Cinema of Poland

The history of cinema in Poland is as long as the history of cinematography, it has universally recognized achievements though Polish films tend to be less commercially available than films from several other European nations. After World War II, the communist government built an auteur-based national cinema, trained hundreds of new directors and empowered them to make films. Filmmakers like Roman Polanski, Krzysztof Kieślowski, Agnieszka Holland, Andrzej Wajda, Andrzej Żuławski, Andrzej Munk, Jerzy Skolimowski impacted the development of Polish film-making. In more recent years, the industry has been producer-led with finance being the key to a film being made, with many independent filmmakers of all genres, Polish productions tend to be more inspired by American film; the first cinema in Poland was founded in Łódź in 1899, several years after the invention of the Cinematograph. Dubbed Living Pictures Theatre, it gained much popularity and by the end of the next decade there were cinemas in every major town of Poland.

Arguably the first Polish filmmaker was Kazimierz Prószyński, who filmed various short documentaries in Warsaw. His pleograph film camera had been patented before the Lumière brothers' invention and he is credited as the author of the earliest surviving Polish documentary titled Ślizgawka w Łazienkach, as well as the first short narrative films Powrót birbanta and Przygoda dorożkarza, both created in 1902. Another pioneer of cinema was Bolesław Matuszewski, who became one of the first filmmakers working for the Lumière company - and the official "cinematographer" of the Russian tsars in 1897; the earliest surviving feature film, the Antoś pierwszy raz w Warszawie was made in 1908 by Antoni Fertner. The date of its première, October 22, 1908, is considered the founding date of Polish film industry. Soon Polish artists started experimenting with other genres of cinema: in 1910 Władysław Starewicz made one of the first animated cartoons in the world - and the first to use the stop motion technique, the Piękna Lukanida.

By the start of World War I the cinema in Poland was in full swing, with numerous adaptations of major works of Polish literature screened (notably the Dzieje grzechu, Meir Ezofowicz and Nad Niemnem. During the World War I the Polish cinema crossed borders. Films made in Warsaw or Vilna were rebranded with German language intertitles and shown in Berlin; that was how a young actress Pola Negri gained fame in Germany and became one of the European super-stars of silent film. During the World War II Polish filmmakers in Great Britain created anti-Nazi color film Calling Mr. Smith about current nazi crimes in occupied Europe and about lies of Nazi propaganda, it was one of the first anti-Nazi films in history being both documentary film. In November 1945 the communist government founded the film production and distribution organization Film Polski, put the well-known Polish People's Army filmmaker Aleksander Ford in charge. Starting with a few railway carriages full of film equipment taken from the Germans they proceed to train and build a Polish film industry.

The FP output was limited. In 1947 Ford moved to help establish the new National Film School in Łódź, where he taught for 20 years; the industry used film stocks. At first ORWO black and white film stock from East Germany and Eastman colour negative stock and ORWO print stocks for rushes and release prints. Poland made its own lighting equipment; because of the high costs of film stock Polish films were shot with low shooting ratios, the amount of film stock used in shooting the film to length of the finished film. The equipment and film stock were not the best and budgets were modest but the film makers received the best training in the world from the Polish Film School. Another advantage was Film Polski's status as a state organisation, so its film-makers had access to all Polish institutions and their cooperation in making their films. Film cameras were able to enter every aspect of Polish life; the first film produced in Poland following the World War II was Zakazane piosenki, directed by Leonard Buczkowski, seen by 10.8 million people in its initial theatrical run.

Buczkowski continued to make films until his death in 1967. Other important films of early post-World War II period were The Last Stage, directed by Wanda Jakubowska, who continued to make films until the transition from communism to capitalism in 1989, Border Street, directed by Aleksander Ford. By the mid 1950s, following the end of Stalinism in Poland, Film production was organised into film groups. A film group was a collection of film makers, led by an experienced film director and consisting of writers, film directors and production managers, they would write scripts, create budgets, apply for funding off the Ministry of Culture and produce the picture. They would hire actors and crew, use studios and laboratories controlled by Film Polski; the change in political climate gave rise to the Polish Film School movement, a training ground for some of the icons of the world cinematography, e.g. Roman Polanski and Krzysztof Zanussi. Andrzej Wajda's films offer insightful analyses of the universal element of the Polish experience - the struggle to main

Fuad Aslanov

Fuad Aslanov is an Azerbaijani boxer who competed in the flyweight division at the 2004 Summer Olympics and won the bronze medal. He qualified for the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, by ending up in second place at the 3rd AIBA European 2004 Olympic Qualifying Tournament in Gothenburg. Defeated George Jouvin Rakotoarimbelo Defeated Nikoloz Izoria 27-21 Defeated Andrzej Rżany 24-23 Lost to Jérôme Thomas 18-23 Evans, Hilary. "Fuad Aslanov". Olympics at Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on 2013-09-22

João Parvi

João Parvi known as D. João de Évora was a French-Portuguese prelate. Parvi was born in the Diocese of Bayonne in Aquitaine in the southwest of France under the name Jean Petit, he became a naturalized Portuguese citizen under John III of Portugal, he was documented as a teacher in 1520 at the University of Lisbon as General Studies. He was a part of a humanist group at the University of Évora, he was member at the prestige See of Évora, used as an archdeacon and a canon magistrate. As contemporary of Martin of Portugal, sent to the Papal States in Rome for the creation of Dioceses of Anga, Cape Verde, São Tomė and Goa, in which he had influence in its school. On 23 September 1538, he became the second Bishop of Cape Verde, he succeeded Brás Neto, in Lisbon and did not became an archbishop. On 23 September 1538, he headed to the Roman Curia; however he went to reside for the bishop's seat, heremained in his estate in Évora up to 1545. In September, he made a will, he left his heir to his nephew Reginaldo Parvi, on that document, he was going to the island of Santiago in Cape Verde at the end of 1545, where he became the first bishop resident.

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