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Rennet is a complex set of enzymes produced in the stomachs of ruminant mammals. Chymosin, its key component, is a protease enzyme. In addition to chymosin, rennet contains other enzymes, such as a lipase. Rennet is used to separate milk into solid curds and liquid whey, so it or its substitutes is used in the production of most cheeses. One of the main actions of rennet is its protease chymosin cleaving the kappa casein chain. Casein is the main protein of milk. Cleavage causes casein to form a network, it can cluster better in the presence of calcium and phosphate, why it is added in cheese making from calcium phosphate-poor goat milk. The solid truncated casein protein network traps other components of milk, such as fats and minerals, to create cheese. Calf rennet is extracted from the inner mucosa of the fourth stomach chamber of young, nursing calves as part of livestock butchering; these stomachs are a byproduct of veal production. If rennet is extracted from older calves, the rennet contains less or no chymosin, but a high level of pepsin and can only be used for special types of milk and cheeses.

As each ruminant produces a special kind of rennet to digest the milk of its own species, milk-specific rennets are available, such as kid goat rennet for goat's milk and lamb rennet for sheep's milk. Dried and cleaned stomachs of young calves are sliced into small pieces and put into salt water or whey, together with some vinegar or wine to lower the pH of the solution. After some time, the solution is filtered; the crude rennet that remains in the filtered solution can be used to coagulate milk. About 1 g of this solution can coagulate 2 to 4 L of milk. Deep-frozen stomachs are put into an enzyme-extracting solution; the crude rennet extract is activated by adding acid. The acid is neutralized and the rennet extract is filtered in several stages and concentrated until reaching a typical potency of about 1:15,000. One kg of rennet extract has about 0.7 g of active enzymes – the rest is water and salt and sometimes sodium benzoate, 0.5% - 1.0% for preservation. 1 kg of cheese contains about 0.0003 g of rennet enzymes.

Because of the limited availability of mammalian stomachs for rennet production, cheese makers have sought other ways to coagulate milk since at least Roman times. The many sources of enzymes that can be a substitute for animal rennet range from plants and fungi to microbial sources. Cheeses produced from any of these varieties of rennet are suitable for lactovegetarians. Fermentation-produced chymosin is used more in industrial cheesemaking in North America and Europe today because it is less expensive than animal rennet. Many plants have coagulating properties. Homer suggests in the Iliad. Other examples include several species of Galium, dried caper leaves, thistles and ground ivy. Enzymes from thistle or Cynara are used in some traditional cheese production in the Mediterranean. Phytic acid, derived from unfermented soybeans, or fermentation-produced chymosin may be used. Vegetable rennet might be used in the production of kosher and halal cheeses, but nearly all kosher cheeses are produced with either microbial rennet or FPC.

Commercial so-called vegetable rennets contain an extract from the mold Rhizomucor miehei. Some molds such as Rhizomucor miehei are able to produce proteolytic enzymes; these molds are produced in a fermenter and specially concentrated and purified to avoid contamination with unpleasant byproducts of the mold growth. The traditional view is that these coagulants result in bitterness and low yield in cheese when aged for a long time. Over the years, microbial coagulants have improved a lot due to the characterization and purification of secondary enzymes responsible for bitter peptide formation/non-specific proteolytic breakdown in cheese aged for long periods, it has become possible to produce several high-quality cheeses with microbial rennet. It is suitable for the elaboration of vegan cheese, provided no animal-based ingredients are used in its production; because of the above imperfections of microbial and animal rennets, many producers sought other replacements of rennet. With genetic engineering it became possible to isolate rennet genes from animals and introduce them into certain bacteria, fungi, or yeasts to make them produce chymosin during fermentation.

The genetically modified microorganism is killed after fermentation and chymosin isolated from the fermentation broth, so that the fermentation-produced chymosin used by cheese producers does not contain a GMO or any GMO DNA. FPC is produced in a more efficient way. FPC products have been on the market since 1990 and, because the quantity needed per unit of milk can be standardized, are commercially viable alternatives to crude animal or plant rennets, as well as preferred to them. Created by biotechnology company Pfizer, FPC was the first artificially-produced enzyme to be registered and allowed by the US Food and Drug Administration. In 1999, about 60% of US hard cheeses were made with FPC, it has up to 80% of the global market share for rennet; the most used FPC is produced either by the fungus Aspergillus niger and commercialized under the trademark CHY-MAX by the Danish company Chr. Hansen, or produced by Kluyveromyces lactis and c

Pacha Gul Wafadar

Pacha Gul Wafadar was born on 6 March 1943 in Paktia, Afghanistan. Educated in Kabul and Russia, he started school at Harbi Shownzi in 1950. After graduation in 1962, he went to Saint Petersburg for higher education in the university of Budyonny Military Academy of the Signal Corps, majoring in signal engineering. "Afghanistan's Two-Party Communism: Parcham and Khalq". "Modern Afghanistan". " - سایت همایون - پیشینه ی منازعات افغانستان با پاکستان". Archived from the original on 2015-07-04. "pashto library: 22 - dawood khan cha wawaja". Shinwari 05-03-15 Pachagul wafadar پاچاګل وفادار on YouTube video Embassy of Afghanistan, New Delhi

Robert Burns (Quebec politician)

Robert Burns was a politician and union activist from Quebec, Canada. He was born on September 5, 1936 in Montreal to working-class family with English speaking father of Irish Quebecer descent and a francophone mother, his father died when Robert was two. Burns trained as a labour lawyer at the University of Montreal on a scholarship and became a legal advisor to the Confédération des syndicats nationaux trade union. Politically, he was active in the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, the predecessor of the New Democratic Party. A federalist, Burns became a nationalist as a result of his experiences representing francophone workers against English bosses and was persuaded to stand as a Parti Québécois candidate in 1970. Burns won a seat to the National Assembly of Quebec in 1970 in the district of Maisonneuve having defeated former Rassemblement pour l'indépendance nationale leader Marcel Chaput for the Parti Québécois's nomination, he was one of seven Péquistes to win a seat in the National Assembly, the first contested by the new party.

He was re-elected in 1973 and 1976. Burns was the informal leader of the left-wing faction of the PQ and clashed with the more moderate PQ leader René Lévesque over labour disputes, criticised Levesque's position during the La Presse strike in 1971 with such vigour that when he left a meeting with Levesque, he slammed the door and shattered its glass pane, he was passed over by Lévesque after the 1973 election, when Jacques-Yvan Morin was appointed Leader of the Opposition instead of Burns, after Lévesque failed to win a seat in the election. Burns served as his party's House Leader from 1970 until 1978 when he was replaced by Claude Charron after suffering a heart attack, his relationship with his party was at times uneasy. In 1979, he told reporters “I am a socialist and the Parti Québécois is not always socialist." In 1977, Burns was appointed to Premier René Lévesque's Cabinet and became a key architect of the government's drive for Quebec independence. He served as Minister responsible for Electoral Reform and introduced the province's law banning corporate and union donations to political parties and limiting donations to $100 per person and wrote Quebec's referendum law that funded both sides and required each side to have umbrella committees that included all proponents.

Burns was instrumental in Quebec's introduction of anti-scab legislation that banned companies from hiring strikebreakers during strikes. Burns issued a white paper favouring proportional representation but the idea was not popular with his colleagues, his health weakened, Burns resigned his seat and retired from politics in 1979 and was appointed a labour court judge in 1980, Burns again clashed with Lévesque, predicting the government's defeat in the 1980 sovereignty referendum and in the subsequent election. Burns remained on the Labour Court for two decades, retiring in 2001. During the 2012 Quebec student protests he urged Premier Jean Charest to negotiate with students demanding a tuition freeze, he commented on the Charbonneau Commission inquiry into corruption saying he was "disgusted" by allegations that construction and engineering companies flouted his electoral financing law by making illegal donations to political parties. Burns died on May 15, 2014, aged 77

Ola Nordmann

Ola Nordmann is a national personification of Norwegians, either for individuals or collectively. It is used as a placeholder name; the female counterpart is Kari Nordmann, collectively they are referred to as Ola og Kari Nordmann. The media uses "Ola Nordmann" to describe trends in the population. For example: A headline in a newspaper that reads Norwegians consume less milk could just as well read Ola Nordmann drinks less milk. Caricatures of Ola Nordmann as a national personification of Norway depict him as a blond-haired man dressed in bunad-like traditional folk clothing and wearing a woollen red top cap - the traditional headwear of a Norwegian gnome or nisse; this headwear was worn by the traditional Norwegian farmer in the old Norwegian farm culture. In the romantic national period, the farmer came to represent the Norwegian people as a whole, hence the representation. Ola Nordmann is used as a default name in examples used to guide people in how to fill in forms etc.. In legal examples, Peder Ås is used as a placeholder name instead.

Ola is a common male first name in Norway, Nordmann is a demonym for a Norwegian, i.e. "Ola Norwegian". The female equivalent or variant is personified as Kari Nordmann, "Kari and Ola Nordmann" is used together to describe the archetypical Norwegian family or household. Joe Bloggs John Bull John Doe John Q. Public Ole and Lena Uncle Sam

Imogen Willis

Imogen Willis is a fictional character from the Australian soap opera Neighbours, played by Ariel Kaplan. The actress was cast in the role after a quick process, in which she auditioned once and attended a screen test, she began filming her first scenes in early February 2013. Kaplan's character and her family were created and introduced to Neighbours, as part of an ongoing overhaul of the show's cast and renewed focus on family units within the show, she made her first screen appearance during "Episode 6646", broadcast on 20 May 2013. Imogen is portrayed as being "intelligent", "creative" and "confident". Kaplan thought her character was a good role model for female viewers because she does not feel she has to impress anyone. Imogen tried to hide her insecurities and resentment at being sidelined by her family due to her brother's swimming career. Due to a lack of attention, Imogen developed bulimia nervosa; the storyline was the first to portray the issues of eating disorders in Neighbours for six years.

Both Kaplan and the producers worked with the Butterfly Foundation during their research. The character's other storylines have revolved around her romantic relationships with Mason Turner, Tyler Brennan, Daniel Robinson, whom she married before leaving for a job opportunity in the United States on 26 April 2016. Kaplan reprised the role three years and returned on 22 March 2019. Imogen helps run Toadfish Rebecchi's law firm and becomes Finn Kelly's defence lawyer, which causes conflict with her family and neighbours. On 7 February 2013, it was announced that the four-strong Willis family would be introduced to Neighbours, as part of an ongoing overhaul of the show's cast and renewed focus on family units. News of the Willis family's introduction came shortly after producers decided to bring in the five-strong Turner family. Executive producer Richard Jasek commented "As viewers will find out shortly, the Turners are a family of secrets, the unique backstory of the Willis family is just as compelling."

The character of Brad Willis was reintroduced to the show, along with his wife Terese and two children Josh and Imogen. Actress Ariel Kaplan was cast as Josh's twin sister Imogen following an audition process. Kaplan called the process one of the quickest, she auditioned once and was asked to do a screen test with Bonner and Gamblin to see if they had the right "family dynamic". Kaplan said that she and the other actors bonded well and a few days while she was studying at the 16th Street Actors Studio, her agent called to tell her she had won the role, she and the other actors began filming their first scenes two weeks after the family's casting announcement. Growing up in South Africa, Kaplan had never seen Neighbours prior to filming and learnt about the street with her character. Kaplan made her first screen appearance as Imogen on 20 May 2013. Imogen has been described as being "beautiful and creative" by a writer for the serial's website, they asserted that Imogen hid her insecurities from her family and resented the fact that she was sidelined because of Josh's swimming career.

Comparing the two siblings, Gamblin said Imogen was not sporty like Josh. He called her academic and quirky, he stated that Imogen had always been the "easier" child to parent, as she is "an A-grade student, she's intelligent, she's smart". Kaplan believed Imogen was a good role model for younger female viewers, saying "I love the character, she is outwardly confident and comfortable in her own skin, doesn't feel she has to impress anyone by doing things she might regret." Bonner observed that Josh and Imogen had a "love-hate" relationship, explaining "It's never that intense that we hate each other, but Imogen likes to niggle him and tell him how things should be done."Imogen befriended Amber Turner shortly after her arrival. Rosenow liked having another actress playing a 16-year-old girl on-set, said that it helped her and Kaplan to get back into the "teenage stage". A few months after her introduction, Kaplan decided to change her image and had her long hair cut short; the Neighbours wardrobe department took the opportunity to freshen up Imogen's style, as Kaplan's long hair had covered up Imogen's outfits.

Imogen was given a more edgy look and Kaplan commented that the wardrobe team were working on a monochrome look for the character. In November 2013, Bonner thought that the revelation of Imogen's eating disorder had changed the Willis family dynamic, he believed that Imogen was not neglected because the family wanted to help Josh achieve his goal. He continued ``, they would be putting in just as much effort with her, it wasn't neglect."In late 2014, Imogen began causing "a bit more drama", which led to viewers asking for her to go back to her old self. Kaplan liked that Imogen's storylines had caused such a reaction, saying it was better than having no comments at all, she did not think Imogen needed to stay likeable. She said "The important thing is that viewers like watching her and she isn't always going to be the nice girl next door." Kaplan said viewers would see "a sisterly bond" form between Imogen and her long-lost sister Paige Smith. Despite their different personalities, they would "have each other's back."

A few months after her arrival on-screen, it emerged that Imogen was suffering from bulimia nervosa, an eating disorder, characterised by binge eating and purging. Imogen's storyline was the first to portray the issues of eating disorders in the show for six years, with the last one featuring ma

Poke-O-Moonshine Mountain Fire Observation Station

The Poke-O-Moonshine Mountain Fire Observation Station is a historic fire lookout tower on Poke-O-Moonshine Mountain at Chesterfield in Essex County, New York. The station and contributing resources include a 40-foot-tall, steel-frame lookout tower erected in 1917, a jeep trail that extends from the base of the mountain to a point below its summit, the remains of an observer's cabin built by the Civilian Conservation Corps in 1936, a spring house; the tower is a prefabricated structure built by the Aermotor Windmill Company. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, New York