Cinchona is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae containing at least 23 species of trees and shrubs. All are native to the tropical Andean forests of western South America. A few species are naturalized in Central America, French Polynesia, Saint Helena in the South Atlantic, São Tomé and Príncipe off the coast of tropical Africa, others have been cultivated in India and Java, where they have formed hybrids. Cinchona has been sought after for its medicinal value, as the bark of several species yields quinine and other alkaloids that were the only effective treatments against malaria during the height of European colonialism, which made them of great economic and political importance. Carl Linnaeus named the genus in 1742 based on a claim that the plant had cured the wife of the Count of Chinchón, a Spanish viceroy in Lima, in the 1630s, though the veracity of this story has been refuted; the curative properties of cinchona were known much earlier. The history of the plants and the identification of the precise origins of their various extracts and medicinal uses are still disputed.
Linnaeus used the Italian spelling Cinchona, but the name Chinchón led to Clements Markham and others proposing a correction of the spelling to Chinchona, some prefer the pronunciation for the common name of the plant. The artificial synthesis of quinine in 1944, an increase in resistant forms of malaria, the emergence of alternate therapies ended large-scale economic interest in cinchona cultivation, but academic interest continues as many cinchona alkaloids show promise in treating falciparum malaria, which has evolved resistance to synthetic drugs. Cinchona plants continue to be revered for their historical legacy. Cinchona plants belong to the family Rubiaceae and are large shrubs or small trees with evergreen foliage, growing 5 to 15 m in height; the leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate, 10–40 cm long. The flowers are white, pink, or red, produced in terminal panicles; the fruit is a small capsule containing numerous seeds. A key character of the genus is; the tribe Cinchoneae includes other genera: Cinchonopsis, Ladenbergia, Remijia and Ciliosemina.
In South America, natural populations of Cinchona species have geographically distinct distributions. During the 19th century, the introduction of several species into cultivation in the same areas of India and Java, by the English and Dutch East India Company led to the formation of hybrids. Carl Linnaeus described the genus based on the species Cinchona officinalis, found only in a small region of Ecuador and is of little medicinal significance. Nearly 300 species were described and named in the genus, but a revision of the genus in 1998 identified only 23 distinct species; the febrifugal properties of bark from trees now known to be in the genus Cinchona were used by many South American cultures prior to European contact, but malaria is an Old World disease, introduced into the Americas by Europeans only after 1492. The origins and claims to the use of febrifugal barks and powders in Europe those used against malaria, were disputed in the 17th century. Jesuits played a key role in the transfer of remedies from the New World.
The traditional story connecting cinchona with malaria treatment was first recorded by the Italian physician Sebastiano Bado in 1663. It tells of the wife of Luis Jerónimo de Cabrera, 4th Count of Chinchón and Viceroy of Peru, who fell ill in Lima with a tertian fever. A Spanish governor advised a traditional remedy, which resulted in a rapid cure; the Countess supposedly ordered a large quantity of the bark and took it back to Europe. Bado claimed to have received this information from an Italian named Antonius Bollus, a merchant in Peru. Clements Markham identified the Countess as Ana de Osorio, but this was shown to be incorrect by Haggis. Ana de Osorio married the Count of Chinchón in August 1621 and died in 1625, several years before the Count was appointed Viceroy of Peru in 1628, it was Francisca Henriques de Ribera, who accompanied him to Peru. Haggis further examined the Count's diaries and found no mention of the Countess suffering from fever, although the Count himself had many malarial attacks.
Because of these and numerous other discrepancies, Bado's story has been rejected as little more than a legend. Quina bark was mentioned by Fray Antonio de La Calancha in 1638 as coming from a tree in Loja, he noted that bark powder weighing about two coins was cast into water and drunk to cure fevers and "tertians". Jesuit Father Bernabé Cobo wrote on the "fever tree" in 1653; the legend was popularized in English literature by Markham, in 1874 he published a "plea for the correct spelling of the genus Chinchona". Spanish physician and botanist Nicolás Monardes wrote of a New World bark powder used in Spain in 1574, another physician, Juan Fragoso, wrote of bark powder from an unknown tree in 1600, used for treating various ills. Both identify the sources as trees that do not have heart-shaped leaves; the name quina-quina or quinquina was suggested as an old name for cinchona used in Europe and based on the native name used by the Quechua people. Italian sources spelt quina as "cina", a source of confu
James Abram Garfield was the 20th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death by assassination six and a half months later. He is the only sitting member of the United States House of Representatives to be elected to the presidency. Garfield entered politics as a Republican in 1857, he served as a member of the Ohio State Senate from 1859 to 1861. Garfield opposed Confederate secession, served as a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, fought in the battles of Middle Creek and Chickamauga, he was first elected to Congress in 1862 to represent Ohio's 19th District. Throughout Garfield's extended congressional service after the Civil War, he supported the gold standard and gained a reputation as a skilled orator. Garfield agreed with Radical Republican views regarding Reconstruction, but favored a moderate approach for civil rights enforcement for freedmen. At the 1880 Republican National Convention, delegates chose Garfield – who had not sought the White House – as a compromise presidential candidate on the 36th ballot.
In the 1880 presidential election, Garfield conducted a low-key front porch campaign and narrowly defeated Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock. Garfield's accomplishments as president included a resurgence of presidential authority against senatorial courtesy in executive appointments, purging corruption in the Post Office, appointing a U. S. Supreme Court justice, he enhanced the powers of the presidency when he defied the powerful New York senator Roscoe Conkling by appointing William H. Robertson to the lucrative post of Collector of the Port of New York, starting a fracas that ended with Robertson's confirmation and Conkling's resignation from the Senate. Garfield advocated agricultural technology, an educated electorate, civil rights for African Americans, he proposed substantial civil service reforms. On July 2, 1881, Garfield was shot at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington D. C. by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed and delusional office seeker; the wound was not fatal for Garfield, but he died on September 19, 1881 from infections caused by his doctors.
Guiteau was executed for the murder of Garfield in June 1882. James Garfield was born the youngest of five children on November 19, 1831, in a log cabin in Orange Township, now Moreland Hills, Ohio. Orange Township had been in the Western Reserve until 1800, like many who settled there, Garfield's ancestors were from New England, his ancestor, Edward Garfield immigrating from Hillmorton, England, to Massachusetts in around 1630. James' father Abram had been born in Worcester, New York, came to Ohio to woo his childhood sweetheart, Mehitabel Ballou, only to find her married, he instead wed her sister Eliza, born in New Hampshire. James was named for an older brother. In early 1833, Abram and Eliza Garfield joined the Church of Christ, a decision that would help shape their youngest son's life. Abram Garfield died that year. James was her favorite child, the two remained close for the rest of his life. Eliza Garfield remarried in 1842, but soon left her second husband, Warren Belden, a then-scandalous divorce was awarded against her in 1850.
James took his mother's side and when Belden died in 1880, noted the fact in his diary with satisfaction. Garfield enjoyed his mother's stories about his ancestry his Welsh great-great-grandfathers and his ancestor who served as a knight of Caerffili Castle. Poor and fatherless, Garfield was mocked by his fellow boys, throughout his life was sensitive to slights, he escaped through reading. He left home at age 16 in 1847. Rejected by the only ship in port in Cleveland, Garfield instead found work on a canal boat, responsible for managing the mules that pulled it; this labor would be used to good effect by Horatio Alger, who penned Garfield's campaign biography in 1880. After six weeks, illness forced Garfield to return home and, during his recuperation, his mother and a local education official got him to promise to postpone his return to the canals for a year and go to school. Accordingly, in 1848, he began in nearby Chester Township, Geauga County, Ohio. Garfield said of his childhood, "I lament that I was born to poverty, in this chaos of childhood, seventeen years passed before I caught any inspiration... a precious 17 years when a boy with a father and some wealth might have become fixed in manly ways."
At Geauga Academy, which he attended from 1848 to 1850, Garfield learned academic subjects for which he had not had time. He shone as a student, was interested in languages and elocution, he began to appreciate the power a speaker had over an audience, writing that the speaker's platform "creates some excitement. I love agitation and investigation and glory in defending unpopular truth against popular error." Geauga was co-educational, Garfield was attracted to one of his fellow students, Lucretia Rudolph, whom he married. To support himself at Geauga, he worked as a teacher; the need to go from town to town to find a place as a teacher disgusted Garfield, he thereafter developed a dislike of what he called "place-seeking", which became, he said, "the law of my life." In years, he would astound his friends by letting positions pass that could have been his with a little politicking. Garfield had attended church more to plea
Jilemnický okultista is the second studio album by Czech black metal band Master's Hammer, self-released on December 1992 and distributed elsewhere by Osmose Productions in the following year. Self-described by the band as "the world's first black metal operetta" and inspired by King Diamond's rock operas, it is their first of two concept albums, the second being Vagus Vetus, released in 2014. On several early Osmose pressings "Jilemnice" is misspelled as "Filemnice", what would be corrected in pressings. Despite the track listing being in English, all the lyrics are in Czech; the original release contained the Czech titles. In this album, Vlastimil Voral joined Master's Hammer as a full-time member. Jilemnický okultista would be re-issued in 2017 by Franta Štorm's label Jihosound Records under digipak format with a different cover art and two bonus tracks, taken from a preliminary demo tape version of the album recorded in early February 1992; the album, meant to be read as an "operetta in three acts", is set in Bohemia, in the year of 1913, tells the story of Atrament, a young wandering occultist who just arrives in the village of Jilemnice with the intent of furthering his studies on the occult arts there.
He settles at an inn ran by the rich landlord Spiritus, falls in love at first sight with his beautiful daughter, being requited. However, the village's hejtman, Satrapold loves Kalamaria, after injustly arresting Atrament, he kidnaps Kalamaria with the help of his groom Blether and takes her to his castle. Satrapold plans to escape to Cairo with her, but before he is able to do so she uses her mystical powers to discover that he is the villainous Poebeldorf under disguise, that the real Satrapold was imprisoned by him. Satrapold's aide-de-camp, Poebeldorf rebelled against his master and planned all along to take his place as the village's captain, steal all its riches and Kalamaria's fortune, flee to start a new life in a different land, but Kalamaria thwarts his evil plans thanks to her powers; the album ends with a huge celebration taking place at Spiritus' inn. The only track unrelated to the album's story is "Suchardův dům". Suchardův dům, or "Sucharda's house" in English, was the residence of the noble Sucharda family of woodcarvers and sculptors from Nová Paka built in 1896.
Since 1908 the City Museum of Nová Paka functions in the house. Notable members of the Sucharda family include Vojtěch Sucharda. German gothic metal band The Vision Bleak made an English-language adaptation of "Já mizérií osudu jsem pronásledován...", present in the digipak re-release of their 2010 album Set Sail to Mystery. Götz Kühnemund from German Rock Hard magazine compared Jilemnický okultista to King Diamond, though Master's Hammer's style was described as "considerably more uncompromising"; the vocals were described as "like a mixture of deep King Diamond voices and Quorthon's guttural grunts". Kühnemund lauded the band's unusual style and the album's "nexpectedly good" production that "never lets faster chipping passages degenerate into awful chaos", he called Jilemnický okultista "one of the most extraordinary death metal albums of the year". Gabe Kagan, writing for Invisible Blog spoke favorably of the album, calling it "the soundtrack to the literary works of E. T. A. Hoffmann". In 2017, the album was featured in Loudwire's list of the Top 30 Black Metal Albums of All Time, in 27th place.
All lyrics are written by Franta Štorm. The Jilemnický okultista demo tape, self-released in February 1992, contains a different track listing, was recorded on an Apple Macintosh IIci, a novelty in the Czech Republic at the time; the demo counterparts of "Mezi kopci cesta je klikatá..." and "Já nechci mnoho trápiti..." appeared on the band's teaser EP Klavierstück, which came out the year prior. Famous Czech guitarist Vítek "Vít" Malinovský was a guest musician on the tape, contributing with guitar solos for the instrumental tracks "Litografické kalendáře" and "Mediální kresby". Jilemnický okultista was remastered in 2013 for the release of Demos. A compilation of all of Master's Hammer's demo tapes. František "Franta" Štorm – vocals, photography, cover art, production Tomáš "Necrocock" Kohout – guitars Tomáš "Monster" Vendl – bass Miroslav "Mirek" Valenta – drums Honza "Silenthell" Přibyl – timpani Vlastimil "Vlasta" Voral – keyboards, engineering, mixing