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Chukchi Sea

Chukchi Sea, sometimes referred to as the Chuuk Sea, Chukotsk Sea or the Sea of Chukotsk, is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean. It is bounded on the west by the Long Strait, off Wrangel Island, in the east by Point Barrow, beyond which lies the Beaufort Sea; the Bering Strait forms its southernmost limit and connects it to the Bering Sea and the Pacific Ocean. The principal port on the Chukchi Sea is Uelen in Russia; the International Date Line crosses the Chukchi Sea from northwest to southeast. It is displaced eastwards to avoid Wrangel Island as well as the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug on the Russian mainland; the sea is only navigable about four months of the year. The main geological feature of the Chukchi Sea bottom is the 700-kilometre-long Hope Basin, bound to the northeast by the Herald Arch. Depths less than 50 meters occupy 56% of the total area; the Chukchi Sea has few islands compared to other seas of the Arctic. Wrangel Island lies at the northwestern limit of the sea, Herald Island is located off Wrangel Island's Waring Point, near the northern limit of the sea.

A few small islands lie along Alaskan coasts. The sea is named after the Chukchi people, who reside on the Chukotka Peninsula; the coastal Chukchi traditionally engaged in fishing and the hunting of walrus in this cold sea. In Siberia places along the coast are: Cape Billings, Cape Schmidt, Amguyema River, Cape Vankarem, the large Kolyuchinskaya Bay, Neskynpil'gyn Lagoon, Cape Serdtse-Kamen, Chegitun River, Inchoun and Cape Dezhnev. In Alaska, the rivers flowing into the Chukchi Sea are the Kivalina, the Kobuk, the Kokolik, the Kukpowruk, the Kukpuk, the Noatak, the Utukok, the Pitmegea, the Wulik, among others. Of rivers flowing in from its Siberian side, the Amguyema and the Chegitun are the most important; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the "Chuckchi Sea" as follows: On the West. The Eastern limit of East Siberian Sea. On the North. A line from Point Barrow, Alaska to the Northernmost point of Wrangel Island. On the South; the Arctic Circle between Siberia and Alaska.

Common usage is that the southern extent is further south, at the narrowest part of the Bering Strait, on the 66th parallel north. The Chukchi Sea Shelf is the westernmost part of the continental shelf of the United States and the easternmost part of the continental shelf of Russia. Within this shelf, the 50-mile Chukchi Corridor acts as a passageway for one of the largest marine mammal migrations in the world. Species that have been documented migrating through this corridor include the bowhead whale, beluga whale, Pacific walrus, bearded seals In 1648, Semyon Dezhnyov sailed from the Kolyma River on the Arctic to the Anadyr River on the Pacific, but his route was not practical and was not used for the next 200 years. In 1728, Vitus Bering and in 1779, Captain James Cook entered the sea from the Pacific. On 28 September 1878, during Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld's expedition that made the whole length of the Northeast passage for the first time in history, the steamship Vega got stuck in fast ice in the Chukchi Sea.

Since further progress for that year was impossible, the ship was secured in winter quarters. So, members of the expedition and the crew were aware only a few miles of ice-blocked sea lay between them and the open waters; the following year, two days after Vega was released, she passed the Bering Strait and steamed towards the Pacific Ocean. In 1913, abandoned by expedition leader Vilhjalmur Stefansson, drifted in the ice along the northern expanses of the Chukchi Sea and sank, crushed by ice near Herald Island; the survivors made it to Wrangel Island. Captain Robert Bartlett walked hundreds of kilometers with Kataktovik, an Inuit man, on the ice of the Chukchi Sea in order to look for help, they reached Cape Vankarem on the Chukotka coast, on April 15, 1914. Twelve survivors of the ill-fated expedition were found on Wrangel island nine months by the King & Winge, a newly built Arctic fishing schooner. In 1933, the steamer Chelyuskin sailed from Murmansk, east bound to attempt a transit of the Northern Sea Route to the Pacific, in order to demonstrate such a transit could be achieved in one season.

The vessel became beset in heavy ice in the Chukchi Sea, after drifting with the ice for over two months, was crushed and sank on 13 February 1934 near Kolyuchin Island. Apart from one fatality, her entire complement of 104 was able to establish a camp on the sea ice; the Soviet government organised an impressive aerial evacuation. Captain Vladimir Voronin and expedition leader Otto Schmidt became heroes. Following several unsuccessful attempts, the wreck was located on the bed of the Chukchi Sea by a Russian expedition, Chelyuskin-70, in mid-September 2006. Two small components of the ship's superstructure were recovered by divers and were sent to the ship's builders, Burmeister & Wain of Copenhagen, for identification. In July 2009, a large mass of organic material was found floating in the sea off the northwest Alaskan coast. Analysis by the U. S. Coast Guard has identified it as a large body of algal bloom. On 15 October 2010, Russian scientists opened a floating polar research station in the Chukchi Sea at the margin of the Arctic Ocean.

The name of the station was Severny Polyus-38 and it was home to 15 resear

John H. Oberholtzer

John H. Oberholtzer was a North American Mennonite leader who advocated for Mennonite cooperation for the purpose of higher education and mission work, he provided key leadership during the formation of the General Conference Mennonite Church. Oberholtzer was born on a farm in Berks County, the second child of Abraham and Susanna Oberholtzer. Starting at age sixteen he was employed as a schoolteacher and learned locksmithing to supplement his income. Between school teaching and his locksmith shop in Bucks County, Oberholtzer was in daily contact with a wider variety of people and ideas than other Mennonites in the area, who tended to be more withdrawn. At the age of 33, Oberholtzer became the pastor of Swamp Mennonite Church. Mennonite pastors were untrained and selected by lot; the selection process began with nominations from the congregation. A set of Bibles, one for each nominee, was presented to the candidates; the one selecting the Bible containing a hidden slip of paper was ordained as the new pastor.

Oberholtzer was expected to remain a minister in the Swamp congregation for the remainder of his life. Oberholtzer's congregation was part of Franconia Conference, a group of 22 Mennonite congregations located in eastern Pennsylvania. Conference leadership was composed of five bishops plus ministers and deacons from the congregations. Not long after he became a pastor, Oberholtzer was selected to be bishop for the congregations of the Swamp area; because of Oberholtzer's interest and contact with the wider world, his ideas clashed with the more conservative members at Franconia conference sessions. Areas of disagreement arose around the need for ministers to wear a particular style of colonial coat, whether more formal meeting procedures should be adopted and how open the church should be to Christians from other denominations. Oberholtzer suggested that the Franconia Conference adopt a formal constitution, document procedures and keep minutes of their meetings; these practices had never been done in the past and the majority thought that they were not necessary.

When Oberholtzer and his supporters were not allowed to bring these items up for discussion, a rift developed between the two groups. Attempts to reconcile the division failed and in 1847 a new group, East Pennsylvania Conference, was formed from about a quarter of the original Franconia members. Oberholtzer provided leadership for the new conference, creating a set of guidelines to act as a constitution, he initiated contact with Canadian and European Mennonites in order to incorporate ideas from the broader Mennonite world into the new conference. Oberholtzer stressed training for young people wanting to become church members, he distributed a catechism booklet among the churches as a guide for religious education. The class he formed for his own congregation in 1857 was one of the first Mennonite Sunday schools in North America. Oberholtzer set it up in his locksmith shop, he published Der Religiöse Botschafter with a circulation of 400, the first successful Mennonite periodical in North America.

The financial burden and the demands on his time ended the operation after three years. In 1856, with funding from 92 shareholders, the Mennonite Printing Union was organized and printing resumed with a periodical named Das Christliche Volksblatt. Besides the periodical and other material were printed at this new facility. Oberholtzer's contribution as publisher and editor was to have significant influence on Mennonites in North America. Oberholtzer writing reflected his response to issues of his time, he advocated open communion. With respect to the emotional prayer meeting movement, he believed one should pray continuously and need not participate in specially arranged prayer meetings, he was opposed to church members participating in secret societies and believed foot washing should be taken symbolically, not literally. Oberholtzer believed. In an effort to communicate with like-minded Mennonites, Oberholtzer's publications were circulated beyond the borders of the East Pennsylvania Conference.

Oberholtzer pursued contacts with Mennonites in Ontaria and Iowa, promoting his ideas about inter-Mennonite cooperation. In 1859, a newly organized group of Mennonites in Iowa invited any interest Mennonites to join them in forming a union to work together to promote missions; the invitation was published in Das Christliche Volksblatt with Oberholtzer endorsing the idea. A formal meeting took place on 29 May 1860, resulting in the creation of the General Conference Mennonite Church. Oberholtzer was a key committee member in drawing up the organization's constitution and presided over four of the initial sessions; when Daniel Hege visited Pennsylvania the following year to explain the purpose of the new conference, Oberholtzer's own East Pennsylvania Conference joined and would become the Eastern District Conference within this new structure. One of the new conference's initial goals was to provide higher education in order to train missionaries; this goal was realized with the creation of Wadsworth Institute.

Oberholtzer was a key supporter of this project, helping to write its constitution. Oberholtzer continued to be an active leader in the General Conference Mennonite Church throughout his life. Oberholtzer married Mary Reihn, they had one daughter. Mary Reihn died in both children preceded Oberholtzer in death. Oberholtzer married Susanna Moyer in 1872, he was buried at Swamp Mennonite Church where he had served as a pastor. Kaufman, Edmund G. General Conference Mennonite Pioneers, Bethel College, North Ne

Sale, Victoria

Sale is a city situated in the Gippsland region of the Australian state of Victoria. It had an estimated urban population of 15,021 as of June 2018; the Aboriginal name for the Sale area was Wayput. Two famous Gippsland explorers, Paul Strzelecki and Angus McMillan, passed through the immediate area around 1840; the first white settler was Archibald McIntosh who arrived in 1844 and established his'Flooding Creek' property on the flood plain country, duly inundated soon after his arrival. In the 1840s, drovers heading south to Port Albert crossed Flooding Creek and were confronted with the difficult marsh country around the Thomson and Latrobe rivers. A punt operated across the Latrobe River. A Post Office named Flooding Creek opened here on 30 September 1848 being renamed, somewhat belatedly, as Sale on 1 January 1854; the first town plots went on sale in 1850. When the new settlement was gazetted in 1851 it was named'Sale' — a tribute to General Sir Robert Sale, a British army officer who won fame in the first Afghan war before being killed in battle in India in 1845.

An SBS TV documentary "Afghanistan: The Great Game" claims that it is named after his wife, Lady Florentia Sale, who wrote a famous journal of her experiences during the First Afghan War which became a best seller in the 1840s and was serialised in The Times and in Australia. Her letters to her husband were enthusiastically published in Australian papers; the town benefitted from the 1851 gold rush at Omeo as it was situated on the Port Albert to Omeo route and was an important base for the goldfields, until the arrival of the railways. It was an important service centre for East Gippsland and the Monaro Plains of New South Wales. A building boom took place c. 1855–65. In 1863 the population of Sale reached 1800 and it became a borough; the courthouse opened the following year. Shops and offices spilled over into Raymond Street and the first Anglican Church was erected on the site now occupied by St Anne's and Gippsland Grammar School; the Gippsland Times newspaper was established in 1861 while the first Star Hotel and the Criterion Hotel were built in 1865.

St Paul's Cathedral is the cathedral church of the Anglican Diocese of Gippsland in Australia. The cathedral building, built in 1884, is a double-storey building with a rectangular footprint and is constructed of red brick and slate roofing. In terms of access, the first reasonable road from Melbourne arrived in 1865 and Cobb and Co established a rough-and-ready 24-hour coach service linking Melbourne and Sale; the Latrobe Wharf was built in the 1870s and two hotels emerged to exploit the new centre of activity. It was located near the present swing bridge. Anthony Trollope visited Sale in 1872. Writing of the experience in Australia and New Zealand he spoke of the town's "innumerable hotels" and concluded from his impressions that the Aborigines had little chance of surviving as a race; the children's author Mary Grant Bruce was born in the town in 1878. A two-storey post office, with clock tower, was built in 1884. HM Prison Sale was completed in 1887 and it operated for 110 years until it was replaced by a private Fulham Correctional Centre.

The building has since been demolished, with only part of the large brick fencing still remaining. The site remained empty until 2014, it opened in March 2015. Other landmarks in the town include Our Lady of the Criterion Hotel; the former was designed by architects Reed and Tappin and built 1892-1901. Assembly halls and dormitory rear wing were added in 1938; the building is listed on the Register of the National Estate. The Criterion Hotel was built in 1865, it had a two-storey timber verandah, but this was replaced by a cast iron verandah between 1880 and 1900. It is considered "one of the most impressive hostelries in Victoria" and is listed on the Register of the National Estate; the Criterion Hotel closed in 2006 and its deteriorating condition caused local concern that it would be demolished. However, the site was subsequently purchased by a Traralgon-based developer who had previous expertise in restoration of commercial buildings; the Criterion received a complete rebuild in 2010/11 with the external heritage facade and verandah restored.

It re-opened as a hotel, function venue and restaurant early in 2013. With the growth of shipping on the local waterways and the Gippsland Lakes schemes emerged to develop Sale as a port; the construction of the Sale Canal duly commenced in the 1880s, thereby linking the town via the Thomson River and the Gippsland Lakes to the open sea. It was completed in 1890. Other elements were the Sale Swing Bridge, completed in 1883, a high wharf, a launching ramp which still exists in the heart of the city. However, neither the bridge nor the canal created the desired surge of trade and the depression of the 1890s soon engulfed the town. Sale became a town in 1924 and a city in 1950. In World War II, the West Sale RAAF base was the landing site of 2 Japanese Mitsubishi Zeros. Sale has seen much development and redevelopment in the past decade, one example being the multimillion-dollar redevelopment of the city's Port of Sale. Sale has a moderate oceanic climate made up of warm summers, mild autumns and springs and cool winters.

Sale records 595.9 mm of measurable precipitation per year, making it drier than the nearby state capital, Melbourne. The wettest month is November whilst. At 54.8 days, it gets more clear days than Melbourne. After oil was