Jonathan Jonah Nolan is an English-American screenwriter, television producer and author. He is the creator of the science fiction television series Person of Interest and he has collaborated on several films with his brother, director Christopher Nolan, who adapted Jonathans short story Memento Mori into the film Memento. Together, they co-wrote the mystery thriller The Prestige, the superhero films The Dark Knight and The Dark Knight Rises, Nolan was raised in London and Chicago, and attended Georgetown University, where he majored in English and was a staff writer for The Hoya. Nolans short story Memento Mori was used by his brother, director Christopher Nolan. In 2005, Jonathan and Christopher co-wrote the screenplay for The Prestige, the brothers collaborated on the screenplay for the 2008 film The Dark Knight. The film went on to become the most financially successful Batman film, on 10 February 2011, CBS picked up Nolans pilot Person of Interest. The show was picked up by CBS on 13 May 2011 to air in fall 2011.
The series ran for five seasons and starred Jim Caviezel and Michael Emerson, Nolan served as executive producer along with J. J. Abrams. Nolan wrote the screenplay for Interstellar, a feature based on the works of theoretical physicist Kip Thorne. Christopher Nolan co-wrote and produced the film, with Paramount distributing domestically, Nolan serves as executive producer along with Joy, J. J. Abrams, Jerry Weintraub, and Bryan Burk. In 2014, TheWrap reported that Nolan was writing and producing a series based on Isaac Asimovs Foundation Trilogy for HBO, Jonathan found that having an English accent was very unpopular after moving to Chicago, so he learned to sound like a good Chicago kid. Its great to be able to work with him that way, Nolan is married to Burn Notice writer Lisa Joy. They have a daughter, and are expecting their second child, short fiction Memento Mori – short story basis for Memento Jonathan Nolan at the Internet Movie Database
A puzzle is a game, problem, or toy that tests a persons ingenuity or knowledge. In a puzzle, one is required to put together in a logical way. There are different types of puzzles for different ages, such as puzzles, word-search puzzles, number puzzles. Puzzles are often devised as a form of entertainment but they can arise from serious mathematical or logistical problems. In such cases, their solution may be a significant contribution to mathematical research, solutions of puzzles often require the recognition of patterns and the creation of a particular kind of order. Sometimes not because of how complicated and diagonal the pattern can get, people with a high level of inductive reasoning aptitude may be better at solving such puzzles than others. But puzzles based upon inquiry and discovery may be solved easily by those with good deduction skills. Some notable creators of puzzles are Sam Loyd, Henry Dudeney, Boris Kordemsky and, more recently, David J. Bodycombe, Will Shortz, Lloyd King, the 1989 edition of the Oxford English Dictionary dates the word puzzle to the end of the 16th century.
Its first documented use was in a book titled The Voyage of Robert Dudley. to the West Indies, 1594–95, narrated by Capt. Wyatt, by himself, the word came to be used as a noun. The word puzzle comes from pusle, meaning bewilder, the use of the word to mean a toy contrived to test ones ingenuity is relatively recent. He used the pieces as an aid to the teaching of geography. After becoming popular among the public, this kind of teaching aid remained the primary use of jigsaw puzzles until about 1820, by the early 20th century and newspapers had found that they could increase their readership by publishing puzzle contests. The largest puzzle is made by German game company Ravensburger, the smallest puzzle ever made was created at LaserZentrum Hannover. It is only five square millimetres, the size of a dust grain, there are organizations and events that cater to puzzle enthusiasts, such as the World Puzzle Championship, the National Puzzlers League, and Ravenchase. There are puzzlehunts, such as the Maze of Games, Puzzles can be divided into categories.
For example, a maze is a type of tour puzzle, some other categories are construction puzzles, stick puzzles, tiling puzzles, transport puzzles, disentanglement puzzles, lock puzzles, folding puzzles, combination puzzles, and mechanical puzzles. A chess problem is a puzzle that uses chess pieces on a chess board, examples are the knights tour and the eight queens puzzle. Peg solitaire A puzzle box is a puzzle that can be used to hide something — jewelry, rubiks Cube and other combination puzzles can be stimulating toys for children or recreational activities for adults
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky was a Russian occultist, spirit medium, and author who co-founded the Theosophical Society in 1875. She gained a following as the leading theoretician of Theosophy. Born into an aristocratic Russian-German family in Yekaterinoslav, Blavatsky traveled widely around the Russian Empire as a child, largely self-educated, she developed an interest in Western esotericism during her teenage years. According to her claims, in 1849 she embarked on a series of world travels, visiting Europe, the Americas. Both contemporary critics and biographers have argued that some or all of foreign visits were fictitious. Relocating to the United States in 1873, she befriended Henry Steel Olcott and rose to attention as a spirit medium. In New York City, Blavatsky co-founded the Theosophical Society with Olcott, in 1877 she published Isis Unveiled, a book outlining her Theosophical world-view. In 1880 she and Olcott moved to India, where the Society was allied to the Arya Samaj and that same year, while in Ceylon she and Olcott became the first Westerners to officially convert to Buddhism.
Although opposed by the British administration, Theosophy spread rapidly in India, amid ailing health, in 1885 she returned to Europe, there establishing the Blavatsky Lodge in London. Here she published The Secret Doctrine, a commentary on what she claimed were ancient Tibetan manuscripts and she died of influenza in the home of her disciple and successor, Annie Besant. Blavatsky was a controversial figure during her lifetime, championed by supporters as a guru and derided as a fraudulent charlatan. Developing a reliable account of Blavatskys life has proved difficult for biographers because in life she deliberately provided contradictory accounts. Further, very few of her own writings authored prior to 1873 survive, the accounts of her early life provided by her family members have been considered dubious by biographers. Blavatsky was born as Helena Petrovna von Hahn in the Ukrainian town of Yekaterinoslav and her birth date was 12 August 1831, although according to the Julian calendar used in 19th-century Russia it was 31 July.
Immediately after her birth, she was baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church and her mother was Helena Andreyevna von Hahn, a self-educated 17-year-old who herself was the daughter of Princess Yelena Pavlovna Dolgorukova, a similarly self-educated aristocrat. Pyotr had not been present at his daughters birth, having been in Poland fighting to suppress the November Uprising against Russian rule, a year after Pyotrs arrival in Yekaterinoslav, the family relocated to the nearby army town of Romankovo. When Blavatsky was two old, her younger brother, died in another army town when no medical help could be found. In 1835, mother and daughter moved to Odessa, where Blavatskys maternal grandfather Andrei Fadeyev and it was in this city that Blavatskys sister Vera Petrovna was born
Central Intelligence Agency
As one of the principal members of the U. S. Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President. Though it is not the only U. S. government agency specializing in HUMINT and it exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA has increasingly expanded its roles, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations, when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events, with Pakistan described as an intractable target.
Counterintelligence, with China, Iran, the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, and cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day to day operation of the CIA, each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Directorate has four regional groups, six groups for transnational issues. There is a dedicated to Iraq, regional analytical offices covering the Near East and South Asia and Europe, and the Asian Pacific, Latin American. The Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting intelligence. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U. S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence, philosophy, in spite of this, the Department of Defense recently organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency.
This Directorate is known to be organized by regions and issues. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research, many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air Force, the U-2s original mission was clandestine imagery intelligence over denied areas such as the Soviet Union. It was subsequently provided with signals intelligence and measurement and signature intelligence capabilities, subsequently, NPIC was transferred to the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
Artificial intelligence is intelligence exhibited by machines. Colloquially, the artificial intelligence is applied when a machine mimics cognitive functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as learning. As machines become increasingly capable, mental facilities once thought to require intelligence are removed from the definition, for instance, optical character recognition is no longer perceived as an example of artificial intelligence, having become a routine technology. AI research is divided into subfields that focus on specific problems or on specific approaches or on the use of a tool or towards satisfying particular applications. The central problems of AI research include reasoning, planning, natural language processing, general intelligence is among the fields long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI, Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, methods based on probability and economics.
The AI field draws upon computer science, psychology, philosophy, the field was founded on the claim that human intelligence can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. Some people consider AI a danger to humanity if it progresses unabatedly, while thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, the idea of actually trying to build a machine to perform useful reasoning may have begun with Ramon Llull. With his Calculus ratiocinator, Gottfried Leibniz extended the concept of the calculating machine, since the 19th century, artificial beings are common in fiction, as in Mary Shelleys Frankenstein or Karel Čapeks R. U. R. The study of mechanical or formal reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity, in the 19th century, George Boole refined those ideas into propositional logic and Gottlob Frege developed a notational system for mechanical reasoning. Around the 1940s, Alan Turings theory of computation suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as 0 and 1 and this insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis.
Along with concurrent discoveries in neurology, information theory and cybernetics, the first work that is now generally recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts 1943 formal design for Turing-complete artificial neurons. The field of AI research was born at a conference at Dartmouth College in 1956, attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research. At the conference and Simon, together with programmer J. C, presented the first true artificial intelligence program, the Logic Theorist. This spurred tremendous research in the domain, computers were winning at checkers, solving problems in algebra, proving logical theorems. By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U. S. was heavily funded by the Department of Defense and laboratories had been established around the world. AIs founders were optimistic about the future, Herbert Simon predicted, machines will be capable, within twenty years, Marvin Minsky agreed, within a generation.
The problem of creating artificial intelligence will substantially be solved and they failed to recognize the difficulty of some of the remaining tasks
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite to link devices worldwide. The origins of the Internet date back to research commissioned by the United States federal government in the 1960s to build robust, the primary precursor network, the ARPANET, initially served as a backbone for interconnection of regional academic and military networks in the 1980s. Although the Internet was widely used by academia since the 1980s, Internet use grew rapidly in the West from the mid-1990s and from the late 1990s in the developing world. In the two decades since then, Internet use has grown 100-times, measured for the period of one year, newspaper and other print publishing are adapting to website technology, or are reshaped into blogging, web feeds and online news aggregators. The entertainment industry was initially the fastest growing segment on the Internet, the Internet has enabled and accelerated new forms of personal interactions through instant messaging, Internet forums, and social networking.
Business-to-business and financial services on the Internet affect supply chains across entire industries, the Internet has no centralized governance in either technological implementation or policies for access and usage, each constituent network sets its own policies. The term Internet, when used to refer to the global system of interconnected Internet Protocol networks, is a proper noun. In common use and the media, it is not capitalized. Some guides specify that the word should be capitalized when used as a noun, the Internet is often referred to as the Net, as a short form of network. Historically, as early as 1849, the word internetted was used uncapitalized as an adjective, the designers of early computer networks used internet both as a noun and as a verb in shorthand form of internetwork or internetworking, meaning interconnecting computer networks. The terms Internet and World Wide Web are often used interchangeably in everyday speech, the World Wide Web or the Web is only one of a large number of Internet services.
The Web is a collection of interconnected documents and other web resources, linked by hyperlinks, the term Interweb is a portmanteau of Internet and World Wide Web typically used sarcastically to parody a technically unsavvy user. The ARPANET project led to the development of protocols for internetworking, the third site was the Culler-Fried Interactive Mathematics Center at the University of California, Santa Barbara, followed by the University of Utah Graphics Department. In an early sign of growth, fifteen sites were connected to the young ARPANET by the end of 1971. These early years were documented in the 1972 film Computer Networks, early international collaborations on the ARPANET were rare. European developers were concerned with developing the X.25 networks, in December 1974, RFC675, by Vinton Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, used the term internet as a shorthand for internetworking and RFCs repeated this use. Access to the ARPANET was expanded in 1981 when the National Science Foundation funded the Computer Science Network, in 1982, the Internet Protocol Suite was standardized, which permitted worldwide proliferation of interconnected networks.5 Mbit/s and 45 Mbit/s.
Commercial Internet service providers emerged in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the ARPANET was decommissioned in 1990
Twitter is an online news and social networking service where users post and interact with messages, restricted to 140 characters. Registered users can post tweets, but those who are unregistered can only read them, users access Twitter through its website interface, SMS or a mobile device app. Twitter Inc. is based in San Francisco, United States, Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, and Evan Williams and launched in July. The service rapidly gained worldwide popularity, in 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, and the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has described as the SMS of the Internet. As of 2016, Twitter had more than 319 million monthly active users. On the day of the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter proved to be the largest source of breaking news, Twitters origins lie in a daylong brainstorming session held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo.
Jack Dorsey, a student at New York University. The original project name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr. The developers initially considered 10958 as a code, but changed it to 40404 for ease of use. Work on the project started on March 21,2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9,50 PM Pacific Standard Time, Dorsey has explained the origin of the Twitter title. we came across the word twitter, and it was just perfect. The definition was a short burst of inconsequential information, and chirps from birds, and thats exactly what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as a service for Odeo employees. Williams fired Glass, who was silent about his part in Twitters startup until 2011, Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007. Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview, With Twitter and they called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didnt replace anything.
There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is, Twitter actually changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility. It is that, in part, but the insight we eventually came to was Twitter was really more of an information network than it is a social network, the tipping point for Twitters popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000, the Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways, exclusively streaming Twitter messages, remarked Newsweeks Steven Levy
Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties called adversaries. Modern cryptography exists at the intersection of the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, Applications of cryptography include ATM cards, computer passwords, and electronic commerce. Cryptography prior to the age was effectively synonymous with encryption. The originator of an encrypted message shared the decoding technique needed to recover the information only with intended recipients. The cryptography literature often uses Alice for the sender, Bob for the intended recipient and it is theoretically possible to break such a system, but it is infeasible to do so by any known practical means. The growth of technology has raised a number of legal issues in the information age. Cryptographys potential for use as a tool for espionage and sedition has led governments to classify it as a weapon and to limit or even prohibit its use. In some jurisdictions where the use of cryptography is legal, laws permit investigators to compel the disclosure of encryption keys for documents relevant to an investigation, Cryptography plays a major role in digital rights management and copyright infringement of digital media.
Until modern times, cryptography referred almost exclusively to encryption, which is the process of converting ordinary information into unintelligible text, decryption is the reverse, in other words, moving from the unintelligible ciphertext back to plaintext. A cipher is a pair of algorithms that create the encryption, the detailed operation of a cipher is controlled both by the algorithm and in each instance by a key. The key is a secret, usually a short string of characters, ciphers were often used directly for encryption or decryption without additional procedures such as authentication or integrity checks. There are two kinds of cryptosystems and asymmetric, in symmetric systems the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt a message. Data manipulation in symmetric systems is faster than asymmetric systems as they generally use shorter key lengths, asymmetric systems use a public key to encrypt a message and a private key to decrypt it. Use of asymmetric systems enhances the security of communication, examples of asymmetric systems include RSA, and ECC.
Symmetric models include the commonly used AES which replaced the older DES, in colloquial use, the term code is often used to mean any method of encryption or concealment of meaning. However, in cryptography, code has a specific meaning. It means the replacement of a unit of plaintext with a code word, English is more flexible than several other languages in which cryptology is always used in the second sense above. RFC2828 advises that steganography is sometimes included in cryptology, the study of characteristics of languages that have some application in cryptography or cryptology is called cryptolinguistics
Anonymity, adjective anonymous, is derived from the Greek word ἀνωνυμία, meaning without a name or namelessness. In colloquial use, anonymous is used to describe situations where the persons name is unknown. Some writers have argued that namelessness, though correct, does not capture what is more centrally at stake in contexts of anonymity. The important idea here is that a person be non-identifiable, Anonymity is seen as a technique, or a way of realizing, certain other values, such as privacy, or liberty. An important example for anonymity being not only protected, but enforced by law is probably the vote in free elections, in many other situations, anonymity is traditionally accepted as natural. There are situations in which a person might choose to withhold their identity. Acts of charity have been performed anonymously when benefactors do not wish to be acknowledged, a person who feels threatened might attempt to mitigate that threat through anonymity. A witness to a crime might seek to avoid retribution, for example, criminals might proceed anonymously to conceal their participation in a crime.
Anonymity may be created unintentionally, through the loss of identifying information due to the passage of time or a destructive event, in certain situations, however, it may be illegal to remain anonymous. In the United States,24 states have “stop and identify” statutes that requires persons detained to self-identify when requested by a law enforcement officer, in Germany, people have to indicate their names at the door of their homes. The term anonymous message typically refers to a message that does not reveal its sender, in many countries, anonymous letters are protected by law and must be delivered as regular letters. In mathematics, in reference to an element, within a well-defined set. If it is not identifiable, the element is said to be anonymous, sometimes it is desired that a person can establish a long-term relationship with some other entity, without necessarily disclosing personally identifying information to that entity. In this case, it may be useful for the person to establish a unique identifier, called a pseudonym, examples of pseudonyms are pen names, credit card numbers, student numbers, bank account numbers, etc. A pseudonym enables the other entity to link different messages from the person and, thereby.
Pseudonyms are widely used in networks and other virtual communication. This can have effects, both useful and harmful to various parties and/or entities involved, relatively. Thus, it may be used for psychological tactics involving any respective party to purport and/or support and/or discredit any sort of activity or belief, in conversational settings, anonymity may allow people to reveal personal history and feelings without fear of embarrassment
The cicadas are a superfamily, the Cicadoidea, of insects in the order Hemiptera. They are in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha, along with smaller jumping bugs such as leafhoppers and froghoppers and it is divided into the Tettigarctidae, with two species in Australia, and Cicadidae, with more than 1,300 species described from around the world, many undescribed species remain. Cicadas have prominent eyes set wide apart, short antennae, and they have an exceptionally loud song, produced not by stridulation, but by vibrating drumlike tymbals rapidly. The earliest known fossil Cicadomorpha appeared in the Upper Permian period and they typically live in trees, feeding on sap, and laying their eggs in a slit in the bark. Most cicadas are cryptic, singing at night to avoid predators, Cicadas have been featured in literature since the time of Homers Iliad, and as motifs in art from the Chinese Shang dynasty. They have been used in myths and folklore to represent carefree living, Cicadas are eaten in various countries, including China, where the nymphs are served deep-fried in Shandong cuisine.
The name is directly from the Latin cicada, meaning tree cricket, Cicadas are arranged into two families, the Tettigarctidae and Cicadidae. The two extant species of Tettigarctidae include one in southern Australia and the other in Tasmania, the family Cicadidae is subdivided into the subfamilies Cicadinae and Cicadettinae, they are found on all continents except Antarctica. Some previous works included a family-level taxon called the Tibiceninae. The largest species is the Malaysian emperor cicada Megapomponia imperatoria, its wingspan is up to about 20 cm and they are notable for the great length of time some species take to mature. At least 1300 cicada species are distributed worldwide with the majority being in the tropics, most genera are restricted to a single biogeographical region and many species have a very limited range. This high degree of endemism has been used to study the biogeography of complex island groups such as in Indonesia, about 100 species occur in the Palaearctic. A few species are found in southern Europe, and a species is in England, the New Forest cicada, Melampsalta montana.
Most of the North American species are in the genus Neotibicen, the best-known North American genus, however, is Magicicada. These periodical cicadas have a long life cycle of 13 or 17 years. Many of them go by names such as cherry nose, brown baker, red eye, yellow Monday, whisky drinker, double drummer. The Australian greengrocer, Cyclochila australasiae, is among the loudest insects in the world, forty-two species from five genera populate New Zealand, ranging from sea level to mountain tops, and all are endemic to New Zealand and the surrounding islands. Fossil Cicadomorpha first appeared in the Upper Permian, the superfamily Palaeontinoidea contains three families
The main characterization of this religion is the secrecy associated with the particulars of the initiation and the ritual practice, which may not be revealed to outsiders. The most famous mysteries of Greco-Roman antiquity were the Eleusinian Mysteries, the mystery schools flourished in Late Antiquity, Julian the Apostate in the mid 4th century is known to have been initiated into three distinct mystery schools — most notably the mithraists. Because of this element of secrecy, we are ill-informed as to the beliefs and we know that they had a general likeness to one another. They too were embraced by the process of the inculturation of Christianity in its initial phase, the term Mystery derives from Latin mysterium, from Greek mysterion, in this context meaning secret rite or doctrine. The Mysteries were thus schools in all religious functions were closed to the uninitiated. This is reflected in the division of theology by Varro, in civil theology, natural theology. Mysteries thus supplement rather than compete with civil religion, an individual could easily observe the rites of the state religion, be an initiate in one or several mysteries, and at the same time adhere to a certain philosophical school.
In contrast to the rituals of civil religion, participation in which was expected of every member of society. This is important in the context of the persecution of Christians. The mystery schools offered a niche for the preservation of ancient religious ritual and they had, more often than not, come up from a barbarous underworld. The mysteries at Eleusis near Athens lasted for a thousand years, for this reason, what glimpses we do have of the older Greek mysteries have been taken as reflecting certain archaic aspects of common Indo-European religion, with parallels in Indo-Iranian religion. The mystery schools of Greco-Roman antiquity include the Eleusinian Mysteries, the Dionysian Mysteries, the ancient mystery schools were a subject of fascination for 19th and early-20th century German and French classical scholars. This literature had an influence on European culture in the late 19th century. Psychiatrist and psychoanalyst Carl Gustav Jung borrowed metaphors from this literature to reframe his theories, navigium Isidis Mysticism Notes Further reading Media related to Mysteric religions in ancient world at Wikimedia Commons