Buddleja, or Buddleia known as the butterfly bush, is a genus comprising over 140 species of flowering plants endemic to Asia and the Americas. The generic name bestowed by Linnaeus posthumously honoured the Reverend Adam Buddle, an English botanist and rector, at the suggestion of Dr. William Houstoun. Houstoun sent the first plants to become known to science as buddleja to England from the Caribbean about 15 years after Buddle's death; the botanic name has been the source of some confusion. By modern practice of botanical Latin, the spelling of a generic name made from'Buddle' would be Buddleia, but Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of 1753 and 1754 spelled it Buddleja, with the long i between two vowels, common in early modern orthography; the pronunciation of the long i in Buddleja as j is a common modern error. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature has changed to incorporate stricter rules about orthographic variants, as of the 2006 edition requires that Linnaeus' spelling should be followed in this case.
The genus Buddleja is now included again in the Buddlejaceae family, synonym: Oftiaceae, having earlier been classified under Scrophulariaceae and Buddlejaceae. Of the 100 species nearly all are shrubs <5 m tall, but a few qualify as trees, the largest reaching 30 m. Both evergreen and deciduous species occur, in temperate regions resp; the leaves are lanceolate in most species, arranged in opposite pairs on the stems. The flowers of the Asiatic species are produced in terminal panicles 10–50 cm long; each individual flower is tubular and divided into four spreading lobes about 3–4 mm across, the corolla length ranging from around 10 mm in the Asiatics to 3–30 mm in the American species, the wider variation in the latter because some South American species have evolved long red flowers to attract hummingbirds, rather than insects, as exclusive pollinators. The colour of the flowers varies from pastel pinks and blues in Asia, to vibrant yellows and reds in the New World, while many cultivars have deeper tones.
The flowers are rich in nectar and strongly honey-scented. The fruit is a small capsule about 1 cm long and 1–2 mm diameter, containing numerous small seeds; the genus is found in four continents. Over 60 species are native through the New World from the southern United States south to Chile, while many other species are found in the Old World, in Africa, parts of Asia, but all are absent as natives from Europe and Australasia; the species are divided into three groups based on their floral type: those in the New World are dioecious, while those in the Old World are hermaphrodite with perfect flowers. As garden shrubs buddlejas are 20th-century plants, with the exception of B. globosa, introduced to Britain from southern Chile in 1774 and disseminated from the nursery of Lee and Kennedy, Hammersmith. Several species are popular garden plants, the species are known as'butterfly bushes' owing to their attractiveness to butterflies, have become staples of the modern butterfly garden; the most popular cultivated species is Buddleja davidii from central China, named for the French Basque missionary and naturalist Père Armand David.
Other common garden species include the aforementioned B. globosa, grown for its honey-scented orange globular inflorescences, the weeping Buddleja alternifolia. Several interspecific hybrids have been made, notably B.'Lochinch' and B. × weyeriana, the latter a cross between a South American and an Asiatic species. Some species escape from the garden. B. davidii in particular is a great coloniser of dry open ground. It is seen beside railway lines, on derelict factory sites and, in the aftermath of World War II, on urban bomb sites; this earned it the popular nickname of'the bombsite plant' among the war-time generation. Popular garden cultivars include'Royal Red','Black Knight','Sungold', and'Pink Delight'. In recent years, much breeding work has been undertaken to create small, more compact buddlejas, such as'Blue Chip' which reach no more than 2–3 ft tall, which are seed sterile, an important consideration in the USA where B. davidii and its cultivars are banned from many states owing to their invasiveness.
In Britain, there are four National Council for the Conservation of Plants and Gardens collections, held by: The Lavender Garden, Ashcroft Nurseries, Tetbury, Glos. GL8 8YF. Tel. 01453 860356 www.thelavenderg.co.uk Longstock Park Nursery, Stockbridge, Hants. SO20 6EH. Tel. 01264 810894 www.longstocknursery.co.uk Paignton Zoo, Totnes Road, Devon TQ4 7EU. Tel. 01803 697529 www.paigntonzoo.org.uk The Shapcott Barton Estate, East Knowstone, South Molton, Devon EX36 4EE. Tel. 01398 341664 The many species of Buddleja have been the subject of much taxonomic contention. The listing below includes the names, still prevalent in h
Santiago Calatrava Valls is a Spanish architect, structural design and analyst engineer and painter known for his bridges supported by single leaning pylons, his railway stations and museums, whose sculptural forms resemble living organisms. His best-known works include the Milwaukee Art Museum, the Turning Torso tower in Malmö, the Margaret Hunt Hill Bridge in Dallas and his largest project, the City of Arts and Sciences and Opera House, in his birthplace, Valencia, his architectural firm has offices in New York City, Zürich. Calatrava was born on July 1951, in Benimàmet, an old municipality now part of Valencia, Spain, his Calatrava surname was an old aristocratic one from medieval times, was once associated with an order of knights in Spain. He had his primary and secondary schooling in Valencia, beginning in 1957, studied drawing and painting at the School of Applied Art. In 1964, as the regime of General Francisco Franco relaxed and Spain became more open to rest of Europe, he went to France as an exchange student.
In 1968, after completing secondary school, he went to study at the Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris, but he arrived in the midst of student uprisings and turmoil in Paris, returned home. Back in Valencia, discovered a book about the architecture of Le Corbusier, which persuaded him that he could be both an artist and an architect, he enrolled in the Higher School of Architecture at the Polytechnic University of Valencia. He received his diploma as an architect and did higher studies in urbanism. At the University he completed independent projects with fellow students, publishing two books on the vernacular architecture of Valencia and Ibiza. In 1975 he enrolled in the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland for a second degree in civil engineering. In 1981 he was awarded a doctorate in the department of architecture, after completing his thesis on "The Pliability of three-dimensional structures." Speaking of this period, Calatrava told biographer Philip Jodidio:"The desire to start all over at zero was strong in me.
I was determined to put to one side all that I had learned in architecture school, to learn to draw and think like an engineer. I was fascinated by the concept of gravity and convinced that it was necessary to begin work with simple forms." Calatrava explained that he was influenced by the work of the early 20th century Swiss engineer Robert Maillart, which taught him that, "with an adequate combination of force and mass, you can create emotion." As soon as Calatrava completed his doctorate in 1981, he opened his own office in Zurich. He designed an exposition hall, a factory, a library, two bridges, but none were built, Finally in 1983, he began to receive commissions for industrial and transportation structures of greater size; the train station has several of the features. The railroad platforms curve, the supporting columns lean, the concrete walls of the modernistic cavern beneath the tracks are everywhere pierced with teardrop shaped skylights, tilting glass panels provide light and shelter without enclosing the platforms.
In 1984–87, he built his first bridge, the Bac de Roda Bridge in Barcelona, which for the first time brought him international notice. The bridge, designed for cyclists and pedestrians, connects two parts of the city by crossing a wasteland of railway tracks, it is 128 metres long, with twin arches. The upper portion of the bridge, composed of steel arches and cables, is light and airy, like a network of lace, anchored to the massive concrete supports and granite pillars below, his next bridge, the Puente del Alamillo, in Seville, was more spectacular and cemented his reputation. Built as part of the 1992 Expo 92, it is 200 metres long, its main feature is a single pylon 142 metres high, leaning to 58 degrees, the same angle as the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt in Africa. The weight of the concrete of the pylon is sufficient to hold up the bridge with just thirteen pairs of cables, eliminating the need for any cables behind it. At the beginning of the 1990s Calatrava built several remarkable railway stations and bridges, but broadened his portfolio by designing a wider range of structures, including a Canadian shopping center, a new passenger terminal for Bilbao airport.
And his first building in the United States, the new structure of the Milwaukee Art Museum. In 1992 he completed one of his most picturesque and sculptural works, the Montjuïc Communications Tower in Barcelona, a 136 m -high graceful concrete spire designed for the site of the 1992 Olympics; the concrete pylon leans backwards, seems to grasp the vertical broadcast antennas. Its form suggests an athlete about to throw a javelin; the circular building at the base of the tower, which contains the broadcast equipment, is clad in white bricks and is equipped with metal resembling an eye which opens and closes. The building has a Catalan touch, borrowed from
Lavandula is a genus of 47 known species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. It is native to the Old World and is found from Cape Verde and the Canary Islands, Europe across to northern and eastern Africa, the Mediterranean, southwest Asia, China to southeast India. Many members of the genus are cultivated extensively in temperate climates as ornamental plants for garden and landscape use, for use as culinary herbs, commercially for the extraction of essential oils; the most cultivated species, Lavandula angustifolia, is referred to as lavender, there is a color named for the shade of the flowers of this species. The genus includes annual or short-lived herbaceous perennial plants, shrub-like perennials, subshrubs or small shrubs. Leaf shape is diverse across the genus, they are simple in some cultivated species. In most species the leaves are covered in fine hairs or indumentum, which contain the essential oils. Flowers are borne in whorls, held on spikes rising above the foliage, the spikes being branched in some species.
Some species produce coloured bracts at the apices. The flowers may be blue, violet or lilac in the wild species blackish purple or yellowish; the calyx is tubular. The corolla is tubular with five lobes. Lavandula stoechas, L. pedunculata and L. dentata were known in Roman times. From the Middle Ages onwards, the European species were considered two separate groups or genera and Lavandula, until Linnaeus combined them, he only recognised five species in Species Plantarum, L. multifida and L. dentata and L. stoechas and L. spica from Southern Europe. L. pedunculata was included within L. stoechas. By 1790, L. pinnata and L. carnosa were recognised. The latter was subsequently transferred to Anisochilus. By 1826 Frédéric Charles Jean Gingins de la Sarraz listed 12 species in three sections, by 1848 eighteen species were known. One of the first modern major classifications was that of Dorothy Chaytor in 1937 at Kew; the six sections she proposed for 28 species still left many intermediates that could not be assigned.
Her sections included Stoechas, Subnudae, Pterostoechas and Dentatae. However all the major cultivated and commercial forms resided in the Stoechas and Spica sections. There were four species within Stoechas, she believed that the garden varieties were hybrids between true lavender L. angustifolia and spike lavender. More work has been done by Upson and Andrews, Lavandula is considered to have three subgenera. Subgenus Lavandula is of woody shrubs with entire leaves, it contains the principal species grown for oils. They are found across the Mediterranean region to western Arabia. Subgenus Fabricia consists of shrubs and herbs, it has a wide distribution from the Atlantic to India, it contains some ornamental plants. Subgenus Sabaudia constitutes two species in the southwest Arabian peninsula and Eritrea, which are rather distinct from the other species, are sometimes placed in their own genus Sabaudia. In addition, there are numerous cultivars in commercial and horticultural usage; the first major clade corresponds to subgenus Lavendula, the second Fabricia.
The Sabaudia group is less defined. Within the lavendula clade, the subclades correspond to the existing sections, but place Dentatae separately from Stoechas, not within it. Within the Fabricia clade, the subclades correspond to Pterostoechas and Chaetostachys, thus the current classification includes 39 species distributed across 8 sections, in three subgenera. However, since lavender cross-pollinates there are countless variations that present difficulties in classification; the English word lavender is thought to be derived from Old French lavandre from the Latin lavare, referring to the use of infusions of the plants. The botanic name Lavandula as used by Linnaeus is considered to be derived from this and other European vernacular names for the plants; however it is suggested that this explanation may be apocryphal, that the name may be derived from Latin livere, "blueish". The names used for some of the species, "English lavender", "French lavender" and "Spanish lavender" are all imprecisely applied.
"English lavender" is used for L. angustifolia, though some references say the proper term is "Old English Lavender". The name "French lavender" may be used to refer to L. dentata. "Spanish lavender" may be used to refer to L. lanata or L. dentata. The most common form in cultivation is the common or English lavender Lavandula angustifolia. A wide range of cultivars can be found. Other grown ornamental species are L. stoechas, L. dentata, L. multifida. Because the cultivated forms are planted in gardens worldwide, they are found growing wild as garden escapes, well beyond their natural range; such spontaneous growth is harmless, but in some cases Lavandula species have become invasive. For example, in Australia, Lavandula stoechas has become a cause for concern.
Mirabilis jalapa, the marvel of Peru or four o'clock flower, is the most grown ornamental species of Mirabilis plant, is available in a range of colours. Mirabilis in Latin means wonderful and Jalapa is the state capital of Veracruz in México. Mirabilis jalapa was cultivated by the Aztecs for ornamental purposes; the flowers open from late afternoon or at dusk, giving rise to one of its common names. Flowers produce a strong, sweet-smelling fragrance throughout the night close for good in the morning. New flowers open the following day, it arrived in Europe in 1525. Today, it is common in many tropical regions and is valued in Europe as a ornamental plant; the name of Mirabilis jalapa given by Carl Von Linne in 1753 is formed from the scientific Latin Mirabilis meaning "admirable" by allusion to the remarkable colors of its flowers and the specific name jalapa that would refer to its origin in the Jalapa in Guatemala. But the epithet of jalapa could refer to the city of Xalapa in Mexico from which came a former purgative drug, named jalap, taken from the tubers of the tuberous jalap.
Linnaeus refers to all species of Jalapa described by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort who in 1694 wrote: "The Jalap, or Belle de Nuit is a kind of plant whose flower is a funnel-shaped flared pipe with a crenellated pavilion... Father Plumier assured me that the Jalap, brought to us with the root of America, was a true species of Belle de nuit. We have received the seed, which has produced in the Jardin Royal de Paris a plant quite like the common Belle de nuit, it is a perennial, bushy plant that reaches stature heights of 1 up to 2 meters in height. It may be grown as an annual in the temperate zone; the single-seeded fruits are spherical and black upon maturity, having started out greenish-yellow. The stems are thick, quadrangular with many ramifications and rooting at the nodes; the posture is prostrate. A curious aspect of M. jalapa is that flowers with different colors grow on the same plant. Additionally, an individual flower can be splashed with different colors. Flower patterns are referred to as sectors and spots.
A single flower can be plain yellow, magenta, pink, or white, or have a combination of sectors and spots. Furthermore, different combinations of flowers and patterns can occur on different flowers of the same plant; the flowers are yellow and white, but a different combination of flowers growing on the same single four o’clock plant can be found. Another interesting point is a color-changing phenomenon. For example, in the yellow variety, as the plant matures, it can display flowers that change to a dark pink colour. White flowers can change to light violet. Despite their appearance, the flowers are not formed from petals – rather they are a pigmented modification of the calyx. The'calyx' is an involucre of bracts; the flowers are funnel-shaped and pentalobed, they are made of a corolla. The inflorescences contain three to seven unpopped flowers. Earning the name "four-clock flower", the fragrant flowers open in the late afternoon or early evening, in overcast weather, exhale a scent reminiscent of the tobacco flower, attract moths for pollination.
The anthesis thus remains visible part of the day. The flowers are pollinated by long-tongued moths of the family Sphingidae, such as the sphinx moths or hawk moths and other nocturnal pollinators attracted by the fragrance; the plant does best in full sun. In the sun the leaves wither return vigorously in the evening, when temperatures start to fall and the sun sets, it can not stand the cold, the aerial part with the first frosts deteriorates and can die, but the underground part that can return to vegetate in spring remains vital. The plant will self-seed spreading if left unchecked in a garden; some gardeners recommend that the seeds should be soaked before planting, but this is not necessary. In North America, the plant perennializes in warm, coastal environments in USDA zones 7–10; the fragrance of the flower is more noticeable during the warm period of the day. The plant is easy to grow, as long as it is sunny or shaded. Under these conditions, it grows quickly, it grows preferably in light soil, rich in humus and well draining, it is neutral side acidity.
Pot cultivation is always possible with a mixture of 80% soil and 20% garden soil and a deep container with the tubers being put at a depth of 10 cm. It is sown from mid-February to May; the seeds germinate at a temperature of 18 °C. Mirabilis jalapa hails from tropical South America, but has become naturalized throughout tropical and temperate regions. In cooler subtropical and temperate regions, it will die back with the first frosts or as the weather cools, regrowing in the following spring from the tuberous roots. Mirabilis jalapa is native to the dry tropical regions of Central and South America: Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, it is naturalized in many countries in Asia, United States, Middle East and Europe. In Réunion, Mirabilis jalapa was an ornamental species, it occurs in a ruderal debris area, is common in weedy sugarcane fields on the west and south coasts. Its high seed production and rapid
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
1957 Valencia flood
The 1957 Valencia flood was a natural disaster that occurred on 13 and 14 October 1957 in Valencia, Spain. The flood caused the deaths of at least 81 people. In response to the tragedy, the Spanish government devised and enacted the Plan Sur, which rerouted the city's main river, the Turia. Previous floods had been recorded in Valencia in 1321, 1328, 1340, 1358, 1406, 1427, 1475, 1517, 1540, 1581, 1589, 1590, 1610, 1651, 1672, 1731, 1776, 1783, 1845, 1860, 1864, 1870 and 1897. In total, up to 75 floods are estimated to have taken place in the seven centuries prior to the 1957 flood. During a 3-day long cold drop, heavy rain had fallen in the city and upstream the Túria river on Saturday 12 October, easing up overnight; the rain resumed the following morning around 07:00. The towns of Chelva and Ademuz were affected, suffering light flooding; the rain continued until 14 October. In Valencia, there was torrential rainfall around midday of the 14th; the Turia overflowed, discharging up to 300,000,000 cubic metres of water into the city.
While some of the older streets in Valencia's historic centre, such as Calle del Micalet, Plaza de la Reina and Plaza del Michalet escaped damage, the newer bridges and areas to the north of the river, such as Zaidia and Campanar suffered severe damage. In the Marxalanes district, some streets were under 5 metres of water; the Natzaret district near Valencia port was cut off from the rest of the city. The city as a whole was left without water and electricity and around 75% of commercial and industrial activity was affected. Around 5,800 homes were destroyed, leaving 3,500 families homeless; the eventual death toll was at least 81 people. The local governments of Madrid and surrounding areas offered help, although external rescue efforts were hindered by the flooding of the main roads to the city; the Spanish army was deployed alongside the emergency services to help in the cleanup operation. The flood occurred; the minister responsible, Luis Carrero Blanco, interrupted those meetings to put Vicente Mortes Alfonso in charge of finding temporary housing for those left homeless by the disaster.
On 24 October 1957, Spanish dictator Francisco Franco visited Valencia and promised government funding for reconstruction of the city and adequate supplies to those affected. In reaction to the disaster, the Cortes Españolas unanimously approved the Plan Sur on 21 December 1961; this rerouted the Turia to the south of three kilometres from its original course. The new course is 175 metres wide. Despite objections from Quart de Poblet and Mislata, municipalities to the west of Valencia affected by the plan, work began in 1964 and finished in 1973. Photos of Francisco Franco's visit to Valencia in the aftermath of the flood, Levante-EMV.com, accessed 9 November 2013
IMAX is a system of high-resolution cameras, film formats, film projectors and theaters known for having large screens with a tall aspect ratio and steep stadium seating. Graeme Ferguson, Roman Kroitor, Robert Kerr, William C. Shaw were the co-founders of what would be named the IMAX Corporation, they developed the first IMAX cinema projection standards in the late 1960s and early 1970s in Canada. Unlike conventional projectors, the film runs horizontally so that the image width is greater than the width of the film; when IMAX was introduced, it was a radical change in the movie-going experience. Viewers were treated to the scene of a curved giant screen more than seven stories tall and steep stadium seating that made for a visually immersive experience, along with a sound system, far superior to the audio at typical theaters in the years prior to the advent of THX; some IMAX theaters have a dome screen geometry which can give the viewer an more immersive feel. Over the decades since its introduction, IMAX evolved to include "3D" stereoscopic films, introduced in January 1998, began to proliferate with a transition away from analog film into the digital era.
Beginning in May of 1991, a visceral dimension of the movie experience was added by having the audience's seats mounted on a full-motion platform as an amusement park ride in IMAX ride film theaters. Switching to digital projection, introduced in July 2008, came at a steep cost in image quality, with 2K projectors having an order of magnitude less resolution. Maintaining the same 7-story giant screen size would only make this loss more noticeable, so many new theaters were being built with smaller screen sizes, yet being marketed with the same brand name of "IMAX"; these newer theaters with the much lower resolution and much smaller screens were soon being referred to by the derogatory name "LieMAX" because the company did not make this major distinction clear to the public, going so far as to build the smallest "IMAX" screen having 10 times less area than the largest while persisting with the exact same brand name. Since 2002, some feature films have been converted into IMAX format for displaying in IMAX theatres, some have been shot in IMAX.
By late 2017, 1,302 IMAX theatre systems were installed in 1,203 commercial multiplexes, 13 commercial destinations, 86 institutional settings in 75 countries, with less than a quarter of these having the capability to show 70mm film at the resolution of the large format as conceived. The IMAX film standard uses 70 mm film run through the projector horizontally; this technique produces an area, nine times larger than the 35 mm format, three times larger than 70 mm film, run conventionally through the projector in a vertical orientation. The desire to increase the visual impact of film has a long history. In 1929, Fox introduced Fox Grandeur, the first 70 mm film format, but it fell from use. In the 1950s, the potential of 35 mm film to provide wider projected images was explored in the processes of CinemaScope and VistaVision, following multi-projector systems such as Cinerama. While impressive, Cinerama was difficult to install. During Expo 67 in Montreal, the National Film Board of Canada's In the Labyrinth and Ferguson's Man and the Polar Regions both used multi-projector, multi-screen systems.
Each encountered technical difficulties that led them to found a company called "Multiscreen", with a goal of developing a simpler approach. The single-projector/single-camera system they settled upon was designed and built by Shaw based upon a novel "Rolling Loop" film-transport technology purchased from Peter Ronald Wright Jones, a machine shop worker from Brisbane, Australia. Film projectors do not continuously flow the film in front of the bulb, but instead "stutter" the film travel so that each frame can be illuminated in a momentarily paused flicker; this requires a mechanical apparatus to stagger the travel of the film strip. The older technology of running 70 mm film vertically through the projector used only five sprocket perforations on the sides of each frame, however the IMAX method used fifteen perforations per frame; the previous mechanism was inadequate to handle this mechanical staggering, three time larger, so Jones's invention was necessary for the novel IMAX projector method with its horizontal film feed.
As it became clear that a single, large-screen image had more impact than multiple smaller ones and was a more viable product direction, Multiscreen changed its name to IMAX. Cofounder Graeme Ferguson explained how the name IMAX originated: "... the incorporation date September, 1967.... Came a year or two later. We first called the company Multiscreen Corporation because that, in fact, was what people knew us as.... After about a year, our attorney informed us that we could never trademark Multivision, it was too generic. It was a descriptive word; the words that you can copyright are words like Xerox or Coca-Cola. If the name is descriptive, you can't trademark it. So we were sitting at lunch one day in a Hungarian restaurant in Montreal and we worked out a name on a place mat on which we wrote all the possible names we could think of. We kept working with the idea of maximum image. We turned it around and came up with IMAX." The name change happened more than two years because a key patent filed on January 16, 1970, was assigned under the original name Multiscreen Corporation, Limited.
IMAX Chief Administration O