Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (NGK)
The Dutch Reformed Church is a Reformed Christian denomination in South Africa. It has a presence in neighbouring countries, such as Namibia and parts of Botswana and Zambia, it claims 1,602 ordained ministers in 1,158 congregations. The Nederduits in the denomination's Afrikaans name refers to the old nomenclature for the Dutch language written as Nederduitsch in Dutch; this not to be confused with the literal translation Low German, a dialect in the north of Germany. It is therefore referred to as the "Dutch Reformed Church" in South Africa. Originating in the 17th century from the Dutch Reformed Church of the Netherlands, the NGK is the largest denomination within South Africa's Dutch Reformed tradition. Along with the Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa and the Reformed Churches in South Africa, it is considered one of the three sister churches of South Africa; when the Dutch East India Company sent Jan van Riebeeck to start a Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, most of the company's employees were members of the Dutch Reformed Church.
At first there were no ordained ministers from the Netherlands but only a sick comforter. In 1665, Johan van Arckel became its first minister. A consistory was still subject to the control of the classis of Amsterdam. In 1688, 200 Huguenot refugees arrived at the Cape. Though at first allowed to hold services in French, they were assimilated into the Dutch-speaking population and became members of the Dutch Reformed Church, which had a monopoly in territory controlled by the company. An exception was allowed for a Lutheran church in Cape Town. During the Napoleonic Wars, the British occupied the Cape Colony in 1795 to prevent the French from doing so; the French had occupied the Netherlands, so the link between the church in the colony and the Amsterdam classis was broken. The first British occupation was temporary. For the next century, the colony would be under British control. Ministers from the Netherlands were not as willing to serve in what was now for them a foreign country, the British authorities were not keen to have them.
Presbyterian ministers from Scotland were encouraged to serve the needs of the Dutch Reformed Church in the Cape. The church was semi-established, the government helped with stipends of ministers; the colony had expanded a long way beyond the Cape Peninsula in the preceding two centuries, both to the north and the east, on the eastern frontier the Dutch farmers came into contact with Xhosa-speaking cattle herders. There were water and cattle rustling across the frontier; the frontier farmers did not like the way the government in Cape Town handled the situation, the ending of slavery in 1834 was another bone of contention. Afrikaner Calvinism was developing a different worldview to that of the British rulers, many farmers left the Cape Colony in the Great Trek during the 1830s and 1840s; the Dutch Reformed ministers tried to discourage them and, as the Dutch Reformed Church was the established church of the colony, did not provide pastoral ministry for the emigrant farmers, who formed several independent republics in present-day South Africa.
Several of the republics in the land beyond the Vaal merged to form the South African Republic in 1852. Because the NGK was seen by the trekkers as being an agent of the Cape government, they did not trust its ministers and emissaries seeing them as part of the Cape government's attempts to regain political control. A minister from the Netherlands, Dirk Van der Hoff, went to the Transvaal in 1853 and became the first minister of the newly established Dutch Reformed Church, which became the state church of the South African Republic in 1860. There were religious divisions among the trekkers themselves; the more conservative ones were opposed to singing hymns that had not been determined to be scripturally pure in church. There was controversy in the Netherlands over hymn singing as well resulting in a group breaking away from the Dutch Reformed Church to form the Christian Reformed Churches. A minister from this group, Dirk Postma, traveled to the South African Republic and was accepted as a minister of the NHK.
After learning that he and his congregation could be required to sing these untested hymns, however, he and the Doppers broke away from the state church to form the Reformed Churches in South Africa in 1859. There were thus now three Dutch Reformed churches in what would become South Africa—the NGK, the NHK, the GK. In the NGK meanwhile there was more controversy over theological conservatism. An evangelical revival led by Andrew Murray tipped the balance away from theological liberalism. One result of the revival was that many young men felt called to the ministry, a seminary was opened at Stellenbosch; the NGK was thus no longer dependent on getting its clergy from overseas, as most of the recruits to the ministry had emerged from the revival this was the dominant element. One of its features was a kind of Reformed "Lent", between Ascension Day and Pentecost, a custom that spread beyond the confines of the NGK; the revival led to an interest in mission work which led to the establishment of the Dutch Reformed Mission Church for coloureds and the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa for blacks.
These were segregated from the white churches, but united to form the Uniting Reforme
St Michael and All Angels Church, Blantyre
St. Michael and All Angels Church was constructed from 1888 to 1891 of brick at the Blantyre Mission in Blantyre, Malawi, it is located on the original Scottish mission site, off Chileka Rd, is in the Church of Central Africa, Presbyterian’s Blantyre Synod. Since 1991, it has been partnered with Hiland Presbyterian Church in Pennsylvania. In 1885, Lieutenant H. E. O'Neil determined the longitude of Blantyre to be 2 hours 20 minutes 13.56 seconds east of Greenwich by means of a series of 365 sets of lunar observations, a plaque installed in the side of the church commemorates this achievement. The church has been described as the first permanent Christian Church erected... between the Zambezi and the Nile. – Rev. Alexander Hetherwick C. B. E. D. D. F. R. G. S; the church was designed, its construction managed, by Rev. David Clement Scott, who had no formal architectural training. Labor was provided by local men without previous experience in this type of construction. All the bricks used were fired in wood-fueled kilns.
It has been estimated. The most common bricks are 12 by 6 by 3 inches, laid up in English bond. Scott made no detailed drawings. Instead, each detail was tested with dry bricks before final assembly; the dimensions are 106 feet long, 30 feet wide from aisle wall to aisle wall, 37 feet high to the crest of the roof. Scott described his plan thus: The form was a Latin cross with short transepts. A short choir, a semi-circular apse of 8 feet radius; the aim was to make a comely Presbyterian place of worship. Design and structural elements include arches and flying buttresses; the two towers are not identical. A Moorish, domed bell tower, which contains a circular staircase, is built into the angle between the south-western tower and the wall of the south aisle; the interior consists of a Byzantine arcade of six arches. An organ was installed in the North transept in 1907, electric light was installed in 1912; the organ was replaced in 1954. The church underwent renovations in the 1970s, but has changed little in appearance since it was built.
A large crack was repaired with flitch plates and turnbuckles. The church building itself is accompanied by a clock tower, about 30 yards to the north, is surrounded by additional buildings that at one time housed a school, a hospital, a printing press, a carpentry shop; the grounds now include both a modern multi-purpose hall and the Henry Henderson Institute, named in honour of the Scottish missionary Henry Henderson. Church of Central Africa Presbyterian’s Blantyre Synod Dictionary of African Christian Biography: David Clement Scott
Livingstonia or Kondowe is a town located in the Northern Region district of Rumphi in Malawi. It is 270 miles north of Lilongwe; the town of Mzuzu can be reached on tarred road in about 2–3 hours from Chitimba on the shore Lake Malawi. Livingstonia was founded in 1894 by missionaries from the Free Church of Scotland; the missionaries had first established a mission in 1875 at Cape Maclear, which they named Livingstonia after David Livingstone, whose death in 1873 had rekindled British support for missions in Eastern Africa. The mission was linked with the Livingstonia Central Africa Company, set up as a commercial business in 1877. By 1881 Cape Maclear had proved malarial and the mission moved north to Bandawe; this site proved unhealthy and the Livingstonia Mission moved once again to the higher grounds between Lake Malawi and Nyika Plateau. This new site proved successful because Livingstonia is located in the mountains and therefore not prone to mosquitoes carrying malaria; the mission station developed into a small town.
The leading missionary for 52 years was Dr Robert Laws. He established in Livingstonia the best school in his time for the whole region, Livingstonia graduates became influential in several neighbouring countries, including the southernmost, South Africa. Among notable alumni of the school was the writer Legson Kayira, who graduated in 1958; the title of his autobiographical work I Will Try was taken from the school motto. Dr Laws wanted Livingstonia to develop into a University, but his successors did not pursue the dream. In 2003 the Livingstonia Synod of the Church of Central Africa, Presbyterian renewed the vision and started Livingstonia University; the houses in Livingstonia are characteristic in that they are constructed with red bricks. Inexpensive accommodation is available for travellers at the Stone House, the original house of Dr. Robert Laws, it has a small museum about the history of Livingstonia. The roads to Livingstonia do not have any tarmac. There are two ways to go to the town: From Chitimba at Lake Malawi in the north via the S103, a steep hillside road with multiple hairpin bends, or from the south via T306 and T305, both of which are in poor condition and became unusable in the wet season.
The roads' condition is bad and there are no public buses going to Livingstonia. From Chitimba visitors can walk up to Livingstonia via the S103, although this walk does take several hours and is physically challenging. David Gordon Memorial Hospital had its foundation stone laid in 1910 and was opened in 1911. David Gondwe was Livingstonia's first formally trained hospital assistant; however he was sacked as the mission administration thought that his polygamous marriage rendered him "unstable". However he soon was employed by the governmental Colonial Medical Services; the hospital serves a catchment area with a population of 60,000. Lonely Planet, Malawi and Zambia. 1997. Lonely Planet Publications, Australia. For the history of Livingstonia Mission and Synod see: John McCracken and Christianity in Malawi 1975-1940; the Impact of the Livingstonia Mission in the Northern Province, 2nd ed. Blantyre: CLAIM, 2000, 376 pp
A synod is a council of a church convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. The word synod comes from the Greek σύνοδος meaning "assembly" or "meeting", it is synonymous with the Latin word concilium meaning "council". Synods were meetings of bishops, the word is still used in that sense in Catholicism, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Orthodoxy. In modern usage, the word refers to the governing body of a particular church, whether its members are meeting or not, it is sometimes used to refer to a church, governed by a synod. Sometimes the phrase "general synod" or "general council" refers to an ecumenical council; the word synod refers to the standing council of high-ranking bishops governing some of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches. The day-to-day governance of patriarchal and major archiepiscopal Eastern Catholic Churches is entrusted to a permanent synod. In Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, synods of bishops are meetings of bishops within each autonomous Church and are the primary vehicle for the election of bishops and the establishment of inter-diocesan ecclesiastical laws.
A sobor is a formal gathering or council of bishops together with other clerical and lay delegates representing the church to deal with matters of faith, morality and canonical and cultural life. The synod in the Western churches is similar, but it is distinguished by being limited to an assembly of bishops; the term is found among those Eastern Orthodox Churches that use Slavic language, along with the Romanian Orthodox Church. The presence of clerical and lay delegates is for the purpose of discerning the consensus of the church on important matters. Kievan Rus' chronicles record the first known East Slavic church sobor as having taken place in Kiev in 1051. Sobors were convened periodically from on. Important sobors in the History of the Russian Orthodox Church are: Vladimir's Sobor in 1276 The Stoglavy Sobor in 1551 The Moscow Sobor of 1666–1667, to deal with disputes surrounding the ecclesiastical reforms of Patriarch Nikon The All-Russian Sobor of 1917, which restored the Moscow Patriarchate and elected Saint Tikhon as the first modern Patriarch of Moscow The All-Russian Sobor of 1988, called on the 1000th anniversary of the Baptism of Rus' to guide the church in the wake of glasnost and the loosening of the Soviet grip over the churchA bishop may call a sobor for his diocese, which again would have delegates from the clergy and parishes of his diocese, to discuss important matters.
Such diocesan sobors may be held only occasionally. In Roman Catholic usage and council are theoretically synonymous as they are of Greek and Latin origins both meaning an authoritative meeting of bishops for the purpose of church administration in the areas of teaching or governance. However, in modern use and council are applied to specific categories of such meetings and so do not overlap. A synod meets every three years and is thus designated an "Ordinary General Assembly." However, "Extraordinary" synods can be called to deal with specific situations. There are "Special" synods for the Church in a specific geographic area such as the one held November 16-December 12, 1997, for the Church in America. While the words "synod" and "council" refer to a transitory meeting, the term "Synod of Bishops" or "Synod of the Bishops", is applied to a permanent body established in 1965 as an advisory body of the pope, it holds assemblies at which bishops and religious superiors, elected by bishops conferences or the Union of Superiors General or appointed by the Pope vote on proposals to present for the pope's consideration, which in practice the pope uses as the basis of "post-synodal apostolic exhortations" on the themes discussed.
While an assembly of the Synod of Bishops thus expresses its collective wishes, it does not issue decrees, unless in certain cases the pope authorizes it to do so, then an assembly's decision requires ratification by the pope. The pope serves as president of an assembly or appoints the president, determines the agenda, summons and dissolves the assembly. Modern Catholic synod themes: X "The Bishop: Servant of the Gospel of JESUS CHRIST for the hope of the world" 1998 XI "The Eucharist: Source and Summit of the Life and Mission of the Church 2005 XII "The Word of God in the Life and Mission of the Church" 2008 XIII "New Evangelisation for the Transmission of the Christian Faith" 2012 Extraordinary General "The Pastoral Challenges of the Family in the Context of Evangelization" 2014 Meetings of bishops in the Roman empire are known from the mid-third century and numbered twenty by the time of the First Council of Nicaea. Thereafter they continued by the hundreds into the sixth century; those authorized by an emperor and attended by him came to be called ecumenical, meaning throughout the world.
Today, Council in Roman Catholic canon law refers to an irregular meeting of the entire episcopate of a nation, region, or the world for the purpose of legislation with binding force. Those contemplated in canon law are the following: An ecumenical council is an irregular meeting of the entire episcopate in communion with the pope and is, along with the pope
The Charismatic Movement is the international trend of mainstream Christian congregations adopting beliefs and practices similar to Pentecostalism. Fundamental to the movement is the use of spiritual gifts. Among mainline Protestants, the movement began around 1960. Among Roman Catholics, it originated around 1967; the classic Pentecostalism movement traces its origin to the early twentieth century, with the ministry of Charles F. Parham and the subsequent ministry of William Joseph Seymour and the Azusa Street Revival, its unique doctrine involved a dramatic encounter with God, termed baptism with the Holy Spirit. The evidence for having received this experience was interpreted by some as speaking in tongues. Before 1955 the religious mainstream did not embrace Pentecostal doctrines. If a church member or clergyman expressed such views, they would separate from their existing denomination. However, by the 1960s many of the characteristic teachings were gaining acceptance among Christians within mainline Protestant denominations.
The charismatic movement represented a reversal of this previous pattern as those influenced by Pentecostal spirituality chose to remain in their original denominations. The popularization and broader acceptance of charismatic teachings and ideas are linked to the healing revivals that occurred from 1946–1958; the revivalists of the time, including William Branham, Oral Roberts, A. A. Allen, held large interdenominational meetings which emphasized the gifts of the spirit; this global revival led to greater acceptance of pentecostal teachings and practices. The high church wing of the American Episcopal Church became the first traditional ecclesiastical organization to feel the impact of the new movement internally; the beginning of the charismatic movement is dated to Sunday, April 3, 1960, when Dennis J. Bennett, rector of St Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, California recounted his Pentecostal experience to his parish, doing it again on the next two Sundays, including Easter, during which many of his congregation shared his experience, causing him to be forced to resign.
The resulting controversy and press coverage spread an awareness of the emerging charismatic movement. The movement grew to embrace other mainline churches, where clergy began receiving and publicly announcing their Pentecostal experiences; these clergy began holding meetings for seekers and healing services which included praying over and anointing of the sick. The Catholic Charismatic Renewal began in 1967 at Duquesne University in Pennsylvania. Despite the fact that Pentecostals tend to share more in common with evangelicals than with either Roman Catholics or mainline Protestants, the charismatic movement was not influential among evangelical churches. C. Peter Wagner traces the spread of the charismatic movement within evangelicalism to around 1985, he termed this movement the Third Wave of the Holy Spirit. The Third Wave has expressed itself through the formation of churches and denomination-like organizations; these groups are referred to as "neo-charismatic". The Vineyard Movement and the British New Church Movement exemplify Third Wave or neo-charismatic organizations.
Charismatic Christians believe that the gifts of the Holy Spirit as described in the New Testament are available to contemporary Christians through the infilling or baptism of the Holy Spirit, with-or-without the laying on of hands. Although the Bible lists many gifts from God through His Holy Spirit, there are nine specific gifts listed in 1 Corinthians 12:8–10 that are Supernatural in nature and are the focus of and distinguishing feature of the Charismatic Movement: Word of Wisdom, Word of Knowledge, Gifts of Healing, Miraculous Powers, Distinguishing between Spirits, Speaking in different Tongues, Interpretation of Tongues. While Pentecostals and charismatics share these beliefs, there are differences. Many in the charismatic movement deliberately distanced themselves from Pentecostalism for cultural and theological reasons. Foremost among theological reasons is the tendency of many Pentecostals to insist that speaking in tongues is always the initial physical sign of receiving Spirit baptism.
Although specific teachings will vary from group to group, charismatics believe that the baptism with the Holy Spirit occurs at the new birth and prefer to call subsequent encounters with the Holy Spirit by other names, such as "being filled". In contrast to Pentecostals, charismatics tend to accept a range of supernatural experiences as evidence of having been baptized or filled with the Holy Spirit. Pentecostals are distinguished from the charismatic movement on the basis of style. Pentecostals have traditionally placed a high value on evangelization and missionary work. Charismatics, on the other hand, have tended to see their movement as a force for revitalization and renewal within their own church traditions. Detractors argue these sign and revelatory gifts were manifested in the New Testament for a specific purpose, upon which once accomplished these signs were withdrawn and no longer function; this position is called cessationism, is claimed by its proponents to be the universal position of Christians until the Charismatic movement started.
The Charismatic Movement is based on a belief. In America, the Episcopalian Dennis Bennett is sometimes cited as one of the charismatic movement's seminal influence. Bennett was the Rector at St Mark's Episcopal Church in Van Nuys, California when he announced to the congre
Malawi the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa, known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, Mozambique on the east and west. Malawi is over 118,000 km2 with an estimated population of 18,091,575. Lake Malawi takes up about a third of Malawi's area, its capital is Lilongwe, Malawi's largest city. The name Malawi comes from an old name of the Nyanja people that inhabit the area; the country is nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa" because of the friendliness of the people. The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled by migrating Bantu groups around the 10th century. Centuries in 1891 the area was colonised by the British. In 1953 Malawi known as Nyasaland, a protectorate of the United Kingdom, became a protectorate within the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland; the Federation was dissolved in 1963. In 1964 the protectorate over Nyasaland was ended and Nyasaland became an independent country under Queen Elizabeth II with the new name Malawi.
Two years it became a republic. Upon gaining independence it became a totalitarian one-party state under the presidency of Hastings Banda, who remained president until 1994. Malawi has a democratic, multi-party government headed by an elected president Arthur Peter Mutharika; the country has a Malawian Defence Force that includes a navy and an air wing. Malawi's foreign policy is pro-Western and includes positive diplomatic relations with most countries and participation in several international organisations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the African Union. Malawi is among the world's least-developed countries; the economy is based in agriculture, with a rural population. The Malawian government depends on outside aid to meet development needs, although this need has decreased since 2000; the Malawian government faces challenges in building and expanding the economy, improving education, environmental protection, becoming financially independent amidst widespread unemployment.
Since 2005, Malawi has developed several programs that focus on these issues, the country's outlook appears to be improving, with a rise in the economy and healthcare seen in 2007 and 2008. Malawi has a low life expectancy and high infant mortality. There is a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, a drain on the labour force and government expenditures. There is a diverse population of native peoples and Europeans, with several languages spoken and an array of religious beliefs. Although there was periodic regional conflict fuelled in part by ethnic divisions in the past, by 2008 it had diminished and the concept of a Malawian nationality had reemerged; the area of Africa now known as Malawi had a small population of hunter-gatherers before waves of Bantu peoples began emigrating from the north around the 10th century. Although most of the Bantu peoples continued south, some remained permanently and founded ethnic groups based on common ancestry. By 1500 AD, the tribes had established the Kingdom of Maravi that reached from north of what is now Nkhotakota to the Zambezi River and from Lake Malawi to the Luangwa River in what is now Zambia.
Soon after 1600, with the area united under one native ruler, native tribesmen began encountering, trading with and making alliances with Portuguese traders and members of the military. By 1700, the empire had broken up into areas controlled by many individual ethnic groups; the Arab slave trade reached its height in the mid- 1800s, when 20,000 people were enslaved and considered to be carried yearly from Nkhotakota to Kilwa where they were sold. Missionary and explorer David Livingstone reached Lake Malawi in 1859 and identified the Shire Highlands south of the lake as an area suitable for European settlement; as the result of Livingstone's visit, several Anglican and Presbyterian missions were established in the area in the 1860s and 1870s, the African Lakes Company Limited was established in 1878 to set up a trade and transport concern working with the missions, a small mission and trading settlement was established at Blantyre in 1876 and a British Consul took up residence there in 1883.
The Portuguese government was interested in the area so, to prevent Portuguese occupation, the British government sent Harry Johnston as British consul with instructions to make treaties with local rulers beyond Portuguese jurisdiction. In 1889, a British protectorate was proclaimed over the Shire Highlands, extended in 1891 to include the whole of present-day Malawi as the British Central Africa Protectorate. In 1907, the protectorate was renamed Nyasaland, a name it retained for the remainder of its time under British rule. In a prime example of what is sometimes called the "Thin White Line" of colonial authority in Africa, the colonial government of Nyasaland was formed in 1891; the administrators were given a budget of £10,000 per year, enough to employ ten European civilians, two military officers, seventy Punjab Sikhs and eighty-five Zanzibar porters. These few employees were expected to administer and police a territory of around 94,000 square kilometres with between one and two million people.
In 1944, the Nyasaland African Congress was formed by the Africans of Nyasaland to promote local interests to the British g
Operation World is a reference book and prayer guide, begun by Patrick Johnstone and continued by Jason Mandryk, both from WEC International, a Christian mission agency. The first edition was published by Dorothea Mission editions by Send the Light, publishing branch of Operation Mobilisation; the latest edition of Operation World was published by Biblica, but is now distributed by InterVarsity Press after IVP acquired the publishing arm of Biblica in late 2011. Operation World content has been made available online at operationworld.org through GMI. It is aimed at informing Christians about every country in the world in order to encourage the church to pray for the world and to engage the world in Christian mission; this resource is written from an evangelical Christian point of view, the Operation World team is now led by Jason Mandryk and Molly Wall. Operation World was on the list of the 50 most influential evangelical books in Christianity Today magazine, it is intended to mobilize the church to effective intercession and world mission and to help the global Church fulfil the Great Commission.
Operation World has been published in seven editions. The most recent is the 2010 edition, released in October 2010, the first major update since the 2001 edition; the original edition was produced in 1974 by Patrick Johnstone, a missionary in South Africa, as a 32-page booklet of basic information about 30 countries. Operation World has been translated into several other languages: Spanish, Dutch, Portuguese, Korean and simplified Chinese. Parts of Operation World have been translated into Arabic and Czech; the cumulative number of copies printed in all languages exceeds 2.5 million. In the missionary tradition of the Dorothea Mission and WEC International, the team behind the production of Operation World consists only of volunteers. Molly and Jason are the only full time volunteers in the Operation World team; the 1,000-plus page prayer resource is organized as a calendar-year daily prayer guide. Each 3- to 4-page daily section begins with basic information on a country’s geography, population, economy, etc.
Operation World gives a breakdown of percentage of religions, Christian denominations, missions groups, followed by points for prayer. These prayer points are directed toward the social, economic and religious life of each nation, as well as life and activity of the existing Church in each country. Thematically, Operation World begins with global issues and world missions narrows to cover the six continents before it settles into a country-by-country format, covering every nation and autonomous territory. Data is gathered from sources including primary input from national Christian church leaders and researchers. A consultative process is used, eliciting input and response from nearly 2,000 such contacts in every part of the world. Information is gathered from more than 200 periodicals and journals, the plethora of news agencies, websites of churches and ministries around the world, more encyclopedic resources such as the World Christian Database, the Ethnologue, the Joshua Project; the Operation World database includes information on 33,000 Christian denominations, 16 major religions, 1,200 missions agencies, 16,000 fields of ministry.
Additional Operation World resources include the book in paperback, CD, DVD or ebook formats, individual country profiles and prayer maps and are all available from InterVarsity Press. Other resources produced by the Operation World team include: Pray for the World, an abridged and simplified English version of Operation World, was published in 2015 by IVP. Pray for the World was published for the purpose of greater engagement with those who may not be inclined to use a 1000+ page reference volume, it is easier to read for non-native English speakers, more affordable due to smaller size, a more feasible project for translation. Thus far, it has been translated into Chinese, Indonesian, Portuguese, Hindi, Russian and Amharic. Window on the World, the children's version of Operation World. Window on the World began life as You Can Change the World, written by Patrick Johnstone's late first wife and published in 1992. A followup volume, You Too Can Change the World, was completed by Daphne Spraggett, using Jill's unfinished work.
These two volumes became a compendium with the new name Window on the World. The 2nd edition, released in October 2018 was edited by Molly Wall and Jason Mandryk and published by IVP in the USA and by Lion Hudson in the UK. Operation World produces a free mobile app, a weekly church bulletin insert in a collaborative partnership with the Lausanne Movement. Operation World online Operation World / Mission Books Ethnologue site Joshua Project site World Christian Database GMI Biblica Publishing site for Operation World WEC International InterVarsity Press