They can be numbered, in which case they are provided with a fixed prebend, or unnumbered, in which case the bishop indicates the number of canons according to the rents. In some Church of England cathedrals there are two bodies, the lesser and greater chapters, which have different functions. The smaller body usually consists of the members and is included in the larger one. Originally, it referred to a section of a rule that was read out daily during the assembly of a group of canons or other clergy attached to a cathedral or collegiate church. Later it came to be applied to the group of clergy itself, in both cases the chapter was the bishops consilium which he was bound to consult on all important matters and without doing so he could not act. Thus, a decision of a bishop needed the confirmation of the chapter before it could be enforced. In its corporate capacity the chapter takes charge sede vacante of a diocese, in England, this custom has never obtained, the two archbishops having, from time immemorial, taken charge of the vacant dioceses in their respective provinces.
The normal constitution of the chapter of a cathedral church comprised four officers. These are the dean, the precentor, the chancellor and the treasurer and these four officers, occupying the four corner stalls in the choir, are called in many of the statutes the quatuor majores personae of the church. A dean seems to have derived the designation from the Benedictine deans who had ten monks under their charge, the dean came into existence to supply the place of the provost in the internal management of the church and chapter. In England every secular cathedral church was headed by a dean who was elected by the chapter. The dean is president of the chapter and within the cathedral has charge of the celebration of the services, deans sit in the principal stall in the choir, which is usually the first on the right hand on entering the choir at the west. Next to the dean is the precentor, whose duty is that of regulating the musical portion of the services. The third officer is the chancellor, who must not be confused with the chancellor of the diocese, the chancellor of the cathedral church is charged with the oversight of its schools, ought to read theology lectures and superintend the lections in the choir and correct slovenly readers.
Chancellors are often the secretary and librarian of the chapter, in the absence of the dean and precentor the chancellor is president of the chapter. The easternmost stall, on the side of the choir, is usually assigned to the chancellor. The fourth officer is the treasurer and they are guardians of the fabric and all the furniture and ornaments of the church. It was their duty to provide bread and wine for the Eucharist and candles and they regulated such matters as the ringing of the bells
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning administration. When now used in a sense, it refers to a territorial unit of administration. This structure of governance is known as episcopal polity. The word diocesan means relating or pertaining to a diocese and it can be used as a noun meaning the bishop who has the principal supervision of a diocese. An archdiocese is more significant than a diocese, an archdiocese is presided over by an archbishop whose see may have or have had importance due to size or historical significance. The archbishop may have authority over any other suffragan bishops. In the Latter Day Saint movement, the bishopric is used to describe the bishop himself. Especially in the Middle Ages, some bishops held political as well as religious authority within their dioceses, in the organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided provinces were administratively associated in a larger unit, the diocese. With the adoption of Christianity as the Empires official religion in the 4th century, a formal church hierarchy was set up, parallel to the civil administration, whose areas of responsibility often coincided.
With the collapse of the Western Empire in the 5th century, a similar, though less pronounced, development occurred in the East, where the Roman administrative apparatus was largely retained by the Byzantine Empire. In modern times, many dioceses, though subdivided, have preserved the boundaries of a long-vanished Roman administrative division, modern usage of diocese tends to refer to the sphere of a bishops jurisdiction. As of January 2015, in the Catholic Church there are 2,851 regular dioceses,1 papal see,641 archdioceses and 2,209 dioceses in the world, in the Eastern rites in communion with the Pope, the equivalent unit is called an eparchy. Eastern Orthodoxy calls dioceses metropoleis in the Greek tradition or eparchies in the Slavic tradition, after the Reformation, the Church of England retained the existing diocesan structure which remains throughout the Anglican Communion. The one change is that the areas administered under the Archbishop of Canterbury and Archbishop of York are properly referred to as provinces and this usage is relatively common in the Anglican Communion.
Certain Lutheran denominations such as the Church of Sweden do have individual dioceses similar to Roman Catholics and these dioceses and archdioceses are under the government of a bishop. Other Lutheran bodies and synods that have dioceses and bishops include the Church of Denmark, the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, the Evangelical Church in Germany, rather, it is divided into a middle judicatory. The Lutheran Church-International, based in Springfield, presently uses a traditional diocesan structure and its current president is Archbishop Robert W. Hotes. The Church of God in Christ has dioceses throughout the United States, in the COGIC, each state is divided up into at least three dioceses that are all led by a bishop, but some states as many as seven dioceses
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood, Some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishop in shepherding a flock, the earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In, we see a system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just. In, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia, in Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more clearly defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Ephesus and Titus in Crete to oversee the local church, Paul commands Titus to ordain presbyters/bishops and to exercise general oversight, telling him to rebuke with all authority.
Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches, eventually, as Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to each congregation. Around the end of the 1st century, the organization became clearer in historical documents. While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who dont recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city, plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6,1.
Your godly bishop — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2,1, therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters. — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7,1. Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, and as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13,2. Apart from these there is not even the name of a church, — Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallesians 3,1. Follow your bishop, as Jesus Christ followed the Father, and the presbytery as the Apostles, and to the deacons pay respect, as to Gods commandment — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 8,1. He that honoureth the bishop is honoured of God, he that doeth aught without the knowledge of the bishop rendereth service to the devil — Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnans 9,1
A priest or priestess, is a person authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, in particular, rites of sacrifice to, and propitiation of and their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. The necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, the question of which religions have a priest depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will often turn to for advice on spiritual matters, for example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are typically minister and pastor. The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in a sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion.
In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role, for example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning priest. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines, in a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood. The word priest, is derived from Greek, via Latin presbyter. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, apparently derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre, the Latin presbyter ultimately represents Greek presbyteros, the regular Latin word for priest being sacerdos, corresponding to Greek hiereus. That English should have only the term priest to translate presbyter. The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, in the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the ordination of women.
In the case of the ordination of women in the Anglican communion, it is common to speak of priests. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity, in the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity often performed sacred prostitution, and in Ancient Greece, some such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi. Sumerian and Akkadian Entu or EN were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and they owned property, transacted business, and initiated the hieros gamos ceremony with priests and kings
Macmillan Publishers Ltd is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It has offices in 41 countries worldwide and operates in more than thirty others, Macmillan was founded in 1843 by Daniel and Alexander Macmillan, two brothers from the Isle of Arran, Scotland. Alfred Tennyson joined the list in 1884, Thomas Hardy in 1886, other major writers published by Macmillan included W. B. Chaudhuri, Seán OCasey, John Maynard Keynes, Charles Morgan, Hugh Walpole, Margaret Mitchell, C. P. Snow, Rumer Godden and Ram Sharan Sharma. Beyond literature, the company created such enduring titles as Nature, Macmillan established an office in New York City. It sold its American division in 1896, which published as the Macmillan Company, Macmillan Publishers re-entered the American market in 1954 under the name St. Martins Press. After retiring from politics in 1964, former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Harold Macmillan became chairman of the company and he had been with the family firm as a junior partner from 1920 to 1940, and from 1945 to 1951 while he was in the opposition in Parliament.
The company was one of the oldest independent publishing houses until 1995, Holtzbrinck purchased the remaining shares in 1999, ending the Macmillan familys ownership of the company. Even with the split of the American company from its parent company in England, George Brett, Jr. and he came to the United States with his family in the service of Macmillans of England and built up a business of approximately $50,000 before he died. By my father, who eventually incorporated The Macmillan Company of New York, I succeeded my father, and we currently doing a business of approximately $12,000,000. So then, the name of Brett and the name of Macmillan have been and are synonymous in the United States, pearson acquired the Macmillan name in America in 1998, following its purchase of the Simon & Schuster educational and professional group. Holtzbrinck purchased it from them in 2001, mcGraw-Hill continues to market its pre-kindergarten through elementary school titles under its Macmillan/McGraw-Hill brand.
The US operations of Georg von Holtzbrinck are now known as Macmillan, one of the leading companies is Macmillan, that started by selling British English dictionaries and textbooks that were adapted for Russian readers. Their site website provides Russian teachers and students with an access for tests, competitions and information on scheduled online seminars. By some estimates, as of 2009 e-books account for three to five per cent of total sales, and are the fastest growing segment of the market. Following the announcement of the Apple iPad on 27 January 2010—a product that comes with access to the iBookstore—Macmillan gave Amazon, in the latter case, Amazon. com would receive a 30 per cent commission. Amazon responded by pulling all Macmillan books, both electronic and physical, from their website, on 31 January 2010, Amazon chose the agency model preferred by Macmillan. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple, the suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, and weaken Amazon. coms position in the market, in violation of antitrust law
The Anglican Communion is an international association of autonomous churches consisting of the Church of England and national and regional Anglican churches in full communion with it. Full participation in the life of each church is available to all communicant Anglicans. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of All England, has a place of honour among the bishops of the Anglican churches and he is recognised as primus inter pares. The archbishop does not exercise authority in the provinces outside England, the churches of the Anglican Communion considers themselves to be part of the nicos one, holy and apostolic church and to be both Catholic and Reformed. For some adherents, Anglicanism represents a non-papal Catholicism, for others a form of Protestantism though without a dominant guiding figure such as Luther, Calvin, for others, their self-identity represents some combination of the two. The communion encompasses a spectrum of belief and practice including evangelical, liberal. With a membership estimated at around 85 million members, the Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion in the world, after the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Some of these churches are known as Anglican, such as the Anglican Church of Canada, for example the Church of Ireland, the Scottish and American Episcopal churches, and some other associated churches have a separate name. The Anglican Communion has no legal existence nor any governing structure which might exercise authority over the member churches. There is an Anglican Communion Office in London, under the aegis of the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Communion is held together by a shared history, expressed in its ecclesiology and ethos and by participation in international consultative bodies. Early in its development, Anglicanism developed a vernacular prayer book, unlike other traditions, Anglicanism has never been governed by a magisterium nor by appeal to one founding theologian, nor by an extra-credal summary of doctrine. Instead, Anglicans have typically appealed to the Book of Common Prayer and its offshoots as a guide to Anglican theology and this had the effect of inculcating the principle of Lex orandi, lex credendi as the foundation of Anglican identity and confession.
These parameters were most clearly articulated in the rubrics of the successive prayer books. With the expansion of the British Empire, and hence the growth of Anglicanism outside Great Britain and Ireland, the first major expression of this were the Lambeth Conferences of the communions bishops, first convened by Archbishop of Canterbury Charles Longley in 1869. One of the influential early resolutions of the conference was the so-called Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral of 1888. Its intent was to provide the basis for discussions of reunion with the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Churches, the Apostles Creed, as the Baptismal Symbol, and the Nicene Creed, as the sufficient statement of the Christian faith. The two Sacraments ordained by Christ Himself - Baptism and the Supper of the Lord - ministered with unfailing use of Christs Words of Institution, and of the elements ordained by Him. The Historic Episcopate, locally adapted in the methods of its administration to the needs of the nations
Magistrates' court (England and Wales)
In England and Wales, a magistrates court is a lower court, where almost all criminal proceedings start. Some civil matters are decided here, notably family proceedings and they have been streamlined to deliver justice swiftly. In 2015 there were roughly 330 magistrates courts in England and Wales, the jurisdiction of magistrates courts and rules governing them are set out in the Magistrates Courts Act 1980. Summary offences are crimes, that can be punished under the magistrates courts limited sentencing powers – community sentences, fines. Either-way offences will ultimately fall into one of the previous categories depending on how serious the crime in question is. Cases are heard by a bench of three lay judges, or by a district judge, there is no jury at a magistrates court. Criminal cases are usually, although not exclusively, investigated by the police, defendants may hire a solicitor or barrister to represent them, often paid for by legal aid. There are magistrates courts in other common-law jurisdictions, in criminal matters, magistrates’ courts in England and Wales have been organized to deal with minor offences in a speedy manner.
All criminal cases start here and over 95 percent of them will end here too – only the most serious ones go to Crown Court, summary offences are the least serious criminal offences. They include driving offences, criminal damage of small extent, low level violent offences and being drunk and disorderly. This kind of small criminality will be dealt with in summary proceedings at a court. Both verdict and sentence are solely in the hands of judges and magistrates, the sentencing powers of magistrates courts are therefore limited. For one summary offence, they can inflict imprisonment of up to six months, when dealing with two or more separate either-way offences, the maximum total custodial sentence is 12 months. The maximum fine available is usually £5,000, though for certain specified offences maximum fines permitted to magistrates may be higher, there is no maximum aggregate fine. Some driving offences are punished by licence points and/or disqualification from driving for a period of time.
There are four types of available to the magistrates - a discharge, a financial penalty, a community order. The majority of sentences will be non-custodial sentences, for either way offences, if the magistrates feel that their powers of sentencing are insufficient, they can send the case up to a judge at the Crown Court, who can impose more severe sentences. Often the point is to achieve justice and reformation of the offenders
A churchwarden pipe is a tobacco pipe with a long stem. The history of the style is traced to the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century. Some churchwarden pipes can be as long as 16 inches, such pipes were very popular as an Oriental influence from the seventeenth century onwards in Europe. It was even known as the Hussar pipe at the time, engraved portraits exist of men smoking such an instrument. This long stem pipe type has its origins in the Ottoman Empire, churchwarden pipes generally produce a cooler smoke due to the distance smoke must travel from the bowl to the mouthpiece. They have the benefit of keeping the users face further away from the heat. They are prone to breakage since more pressure is placed on the tenon when the pipe is supported around the mouthpiece. Clay churchwarden pipes were used during the pioneer era in North America. However, there is no evidence to support this claim, in fact, pipes were cleaned by being placed in iron cradles and baked in ovens. Examples of such clay pipes can be seen at the historic Fort Osage museum in Fort Osage, churchwarden pipes were reputedly named after churchwardens, or night watchmen of churches in the time that churches never locked their doors.
Churchwardens have experienced a surge in popularity after the release of Lord of the Rings film trilogy in 2001, since many of the characters smoke churchwardens
A parish is a church territorial unit constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates. Historically, a parish often covered the same area as a manor. By extension the term refers not only to the territorial unit. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, the eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, and where minsters catered to the surrounding district. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish comprises a division of a diocese or see, parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest. Some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry, in the Roman Catholic Church, each parish normally has its own parish priest, who has responsibility and canonical authority over the parish.
These are called assistant priests, parochial vicars, curates, or, in the United States, associate pastors, each diocese is divided into parishes, each with their own central church called the parish church, where religious services take place. An example is that of personal parishes established in accordance with the 7 July 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum for those attached to the form of the Roman Rite. Most Catholic parishes are part of Latin Rite dioceses, which cover the whole territory of a country. There can be overlapping parishes of eparchies of Eastern Catholic Churches, the Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Churchs secession from Rome remaining largely untouched, Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury,30 and York,14. A chapelry was a subdivision of a parish in England. It had a status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church.
In England civil parishes and their parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities. Thus their boundaries began to diverge, the word parish acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council. The parish is the level of church administration in the Church of Scotland
In the High Middle Ages it was the most senior diocesan position below a bishop in the Roman Catholic Church. An archdeacon is often responsible for administration within an archdeaconry, which is the subdivision of the diocese. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church has defined an archdeacon as A cleric having a defined administrative authority delegated to him by the bishop in the whole or part of the diocese, the office has often been described metaphorically as that of oculus episcopi, the bishops eye. In the Latin Catholic Church, the post of archdeacon, generally a priest, was one of great importance as a senior official of a diocese. The duties are now performed by such as auxiliary and/or coadjutor bishops, the vicar general. The term archdeacon appears for the first time in Optatus of Mileves history of Donatism of about 370 and these functions included not only financial administration but the discipline of the clergy, and examination of candidates for priesthood. From the 8th century, there was in the West a further development of the authority of the archdeacon, large dioceses had several archdeaconries, in each of which the archdeacon, had an authority comparable to that of the bishop.
Frequently they were appointed not by the bishop but by the chapter or the king. However, from the 13th century, efforts were made to limit their authority and this was effected in part by the institution of the new office of vicar general, who would be a priest rather than a deacon. In 1553, the Council of Trent removed entirely the independent powers of archdeacons and those who had been in charge of different parts of the diocese gradually ceased to be appointed. Only the archdeacon associated with the chapter continued to exist as an empty title. However, Eastern Catholic Churches still utilize archdeacons, this type of dual role has only existed in the Bishop suffragan of Ludlow. An archdeacon is usually styled The Venerable instead of the clerical style of The Reverend. In the Church of England the position of an archdeacon can only be held by a priest who has been ordained for at least six years, in the Church of England, the legal act by which a priest becomes an archdeacon is called a collation.
If that archdeaconry is annexed to a canonry of the cathedral, the Anglican ordinal presupposes that the functions of archdeacons include those of examining candidates for ordination and presenting them to the ordaining bishop. In the Eastern Christian churches, an archdeacon is the senior deacon within a diocese and has responsibility for serving at hierarchical services and he has responsibility for ensuring the smooth running of the service by directing the clergy and servers as appropriate. The archdeacon wears the orarion, which is twice the length of the usual orarion. An archdeacon may come from either the monastic or married clergy, an archdeacon was the prince and head of the Christians of Saint Thomas and had such titles as Archdeacon and Gate of All India, Governor of India