Chymosin or rennin is a protease found in rennet. It is an aspartic endopeptidase belonging to MEROPS A1 family, it is produced by newborn ruminant animals in the lining of the abomasum to curdle the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in the bowels and better absorption. It is used in the production of cheese. Bovine chymosin is now produced recombinantly in E. coli, Aspergillus niger var awamori, K. lactis as alternative resource. Chymosin is produced by ruminant animals in the lining of the abomasum. Chymosin is produced by gastric chief cells in young ruminants and some other newborn animals to curdle the milk they ingest, allowing a longer residence in the bowels and better absorption; some other non-ruminant species, including pigs and seals, produce it. One study reported finding a chymosin-like enzyme in some human infants, but others have failed to replicate this finding. Humans have a pseudogene for chymosin that does not generate a protein, found on chromosome 1. Humans have other proteins to digest milk, such as lipase.
Chymosin is used to bring about the extensive curd formation in cheese-making. The native substrate of chymosin is K-casein, cleaved at the peptide bond between amino acid residues 105 and 106, phenylalanine and methionine; the resultant product is calcium phosphocaseinate. When the specific linkage between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups of casein is broken, the hydrophobic groups unite and form a 3D network that traps the aqueous phase of the milk. Charge interactions between histidines on the kappa-casein and glutamates and aspartates of chymosin initiate enzyme binding to the substrate; when chymosin is not binding substrate, a beta-hairpin, sometimes referred to as "the flap," can hydrogen bond with the active site, therefore covering it and not allowing further binding of substrate. Listed below are the ruminant Cym gene and corresponding human pseudogene: Because of the imperfections and scarcity of microbial and animal rennets, producers sought replacements. With the development of genetic engineering, it became possible to extract rennet-producing genes from animal stomach and insert them into certain bacteria, fungi or yeasts to make them produce chymosin during fermentation.
The genetically modified microorganism is killed after fermentation and chymosin is isolated from the fermentation broth, so that the fermentation-produced chymosin used by cheese producers does not contain any GM component or ingredient. FPC produced in a more efficient way. FPC products are considered the ideal milk-clotting enzyme. FPC was the first artificially produced enzyme to be registered and allowed by the US Food and Drug Administration. In 1999, about 60% of US hard cheese was made with FPC and it has up to 80% of the global market share for rennet. By 2008 80% to 90% of commercially made cheeses in the US and Britain were made using FPC; the most used fermentation-produced chymosin is produced either using the fungus Aspergillus niger or using Kluyveromyces lactis. FPC contains only chymosin B. FPC can deliver several benefits to the cheese producer compared with animal or microbial rennet, such as higher production yield, better curd texture and reduced bitterness; the MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: A01.006
Ernesto B. Lopez is an American politician and a Republican member of the Delaware Senate, he represents District 6, which encompasses the Cape Region in eastern Sussex Delaware. He was the first Latino elected to the Delaware Senate. Born in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico, Lopez moved to Delaware as a child with his parents. After attending public schools, he earned his BA at Gettysburg College and his EdD in educational leadership from the University of Delaware, he worked as an administrator at the University of Delaware. He ran for New Castle County Council President in 2004 as a Republican but lost to Democrat Paul Clark. In 2012, he ran for and won election to fill the Senate District 6 seat vacated by retiring Republican Liane Sorenson whose district had been moved from New Castle County to Sussex County. In 2004, Lopez ran for New Castle County Council President and won the Republican primary with 7,320 votes against Gary Bowman. However, he lost in the general election to Democrat Paul Clark with 91,836 votes.
In 2012, Lopez ran for the Delaware Senate and won the Republican primary with 2,163 votes against Glen Urquhart. He went on to win the three-way general election with 13,603 votes against Democratic nominee Andrew Staton and Libertarian candidate Gwendolyn Jones. In 2014, Lopez won the general election with 11,633 votes against Democratic nominee Claire Snyder-Hall. In 2018, Lopez won the general election with 14,781 votes against Democratic nominee David B. Baker. Official page at the Delaware General Assembly Campaign site Profile at Vote Smart
Tholkappia Poonga or Adyar Eco Park is an ecological park set up by the Government of Tamil Nadu in the Adyar estuary area of Chennai, India. According to the government, the project, conceived based on the master plan for the restoration of the vegetation of the freshwater ecosystems of the Coromandel Coast the fragile ecosystem of the Adyar estuary and creek, was expected to cost around ₹ 1,000 million which will include the beautification of 358 acres of land; the park's ecosystem consists of tropical dense evergreen forest, predominantly comprising trees and shrubs that have thick dark green foliage throughout the year, with over 160 woody species, comprises six vegetative elements such as trees, lianas, epiphytes and tuberous species. The park was opened to public by Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi on 22 January 2011 and named after the renowned Tamil scholar Tholkappiar. About 65 percent of the park is covered by artefacts and signages. In the first 2 months of its inauguration, nearly 4,000 children from several schools in the city and the nearby Kancheepuram and Tiruvallur districts have visited the park to learn about wetland conservation, eco-restoration and water management.
While the first phase of the ecopark covered about 4.16 acres of CRZ-III area, the entire area covered under the second phase falls under this category. The Adyar river originates from Malaipattu tank near Manimangalam village in Sriperumbudur Taluk at about 15 km west of Tambaram and gains momentum as a stream from Chembarambakkam lake, it runs through Chennai for 42 km before draining into the Bay of Bengal, forming an estuary, which extends from the Adyar Bridge to the sandbar at the edge of the sea, with some small islets in-between. Just before joining the sea at a sand bar on the shore, one part of the river takes off northward beyond the Chettinad Palace as a small inlet of water forming a tidal creek; the creek takes a U-turn near Foreshore Estate. It surrounds what was called Quibble Island, stopping short of encircling it; the estuary covers an area of about 300 acres. The low salinity, good shelters, calm conditions and high plankton availability in the creek serves as a good nursery for fish.
The flow of tidal water out of the creek allowed for easy travel of boats. It therefore encouraged fishing and there was a thriving economy of fish trade here. However, with the city's sewage and effluence from its various industries, for some time, emptying into the river, the biological activities in the region was affected; the Adyar wetland reserve is a significant link for birds on their great annual migrations the wading birds which feed on the coastal mudflats. 200 species of migratory birds visited the Adyar Creek region but many are now on the endangered IUCN Red List. The restoration of this coastal wetland ecosystem will encourage many of these species to return. An estimated not more than 500 acres of undisturbed tropical dry evergreen forest remains in Tamil Nadu and the eco-park, aiming at the restoration of more than 350 acres, serves as a significant conservation effort to bring this vegetation back to the Coromandel coast. Owing to uncontrolled exploitation of the wetland due to urbanisation, the region became a degraded area by the end of the 20th century.
When the Ambedkar Memorial was constructed, the damage to the ecosystem was challenged by the Citizen and civil Action Group in the court. In 2000, the High Court directed the state government to preserve the wetlands. On 22 December 2003, the State Government handed over 58 acres of the area to the Corporation of Chennai to develop it into an eco park modelled on Parque Texozomoc of Mexico; the eco-park was conceptualised by M. P. Vijayakumar, the commissioner of the Chennai Corporation, in 2004; the budget of ₹ 600 million for creating the park was passed in 2005 and Adyar Creek Eco Park Limited, a special purpose vehicle, was set up to harness and channel the funds for development. In a bid to take up ecological restoration of the Adyar estuary, the Tamil Nadu Government constituted the Adyar Poonga Trust in October 2006; the Trust was set up with the Chief Secretary as the chairman and Secretaries of Highways, Fisheries, Municipal Administration & Water Supply, Finance as members. However, the CAG was never made part of the body.
The work of preparing an ecological restoration plan was entrusted with Pitchandikulam Forest Consultants of Auroville in February 2007. The ecological restoration aimed at an eco-park that will be a showcase ecosystem of the Coromandel Coast with fresh water ponds, brackish areas, mud flats and islands; the improvement did not begin until clearance in June 2004. Once completed, it is claimed to become the first eco-tourism venture in the state. A major portion of the boundary wall for the park was built by the Chennai Corporation in 2006 at a cost of ₹ 15 million, while the remaining improvements could not be carried out owing to encroachments on the land; the area before restoration used to be a filthy place, with debris strewn around. Cattle was being reared by neighbouring slum dwellers and antisocials made merry in the area, full of thickets. Initial assessment of the creek area was, in fact, done from the nearby high-rise structures because no one could enter the park. Following action by the civic body, the squatters of Rajah Gramani Thottam were removed and allotted to Slum Clearance Board tenements in Semmencherry in early July 2007.
The issue was taken up by the members of the Corporation Council. As a result, the remaining portion of compound wall was made higher. Tamil Nadu Urban Infrastructure Financial Services Limited has been charged with engaging consultants to devel
Paul Hambruch was a German ethnologist and folklorist. He studied natural sciences and mathematics at the University of Göttingen and geography and ethnology in Berlin, where his instructors were Ferdinand von Richthofen and Felix von Luschan. In 1904 he began work as an assistant at the Ethnological Museum of Berlin. By way of a request from the Jaluit Gesellschaft, he traveled to Nauru in an effort to fight a disease affecting coconuts. In 1908–10 he participated in the Südsee-Expedition to Micronesia under the directorship of Georg Thilenius, head of the Ethnological Museum in Hamburg. In the South Seas, he conducted ethnographic research on Nauru and other islands, his collection of fairy tales and myths from the Pacific islands were to become known. After returning to Germany, he was named director of the Oceania department at the Ethnological Museum in Hamburg. In 1922 he was appointed professor of anthropology at the University of Hamburg, where he gave classes on the traditional customs and folklore of rural Europe.
In 1929 he became a founding member of the Gesellschaft für Völkerkunde, which became the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Völkerkunde. Die Schiffahrt auf den Karolinen- und Marshallinseln, 1912. Nauru, 1914-15. Südseemärchen aus Australien, Neu-Guinea, Karolinen, Tonga, Neu-Seeland, 1921 – South Seas fairy tales from Australia, New Guinea, the Carolines, Tonga, New Zealand. Malaiische Märchen aus Madagaskar und Insulinde 1922 – Malay fairy tales from Madagascar and Insulindia. Faraulip. Einführung in die Abteilung Südsee: Geschichte, Umwelt und Bevölkerung, 1931. Ponape 1932–36
Judy Blunt is an American writer from Montana. Her most notable work to date is Breaking Clean, a collection of linked essays exploring her rural upbringing, she was raised on a cattle ranch in a remote area of Phillips County, near Regina, south of Malta, Montana. In 1986 she moved with her three small children to Missoula to attend the University of Montana, she turned the tales of her ranch life into an award-winning memoir, titled Breaking Clean, which won a Whiting Award, the PEN/Jerard Fund Award and Plains Nonfiction Book Award, Willa Cather Literary Award, was one of The New York Times' Notable Books. She received a Jacob K. Javits Graduate Fellowship and a Montana Arts Council Individual Artist Fellowship, her essays and poems have appeared in such publications as The New York Times, Big Sky Journal and Oprah Magazine. Blunt received her M. F. A. from the University of Montana in 1994. Blunt resides in Missoula, where she is an associate professor at the University of Montana. Breaking Clean, Knopf: 2002, ISBN 9780753198223 Powells.com interview Random House author bio January Magazine review of Breaking Clean Excerpt from Breaking Clean U of M bio/press release A Conversation with Judy Blunt, author of Breaking Clean Profile at The Whiting Foundation
Batavia was built at Topsham, England in 1802. At first she traded independently with the East Indies, but she made three voyages for the British East India Company. Lastly, she made one voyage in 1818 transporting convicts to Australia, she was broken up in 1819. Batavia was renamed shortly after her launch. Batavia entered Lloyd's Register in 1802 with W. Norval, Hayman and trade London–Batavia. Lloyd's Register for 1810 shows Batavia with J. Aitkin, changing to Mayne, Hayman and trade London transport; the EIC had Batavia measured before employing her. She underwent a thorough repair in 1810. Captain John Mayne acquired a letter of marque on 15 May 15 1810, he would be Batavia's captain on all three voyages for the EIC. First EIC voyage: Mayne sailed from Portsmouth on 9 June 1810, bound for Ceylon and Batavia. Batavia reached Madeira on 26 Colombo on 21 November, she arrived at Calcutta on 19 January 1811. She continued her journey, passing Saugor on 5 March, reaching Penang on 16 April and Malacca on 11 May.
The reason Batavia was at Malacca was that she served as a transport during the British invasion of Java in 1811. She was part of the second division, which sailed from Malacca on 11 June 1811. Batavia was at Borneo on 21 July, before arriving at Batavia on 4 August, she returned to Malacca on 30 Calcutta on 17 December. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 7 March 1812, reached Mauritius on 19 May and St Helena on 24 July. In September Lord Eldon, Scaleby Castle and Cornwall were at 14°8′N 28°11′W on their way from Saint Helena to England and under escort by HMS Loire. Batavia arrived at Blackwall on 30 October. Second EIC voyage: Mayne sailed from Portsmouth on 20 April 1813, bound for St Helena and Bengal. Batavia reached St Helena on 22 July, she arrived at Calcutta on 14 November. Bound for England, albeit not directly, she was at Saugor on 19 January 1814 and Ceylon on 13 February, she was at Bombay on 17 Tellicheri on 17 April. She was at the Cape on 27 July, she reached St Helena on 5 September.
On 13 October she reached the Wight on 15 November. She arrived at Long Reach on 20 November. Third EIC voyage: Mayne left the Downs on 15 May 1816, bound for Bengal. Batavia reached Madeira on 25 May and Kedgeree on 24 September, arrived at Calcutta on 10 October. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 28 December, Madras on 12 January 1817, St Helena on 5 May, she arrived at Long Reach on 20 July. Batavia was seen as unseaworthy and sold for breaking up. Captain William Lamb and surgeon J. Billing sailed from Gravesend Plymouth on 11 November 1817, bound for Sydney, New South Wales. Batavia stopped at Madeira leaving on 1 December, arriving on 5 April 1818, she disembarked 218 in Sydney. Detachments of the 34th and 46th Regiment of Foot provided the guard detachment, she left Port Jackson on 3 June 1818 bound for Bombay. Batavia was forced to return to Sydney on 8 July, for repairs. On 24 December 1819 Batavia's register was cancelled. Citations References Bateson, Charles; the Convict Ships, 1787-1868.
Brown, Son & Ferguson. OCLC 3778075. Hackman, Rowan. Ships of the East India Company. Gravesend, Kent: World Ship Society. ISBN 0-905617-96-7