom, he began raising the sons of Henry II against him, supporting their revolts and befriending Richard the Lionheart. After two years of combat, a truce was signed to maintain status quo.

The death of Henry II in 1189 and the call for the Third Crusade put an end to the conflict, Richard the Lionheart was crowned King of England in Westminster Abbey, left for the crusade alongside King Philip. Returning early from the crusade in December 1191, Philip Augustus encouraged the rebellion of John Lackland against his brother Richard and profited from the absence of the latter to negotiate a advantageous treaty for France. Hoping to acquire the English crown with the support of the King of France, John Lackland paid homage in 1193; as Philip Augustus attacked the possessions of the Plantagenets, John gave to the French king eastern Normandy, Le Vaudreuil, Verneuil and Évreux, by written agreement, in January 1194. By his military and diplomatic finesse, Philip kept his rival at bay. Richard the Lionheart continued the crusade after the departure of Philip: he retook the main Palestinian ports up to Jaffa, restored the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem although the city itself eluded him.

He negotiated a five-year truce with Saladin and sailed back in October 1192. Winter storms overtook him. Forced to stay at Corfu, he was captured by Duke Leopold V of Austria, who put him in the hands of the German Emperor Henry VI, his enemy. For the release o

Annika Bruna

Annika Bruna is a French politician. She was elected as a National Rally Member of the European Parliament in the 2019 European parliamentary election. Annika Bruna was born on 26 November 1956 in France. Bruna was elected to the regional council of Île-de-France from 1998 to 2010, she is a former parliamentary assistant of the former president of the National Front Jean-Marie Le Pen. Bruna stood as a candidate for National Rally in the 2019 European parliamentary election, she was eighteenth on her party's list, elected as one of its 22 MEPs in France. She is part of the Democracy group. In the European Parliament, Bruna is a member of the Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality, is part of the delegation for relations with Belarus