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Rubiaceae

The Rubiaceae are a family of flowering plants known as the coffee, madder, or bedstraw family. It consists of terrestrial trees, lianas, or herbs that are recognizable by simple, opposite leaves with interpetiolar stipules; the family contains about 13,500 species in 611 genera, which makes it the fourth-largest angiosperm family. Rubiaceae has a cosmopolitan distribution. Economically important species include Coffea, the source of coffee, the source of the antimalarial alkaloid quinine, some dye plants, ornamental cultivars; the Rubiaceae are morphologically recognizable as a coherent group by a combination of characters: opposite leaves that are simple and entire, interpetiolar stipules, tubular sympetalous actinomorphic corollas and an inferior ovary. A wide variety of growth forms are present: shrubs are most common, but members of the family can be trees, lianas, or herbs; some epiphytes are present. The plants contain iridoids, various alkaloids, raphide crystals are common; the leaves are simple and entire.

Leaf blades are elliptical, with a cuneate base and an acute tip. In three genera, bacterial leaf nodules can be observed as dark lines on the leaves; the phyllotaxis is decussate whorled, or alternate resulting from the suppression of one leaf at each node. Characteristic for the Rubiaceae is the presence of stipules that are fused to an interpetiolar structure on either side of the stem between the opposite leaves, their inside surface bears glands called "colleters", which produce mucilaginous compounds protecting the young shoot. The "whorled" leaves of the herbaceous tribe Rubieae have classically been interpreted as true leaves plus interpetiolar leaf-like stipules; the inflorescence is a cyme of solitary flowers, is either terminal or axillary and paired at the nodes. The flowers are bisexual and epigynous; the perianth is biseriate, although the calyx is absent in some taxa. The calyx has five sepals with basally fused lobes; the corolla is sympetalous with four, five or six lobes actinomorphic tubular white or creamy but yellow, blue or red.

They have five stamens, which are alternipetalous and epipetalous. Anthers are longitudinal in dehiscence; the gynoecium is syncarpous with an inferior ovary. Placentation is axial parietal. Nectaries are present as a nectariferous disk atop the ovary; the fruit is a berry, drupe, or schizocarp. Red fruits are dominant. Most fruits are about 1 cm in diameter; the seeds are endospermous. Rubiaceae have a cosmopolitan distribution and are found in nearly every region of the world, except for extreme environments such as the polar regions and deserts; the distribution pattern of the family is similar to the global distribution of plant diversity overall. However, the largest diversity is distinctly concentrated in the humid subtropics. An exception is the tribe Rubieae, cosmopolitan but centered in temperate regions. Only a few genera are pantropical, many are paleotropical, while Afro-American distributions are rare. Endemic rubiaceous genera are found in most subtropical floristic regions of the world.

The highest number of species is found in Colombia and New Guinea. When adjusted for area, Venezuela is the most diverse, followed by Cuba; the Rubiaceae consist of predominantly woody plants. Woody rubiaceous shrubs constitute an important part of the understorey of low- and mid-altitude rainforests. Rubiaceae are tolerant of a broad array of environmental conditions and do not specialize in one specific habitat type. Most Rubiaceae are zoophilous. Entomophilous species produce nectar from an epigynous disk at the base of the corolla tube to attract insects. Ornithophily is rare and is found in red-flowered species of Alberta and Burchellia. Anemophilous species are found in the tribes Anthospermeae and Theligoneae and are characterized by hermaphroditic or unisexual flowers that exhibit a set of specialized features, such as striking sexual dimorphism, increased receptive surface of the stigmas and pendulous anthers. Although most Rubiaceae species are hermaphroditic, outbreeding is promoted through proterandry and spatial isolation of the reproductive organs.

More complex reproductive strategies include secondary pollen presentation and unisexual flo

Pescennius Niger

Pescennius Niger was Roman Emperor from 193 to 194 during the Year of the Five Emperors. He claimed the imperial throne in response to the murder of Pertinax and the elevation of Didius Julianus, but was defeated by a rival claimant, Septimius Severus, killed while attempting to flee from Antioch. Although Niger was born into an old Italian equestrian family, around the year 135, he was the first member of his family to achieve the rank of Roman senator. Not much is known of his early career. During the late 180s, Niger was elected as a Suffect consul, after which Commodus made him imperial legate of Syria in 191, he was still serving in Syria when news came through firstly of the murder of Pertinax, followed by the auctioning off of the imperial title to Didius Julianus. Niger was a well regarded public figure in Rome and soon a popular demonstration against Didius Julianus broke out, during which the citizens called out for Niger to come to Rome and claim the imperial title for himself; as a consequence, it is alleged that Julianus dispatched a centurion to the east with orders to assassinate Niger at Antioch.

The result of the unrest in Rome saw Niger proclaimed Emperor by the eastern legions by the end of April 193. On his accession, Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, or "the Just". Although imperial propaganda issued on behalf of Septimius Severus claimed that Niger was the first to rebel against Didius Julianus, it was Severus who persisted, claiming the imperial title on April 9. Although Niger sent envoys to Rome to announce his elevation to the imperial throne, his messengers were intercepted by Severus; as Niger began bolstering his support in the eastern provinces, Severus marched on Rome which he entered in early June 193 after Julianus had been murdered. Severus wasted no time consolidating his hold on Rome, ordered his newly appointed prefect of the watch, Gaius Fulvius Plautianus to capture Niger’s children and hold them as hostages. Meanwhile, Niger was busy securing the support of all of the governors in the Asiatic provinces, including the esteemed proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, who had occupied Byzantium in the name of Niger.

He proceeded to secure direct control over Egypt, while Severus did as much as he could to protect the wheat supply, ordered troops loyal to him to keep watch on the western border of Egypt and prevent the legion stationed there -- Legio II Traiana Fortis -- from sending military aid to Niger. Although these lands contained great wealth, Niger's military resources were inferior to Severus’. While Severus had the sixteen Danubian legions at his disposal, Niger possessed only six: three in Syria, the two stationed in Arabia Petraea, one located at Melitene. Niger therefore decided to act aggressively, sent a force into Thrace where it defeated a part of Severus’ army under Lucius Fabius Cilo at Perinthus. Severus now marched from Rome to the east, sending his general Tiberius Claudius Candidus ahead of him. Niger, having made Byzantium his headquarters, gave Asellius Aemilianus the task of defending the southern shore of the Sea of Marmara; as Severus approached, he offered Niger the opportunity to surrender and go into exile, but Niger refused, trusting in the outcome of a military encounter.

In the fall of 193, Candidus met Aemilianus in battle at Cyzicus, resulting in Niger’s forces being defeated as well as the capture and death of Aemilianus. Byzantium was now placed under siege, forcing Niger to retreat back to Nicaea; the city remained loyal to Pescennius Niger, it would take Severus until the end of 195 to capture Byzantium. Another battle took place outside of Nicaea in December 193, which resulted in a defeat for Niger, he was able to withdraw the bulk of his army intact to the Taurus Mountains, where he was able to hold the passes for a few months as Niger returned to Antioch. However, the problem now for Niger was; some cities loyal to Niger decided that it was time to change their allegiance, in particular Laodicea and Tyre. By February 13, 194, Egypt had declared for Severus, as had the imperial legate of Arabia, further diminishing Niger’s chances. After Severus had replaced Candidus with another general, Publius Cornelius Anullinus, Niger met Anullinus in battle at Issus in May 194, where after a long and hard-fought struggle, Pescennius Niger was decisively defeated.

Forced to retreat to Antioch, Niger was captured while attempting to flee to Parthia. Niger was beheaded, his severed head was taken to Byzantium, but the city refused to surrender. Severus stormed and destroyed Byzantium before he had it rebuilt. Niger’s head found its way to Rome where it was displayed. After his victory in the east, Severus punished all of Niger’s supporters, he had Niger’s wife and children put to death, while his estates were confiscated. The name "Niger" means "black", which incidentally, contrasts him with one of his rivals for the throne in 194, Clodius Albinus, whose name means "white". According to the Historia Augusta, his cognomen of "Niger" was given due to his black neck, which contrasted with the rest of his body. In the film The Fall of The Roman Empire Niger is played by Douglas Wilmer and depicted as a scheming henchman of Commodus. At the end of the film and Didius Julianus, played by Eric Porter, another crony of Commodus, compete against each other in the auction for the throne of Rome.

Abdsamiya Cassius Dio, Roman History, Books 74 & 75 Herodian, Roman History, Books 2 & 3 Historia Augusta, Life of Pescennius Niger Southern, Pat

Fly-by-Night (film)

Fly-by-Night is a 1942 American thriller/screwball comedy film directed by Robert Siodmak, starring Richard Carlson and Nancy Kelly. It was Siodmak's second American film; the film finds a young doctor tracking down a Nazi spy ring in an effort to clear his name after being charged with the murder of a scientist. Richard Carlson as Dr. Geoffrey Burton Nancy Kelly as Pat Lindsey Albert Bassermann as Dr. Storm Miles Mander as Professor Langner Edward Gargan as Officer Charlie Prescott Adrian Morris as Officer John Prescott Martin Kosleck as George Taylor Walter Kingsford as Heydt Cy Kendall as Dahlig Nestor Paiva as Grube Oscar O'Shea as Pa Prescott Mary Gordon as Ma Prescott Arthur Loft as Inspector Karns Marion Martin as Blond nurse Clem Bevans as Train station watchman Fly-by-Night at the TCM Movie Database IMDB profile Fly by Night - filmaffinity

Kushida Station

Kushida Station is a railway station on the Yamada Line in Matsusaka, Mie Prefecture, operated by the private railway operator Kintetsu Railway. Kushida Station is 13.9 rail kilometers from the terminus of the line at Ise-Nakagawa Station. Kushida Station has four tracks. Local trains use side tracks. Through trains which do not stop at this station use center tracks. Kushida Station opened on March 1930 as a station on the Sangu Kyuko Electric Railway. On March 15, 1941, the line merged with Osaka Electric Railway to become a station on Kansai Kyuko Railway's Yamada Line; this line in turn was merged with the Nankai Electric Railway on June 1944 to form Kintetsu. A new station building was completed in March 1992. Kushida River Kushida Shrine Mie Prefectural Matsusaka Commercial High School Kintetsu: Kushida Station

Mace (spray)

Mace is the brand name of an early type of aerosol self-defense spray invented by Alan Lee Litman in 1960s. The first commercial product of its type, Litman's design packaged phenacyl chloride tear gas dissolved in hydrocarbon solvents into a small aerosol spray can, usable in many environment and strong enough to act as a credible deterrent and incapacitant when sprayed in the face, its popularity led to the name "mace" being used for other defense sprays regardless of their composition, for the term "maced" to be used to reference being pepper sprayed. It is unrelated to the spice mace; the original formulation consisted of 1% chloroacetophenone in a solvent of 2-butanol, propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol methyl ether. Chemical Mace was developed in the 1960s by Allan Lee Litman and his wife, Doris Litman, after one of Doris's female colleagues was mugged in Pittsburgh. In 1987, Chemical Mace was sold to Smith & Wesson and manufactured by their Lake Erie Chemical division. Smith & Wesson subsequently transferred ownership to Jon E. Goodrich along with the rest of the chemical division in what is now Mace Security International, which owns the trademark to the term "mace".

Though the design has been expanded on, the original Chemical Mace formula using only CN has since been discontinued. Due to the toxic nature of CN and the superior incapacitating qualities of oleoresin capsicum pepper spray in most situations, the early CN has been supplanted by OC formulas in police use, although Mace Security International still retains a popular "Triple Action" formula combining CN, OC and an ultraviolet marker dye. Studies suggest. Official site of manufacturer Mace Security International "Klages v. General Ordnance Equipment Corporation". FindACase

Seocheon County

Seocheon County is a county in Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea. It is famous for its location near the mouth of the Geum River. Seocheon county has Janghang-eup and Seocheon-eup. Seocheon-eup, the larger center, serves as the educational center of the district, it has an economy built on education. Janghang has a more industrial economy that includes factories and ship building. Janghang and Seocheon are connected to Yongsan and the rest of the country via Korail's Janghang Line which terminated in Janghang but has since been connected to Iksan via Gunsan. In total under Seocheon-gun there are two eup and eleven myeon: Janghang-eup Seocheon-eup Maseo-myeon Hwayang-myeon Gisan-myeon Hansan-myeon Masan-myeon Sicho-myeon Munsan-myeon Pangyo-myeon Jongcheon-myeon Biin-myeon Seo-myeon 8 Scenic Spots of SeocheonMaryang-ri Camellia Forest Geumgang Estuary Bird Sanctuary Hansan Mosi Village Sinseong-ri Reed Field Chunjangdae Beach Munheonseowon Confucian School Huirisan Recreational Forest Cheonbangsan Mountain Hansan Mosi Culture Festival - Mosi is a traditional Korean natural fabric.

It was selected as the 2018 Korea Promising Festival.'Hansan mosi weaving' is designated as an intangible cultural heritage of UNESCO. At this festival, tourists can learn the history of Korean natural fibers and enjoy ramie clothes and crafts. County government website County government website