The Circuit des 24 Heures du Mans known as Circuit de la Sarthe located in Le Mans, France, is a semi-permanent motorsport race course, chiefly known as the venue for the 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race. Comprising private, race-specific sections of track in addition to public roads which remain accessible most of the year, its present configuration is 13.626 kilometres long, making it one of the longest circuits in the world. Capacity of the race stadium, where the short Bugatti Circuit is situated, is 100,000; the Musée des 24 Heures du Mans is a motorsport museum located at the main entrance of the venue. Up to 85% of the lap time is spent on full throttle, putting immense stress on engine and drivetrain components. Additionally, the times spent reaching maximum speed mean tremendous wear on the brakes and suspension as cars must slow from over 320 km/h to around 100 km/h for the sharp corner at the village of Mulsanne; the road racing track, a triangle from Le Mans down south to Mulsanne, northwest to Arnage, back north to Le Mans, has undergone many modifications over the years, with CIRCUIT N°15 being in use since 2018.
With the modifications put in place over the years, the Sarthe circuit is still known for being fast, with prototype cars achieving average lap speeds in excess of 240 km/h. In the 1920s, the cars drove from the present pits on Rue de Laigné straight into the city, after a sharp right-hand corner near the river Sarthe Pontlieue bridge, before exiting the city again on the rather straight section now named Avenue Georges Durand after the race's founder. 17.261 kilometres long and unpaved, a bypass within the city shortened the track in 1929, but the city was only bypassed in 1932, when the section from the pits via the Dunlop Bridge and the Esses to Tertre Rouge was added. This classic configuration was 13.492 kilometres long and remained unaltered after the 1955 tragedy. Its frighteningly narrow pit straight was further narrowed off to make room for the pits and was part of the road itself, without the road becoming wider around the pits and no separation; the pit straight was about 12 feet wide, further widened in 1956 after the tragedy, but the race track and pits were not separated for another 15 years.
Car speeds increased in the 1960s, pushing the limits of the "classic circuit" and sparking criticism of the track as being unsafe, after several trials related fatalities occurred. In 1965, a smaller but permanent Bugatti Circuit was added which shares the pit lane facilities and the first corner with the full "Le Mans" circuit. For the 1968 race, the Ford chicane was added before the pits to slow down the cars; the circuit was fitted with Armco for the 1969 race. The "Maison Blanche" kink was harrowing, claiming many cars over the years and several lives, including the legendary John Woolfe in 1969 behind the wheel of a 917 Porsche; the circuit has been modified ten more times — 1971, a year when prototypes were averaging over 240 km/h, was the last year the classic circuit was used. That year, Armco was added to the pit straight to separate the track from the pits. In 1972, the race track was revamped, at a cost of 300 million francs, with modification of the pit area and the first and final straights, the addition of the quick Porsche curves bypassing "Maison Blanche", the signalling area was moved to the exit of the slow Mulsanne corner, the track was resurfaced.
In 1979, due to the construction of a new public road, the profile of "Tertre Rouge" had to be changed. This redesign saw the removal of the second Dunlop Bridge. In 1986, construction of a new roundabout at the Mulsanne corner demanded the addition a new portion of track in order to avoid the roundabout; this created a right hand kink prior to Mulsanne corner. In 1987, a chicane was added to the fast Dunlop curve where cars would go under the Dunlop bridge at 180 mph, now they would be slowed to 110 mph. Le Mans was most famous for its 6 km long straight, called Ligne Droite des Hunaudières, a part of the route départementale D338; as the Hunaudières leads to the village of Mulsanne, it is called the Mulsanne Straight in English though the proper Route du Mulsanne is the one from or to Arnage. After exiting the Tertre Rouge corner, cars spent half of the lap at full throttle, before braking for Mulsanne Corner; the Porsche 917 long tail, used from 1969 to 1971, had reached 362 km/h. After engine size was limited, the top speed dropped until powerful turbo engines were allowed, like in the 1978 Porsche 935, clocked at 367 km/h.
Speeds on the straight by the Group C prototypes reached over 400 km/h during the late 1980s. At the beginning of the 1988 24 Hours of Le Mans race, Roger Dorchy driving for Welter Racing in a "Project 400" car, which sacrificed reliability for speed, was clocked by radar travelling at 407 kilometres per hour. Jean-Louis Lafosse and Jo Gartner would suffer from fatal high speed in 1981 and 1986 leading to concerns with the growing speeds on the 3.7 mile straight. As the combination of high speed and high downforce caused tyre and engine failures, two equally spaced chicanes were added to the Mulsanne Straight before the 1990 race to limit the maximum achievable speed; the chicanes were added because the FIA decreed it would no longer sanction
Inspector Hazlerigg is a police detective created by the British mystery writer Michael Gilbert who appears in six novels published between 1947 and 1958, as well as in 20 short stories. Although he plays a key role in each of the novels, he is far from being the main character in all of them. In his first appearance, in the Golden Age mystery novel Close Quarters, which takes place in 1937, Hazlerigg is a Chief Inspector at New Scotland Yard in London. By the final novel in the series, Fear to Tread, he has become a Chief Superintendent. Thirty years before the events in Close Quarters, before going to London, he had attended a preparatory school of which he now remembers little except that the masters had seemed much happier than the boys. In the short story Modus Operandi we are told that he came to London from Norfolk at the age of 17, which would place his year of birth at 1890, he began by "pounding a beat in Whitechapel." The first time we see him in Close Quarters he is "a thick square man with a brick-red face" and unmarried.
A few pages further, after he raises an imaginary gun to his shoulder and fires it, a character thinks that he looks like "a jolly red-faced farmer out for a day's sport". Besides smoking an occasional pipe or Indian cheroot, he has "a heavy jowl and shrewd grey eyes". We are told that he is a mountaineer, with a "fair head for heights". Sitting in his office in Scotland Yard several years just after the war, he has a "heavy, Cromwellian face", and in his last appearance in a novel he is: unmistakably a policeman, although he could have been a farmer. He was thick set and had a red-brown face and grizzled hair.... The only remarkable thing about him was his eyes, they were that shallow grey which, like the grey of the North Sea, can change without warning from friendliness to bleak wrath. In Close Quarters we are told that of his many policeman-like qualities the chief one was "Concentration. Tireless, implacable concentration.... And yet something more than that. Selective concentration." In Modus Operandi we are told that "his chief asset is that he looks so honest that no one attempts to bribe him" and that he has a "shrewd ability to see around corners, which came from his father, a poacher."
And he has, of course, "a rigid sense of right and wrong." Close Quarters — introduction of Chief Inspector Hazlerigg. He first appears on page 74 of the 251-page American edition They Never Looked Inside — he first appears on page 12 of a 191-page British reprint and is still a Chief Inspector The Doors Open — he first appears on page 79 of the 287-page American edition and is still a Chief Inspector Smallbone Deceased — he first appears on page 42 of a 192-page British reprint and is still a Chief Inspector Death Has Deep Roots — two short appearance, one at the beginning, one at the end, is still a Chief Inspector Fear to Tread — short but important role for Chief Superintendent Hazlerigg—he does not appear until page 154 of the 223-page British edition Stay of Execution — two stories Amateur in Violence — three stories Young Petrella — a small role in two Inspector Petrella stories The Man Who Hated Banks — seven stories, including one told in the first person.
Petri Jukka Mikael Laurila, better known by his stage name Petri Nygård, is a Finnish rap artist. He is known under alias Dream and as Travis Bicle, he has gained notoriety for his sexually explicit and misogynistic lyrics and his provocative stage shows. His lyrical themes focus on alcohol, sex, pornography, masturbation, dissing Finnish celebrities and satirizing popculture and phenomena. Petri Laurila is of Sweden-Finnish origin: he was born in Kristianstad and spent his childhood in Sweden. After serving in the army, he moved to Chicago and to Finland, residing in Tampere and Helsinki, he found initial success in his online release Vitun Suomirokki in 2000 on "Poko Rekords" going platinum with sales of 17,000 copies. The follow-up single entitled "Kanava Nolla" was successful selling 9,000 copies, his debut studio album Mun levy! went gold with sale of 25,000 copies. Petri Laurila started his career as part of the rap duo Nuera, he was known as an MC under the alias Dream whereas his partner in the band was Henry Kaprali known as Skem.
They were active in the 1990s releasing several cassettes through Open Records. They collaborated with other artists on the record label. In 2004-2004, both Dream and Skem joined DJ K2 in "YleX" weekly radio show featuring rap and R&B artists; the duo disbanded as Henry Kapralin moved to New York City going into music production with "Turnin' Records". As for Petri Laurila he took a new alias Travis Bicle and released an albume in 2007 entitled "Committed" produced by Kapralin and "Turnin' Records" Petri Laurila continued with a successful rap career taking the name Petri Nygård. After the successes of 2000 and 2001, he has had a considerable comeback starting 2009 with new download only releases, he released in 2009 a full studio album entitled Kaikkee pitää olla. His new album scheduled for February 2011 is entitled Kaikki tai ei mitään; the single from the new album include the November 2010 single "Sarvet esiin" featuring Finnish thrash metal band Mokoma. The second single entitled "Selvä päivä" featuring Lord Est has shot to #1 on Suomen virallinen lista, the official Finnish singles chart.
With Nuera 1992: Nuera 1993: Nuera demo 1993: Nuera Underground tape 1994: Breakfast 1996: Nuera 2000: Honesty 2003: Own Worldas Travis Bicle 2007: CommittedSolo 2000: Pillumagneetti 2000: Mun levy! 2001: Petri presidentixi 2002: Hovinarrin paluu! 2009: Kaikkee pitää olla 2011: Kaikki tai ei mitään 2012: Mun mielestä 2012: 29 Syntiä - Kaikki vitun hitit 2013: Valmis mihin vaan with Nuera 2001: "Upsteps" 2003: "Upsteps Reprise"Solo 2000: "Vitun suomirokki" 2000: "Kanava nolla" 2000: "Rääväsuu" 2000: "Hulluna tisseihin" 2001: "Petri hallitsee liigaa" 2001: "Riimini rupiset / Sika / Petri pelastaa joulun" 2009: "Sanon suoraan" 2009: "Onko sulla pokkaa?" 2009: "Mitävittuuvaan / Tuska" 2010: "Kippis kulaus" 2010: "Seopetriii" featuring Emel & Aajee 2010: "Sarvet esiin" featuring Mokoma 2010: "Selvä päivä" featuring Lord Est 2011: "Villi ja vitun vapaa" 2012: "Märkää"Featured in 2011: "Reggaerekka" Artist bio at Poko Records Jpop entry