Leeds City Region
The Leeds City Region is a city region in the North of England centred on Leeds, West Yorkshire. The activities of the city region are coordinated by the Leeds City Region Partnership. Since April 2007 strategic local governance decisions have been made by the joint committee of the Leeds City Region Leaders Board. A multi-area agreement was established in 2008 and since 2011 economic development has been supported by the Leeds City Region LEP, which forms a business-led local enterprise partnership; as part of a 2012'city deal' a West Yorkshire Combined Authority will be established in order receive devolved powers for transport, economic development and regeneration. The secretariat for the city region is based within Leeds City Council; the Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone promotes development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road. This sub-region covers the whole of West Yorkshire and parts of neighbouring North and South Yorkshire. With close to 3 million people, a resident workforce of 1.4 million, over 100,000 businesses and an economy worth £55 billion in 2012.
The region has many centres, both geographically and culturally. It is one of eight city regions defined in the 2004 document Moving Forward: The Northern Way, a collaboration between the three northern regional development agencies, a part of the 20 year government strategy to grow the economy of Northern England; as a partnership, the Leeds City Region is established and has in operation an accountable decision making structure, which involves the Leaders of all eleven partner authorities. It has made several successful bids for government funded economic development projects; the region includes parts of South Yorkshire and North Yorkshire. The geographical area included in the city region is made up of the local authority areas of: West Yorkshire, comprising Bradford, Kirklees, Wakefield from South Yorkshire, Barnsley from North Yorkshire, Harrogate, YorkIt covers a wide and varied physical region, taking in much of the Yorkshire Dales National Park as well as Nidderdale. Of the five cities, Leeds is the largest in geographical area and economy.
The southern part of the region is urban with many former industrial centres. The northern part is rural but includes significant urban centres, notably Harrogate and York; the northern areas are wealthier than the southern part of the city region. Barnsley is part of the Sheffield City Region; the city region is served directly by Leeds Bradford International Airport, although Manchester Airport is accessed by train and road from parts of the City Region, while Doncaster, Durham Tees Valley and Humberside airports are easily accessible. The Humber ports are within easy reach; the north-south A1 and east-west M62 motorways intersect close to Leeds, near the terminus of the M1 from London. A series of motorway spurs enable traffic to reach the centres of Bradford quickly. There is a comprehensive secondary road network based on Leeds, Bradford and York; the A1, A64 and A650 are important trunk routes. Leeds railway station is the hub of the region's extensive commuter rail network; the primary link to London is on the East Coast Main Line, which principally serves Leeds railway station, Wakefield Westgate and York railway station.
There are regional semi-fast services on the Transpennine line that serve Huddersfield, Leeds, Garforth and Northallerton. The West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive, coordinates rail services in the West Yorkshire part of this area, but not in Craven and Harrogate which are under the auspices of North Yorkshire County Council. Despite this, the regional transport network is strained thanks to low levels of transport investment from Central Government; as a result, there is overcrowding on the rail network and significant connectivity issues within the city region and between other city regions such as Manchester and Sheffield as well as London. The Leeds and Liverpool Canal and Aire and Calder Navigation run through the region, though today they are only used for leisure purposes; the city region has a diverse economy consisting of around 100,000 businesses, generating around £52 billion a year and is becoming recognised as a national centre for financial and business services. Leeds is with some 124,000 people engaged in financial services.
The city is legal centre. There is a large conference industry in Harrogate where the UK's third largest integrated conference and exhibition centre, Harrogate International Centre, is located. Rural areas have diversified with a mixed economy combining a range of employment opportunities alongside agriculture and a strong tourism base. Regardless of this, poor physical connectivity has hampered growth in rural areas. Agriculture has declined and there are pockets of severe deprivation and social exclusion. There are poor access to services. Although like most of the UK manufacturing has declined, the city region retains role in the UK’s manufacturing base which has emerged from a period of restructuring and moved into producing higher value goods, managing off-shored elements of production and concentrating on research and development activity; the south and west of the region have had industrial based economies, although they have been moving away from this in recent decades. Huddersfield, for example, has been developing in the creative industries se
Rachel Jane Reeves is a British economist and Labour Party politician. She has served as the Member of Parliament for Leeds West since 2010. Reeves was Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions from 2013, but following Jeremy Corbyn's election as leader in 2015, she did not return to the Shadow Cabinet after her maternity leave. On 12 July 2017, Reeves was elected chair of the Business and Industrial Strategy Committee; the daughter of Graham and Sally Reeves of Lewisham, South East London, Reeves was educated at Cator Park School for Girls in Bromley. At school, she won a British Under-14 girls chess championship title in a tournament organised by the now-defunct British Women's Chess Association. After sitting A-Levels in Politics, Economics and Further Mathematics, she read Philosophy and Economics at New College, followed by graduating as MSc in Economics from the London School of Economics. Reeves cites the influence of her father on her and her sister Ellie, in leaning towards democratic policies.
She recalls how when she was eight years old, her father, pointed out the then-Labour leader Neil Kinnock on the television and "told us, who we voted for". Reeves says she and her sister have "both known we were Labour since then", she joined the Labour Party at the age of sixteen. She worked as an economist at the Bank of England and British Embassy in Washington, D. C. between 2000 and 2006. Reeves stood as the Labour Party parliamentary candidate in the Conservative safe seat of Bromley and Chislehurst at the 2005 general election, finishing second, she contested the 2006 by-election in the same constituency, following the death of sitting Conservative MP Eric Forth, finished in fourth place. Labour support fell from 10,241 votes in what was described as a "humiliation" for Labour; the result was the worst performance for a governing party since 1991. Reeves moved to Leeds in 2006 to work for HBOS, she was once interviewed for a job at Goldman Sachs, but turned it down although the job could have made her "a lot richer".
She sought nomination for the Leeds West seat at the 2010 general election, seeking to replace John Battle, who had chosen to retire. She was selected to contest the seat from an all-women shortlist of Labour Party prospective parliamentary candidates. Echoing similar titles of publications by Roy Jenkins in 1959 and Tony Wright in 1997, Reeves wrote the new edition of Why Vote Labour? in the run-up to the 2010 general election, as part of a series giving the case for each of the main political parties. Reeves was elected with a majority of 7,016 on 6 May 2010 – a 5,794 reduction in the majority enjoyed by Battle – and became only the second woman to represent a Leeds constituency. In early 2017, she completed and published a biography of Alice Bacon, the first such woman. In her maiden speech, delivered on 8 June 2010, Reeves praised the work of her predecessor John Battle, pledged to fight for jobs and prosperity for Leeds West, she pledged to follow in Battle's footsteps and fight for justice for the victims of the Armley asbestos disaster and their families.
In a series of questions in Parliament, she enquired whether the government would honour promises by the previous government to compensate victims of asbestos diagnosed with pleural plaques, bring legislation into force making it easier to pursue claims against insurers. Following the 2010 election, she supported Ed Miliband for the Labour leadership, because she felt he was the candidate most willing to listen to what the voters were saying about where the party went wrong. After becoming an MP, Reeves was appointed to the Department for Business and Skills Select Committee as Shadow Pensions Minister in October 2010. In her role as Shadow Pensions Minister, she campaigned against the Government's proposed acceleration of equalising state pensions ages for men and women, she was promoted to the post of Shadow Chief Secretary to the Treasury in October 2011. She caused controversy in early 2015 by stating "We don’t want to be seen, we're not, the party to represent those who are out of work".
Reeves has been named by The Guardian newspaper as being one of several MPs who employ unpaid interns, a practice that some maintain may breach the National Minimum Wage Act 1998. The Independent has named Reeves as a member of a group of new Labour MPs known as the "Nando's Five": the others being Luciana Berger, Jonathan Reynolds, Emma Reynolds and Chuka Umunna. In September 2016, she described her constituency as being "like a tinderbox" that could explode if immigration was not curbed. In September 2017, the conservative commentator Iain Dale placed Reeves at Number 94 on his list of the'100 most influential people on the Left', down ten places on the previous year. Reeves has written a study about the financial crisis of 2007–2010 for the Fabian Review, Institute of Public Policy Research, Socialist Environment and Resources Association, the European Journal of Political Economy. Following her election as MP, Reeves wrote about the direction of UK government fiscal policy in Renewal. In an article entitled "The Politics of Deficit Reduction", Reeves offers her critique of the current financial situation and efforts to bring down the budget deficit.
She is a proponent of quantitative easing to alleviate the late-2000s recession, having studied the effects of the policy on Japan in the early 2000s. Reeves supports the High Speed 2 rail project, raised the issue in the House of Commons, as well as campaigning for the proposed Kirkstall Forge railway station, she is involved in the campaign to save the historic Bramley Baths and the campaign to save the
Richard Burgon is a British Labour Party politician and the Member of Parliament for Leeds East. He is the Shadow Secretary of State for Justice and Shadow Lord Chancellor. Burgon studied English Literature at St John's College, where he was chair of Cambridge University Labour Club. After working as a trade union lawyer, he was elected as the MP for Leeds East at the 2015 general election, he was appointed as Shadow Economic Secretary to the Treasury in September 2015 by new Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn. Burgon was promoted to Shadow Justice Secretary in June 2016 following the organised mass resignations in protest against the leadership of Corbyn. Burgon was educated at Cardinal Heenan Roman Catholic High School in Leeds; as this school did not have a sixth form, he moved onto St Aidan's and St John Fisher Associated Sixth Form in Harrogate to complete his A Levels. He studied English Literature at St John's College, Cambridge, he was chair of Cambridge University Labour Club. He is the nephew of the former Labour MP Colin Burgon, stood at the age of 23 as one of the Labour candidates for the Wetherby ward on Leeds City Council in 2004.
He is a fan of heavy metal music. Burgon qualified as a solicitor in 2006, was a trade union lawyer before being elected as the MP for Leeds East at the 2015 general election. Standing on the floor of the House of Commons in May 2015 he prefaced his mandatory oath of allegiance to Elizabeth II by expressing his support for constitutional change for an elected head of state: "As someone that believes that the head of state should be elected I make this oath in order to serve my constituents", he was one of 36 Labour MPs to nominate Jeremy Corbyn as a candidate in the Labour leadership election of 2015. Corbyn appointed him as shadow Economic Secretary to the Treasury. In an October 2015 Channel 4 News interview, Burgon admitted that despite being Shadow Economic Secretary to the Treasury for over a month he was still yet to meet anyone from the city of London's finance and banking industry, nor could he predict the UK budget deficit for 2015. Burgon was promoted to Shadow Justice Secretary on 27 June 2016 following following the organised mass resignations in protest against the leadership of Corbyn.
In September 2017, the political commentator Iain Dale listed Burgon at Number 86 in'The 100 Most Influential People on the Left', writing: "Described by some as Jeremy Corbyn’s ‘Comical Ali’ Burgon is a true believer."Burgon is secretary of the GMB Parliamentary Group. In this lobbying role for the GMB he helps to make sure issues that matter to GMB members are raised in the House of Commons. Burgon is regarded as being on the left within the Labour Party and has taken part in People's Assembly Against Austerity protests, he has opposed military intervention and the bombing of Syria following the November 2015 Paris attacks by ISIS militants. Burgon believes cuts deny people justice. Burgon said, "A lack of early legal advice can create unnecessary costs for the taxpayer as legal problems go to court when they could have been resolved earlier or spiral into costly social problems as people lose their homes or jobs; these figures highlight the grim reality of a justice system in crisis. These legal aid cuts have deliberately weakened people's ability to challenge injustices and enforce their rights."
On 6 February 2019, Burgon won a libel case against The Sun newspaper after it falsely claimed that he'delighted' in Nazi imagery. Burgon was awarded damages of £30,000, which he claimed would be spent supporting an apprenticeship in Leeds. Official website Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
Hilary James Wedgwood Benn is a British Labour Party politician, the Member of Parliament for Leeds Central since the by-election in 1999. He served in the cabinet from 2003 to 2010, under the premierships of both Tony Blair and Gordon Brown. From 2010 to 2016, he served in various Labour Party shadow cabinets, most as Shadow Foreign Secretary from May 2015 until June 2016, when he was dismissed by Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn. In October 2016, he was elected as the Chairman of the new Exiting the European Union Select Committee. Born in Hammersmith, he is the second son of veteran Labour MP Tony Benn and educationalist Caroline Benn, he studied Russian and East European Studies at the University of Sussex and went on to work as a policy researcher for two trade unions, ASTMS and MSF. After joining the Labour Party, Benn was elected as a councillor on Ealing Borough Council on which he served for several years, rising to the rank of deputy leader, was the unsuccessful Labour parliamentary candidate for the Ealing North constituency twice.
After the 1997 general election, Benn was appointed as a special adviser to David Blunkett before winning a by-election in Leeds Central in 1999. Benn became a junior minister in the Department for International Development in 2001, being re-shuffled to the Home Office in 2002, returning to International Development in 2003. In 2003, he was appointed as the Secretary of State for International Development, where he was responsible for the reconstruction efforts in Iraq, the UK's response to various natural disasters around the world, seeking a solution to the War in Darfur, among other responsibilities. In 2007, Benn was a candidate for Deputy Leader of the Labour Party. In 2007, Benn was appointed as Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs, serving until 2010. One of his main agendas in this role was combatting bovine tuberculosis. Since Labour's defeat at the 2010 general election, Benn has served on the front bench in four separate shadow cabinets, those of Harriet Harman, Ed Miliband, Harman's second shadow cabinet, Jeremy Corbyn.
Following the Labour Party leadership election in 2010, he continued as Shadow Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs, but was appointed as Shadow Leader of the House of Commons in the year, serving until a reshuffle in 2011. He was appointed as Shadow Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, serving until the 2015 general election. After Douglas Alexander failed to win re-election, Benn was appointed as Shadow Foreign Secretary, maintaining this role after Corbyn's election as leader, he was dismissed from this position by Corbyn on 26 June 2016, precipitating a number of shadow cabinet resignations. Benn was elected Chair of the influential Exiting the European Union Select Committee. Born in Hammersmith, London, he is the second son of former Labour Cabinet Minister Tony Benn and American-born educationalist Caroline Benn. Benn is a fourth-generation MP – his father, his paternal grandfather Lord Stansgate, his great-grandfathers Sir John Benn and Daniel Holmes were all Members of Parliament with factions of the Liberal Party.
Benn attended Norland Place School, Westminster Under School, Holland Park School and the University of Sussex where he graduated in Russian and East European Studies. Benn has Stephen, a younger sister Melissa and younger brother, Joshua. Reflecting on his upbringing, he said: "I grew up in a household where we talked about the state of the world over breakfast, when we ate at night, all points in between." After graduation, Benn became a research officer with the ASTMS and became Head of Policy for Manufacturing Science and Finance. He applied for head of Labour Party research under the leadership of John Smith, but was unsuccessful. In 1980, he was seconded to the Labour Party to act as a joint secretary to the finance panel of the Labour Party Commission of Inquiry. In 1979, he was elected to Ealing Borough Council where he served as deputy leader from 1986–90, he was the Labour Party candidate for Ealing North at the 1987 general elections. On both occasions he was defeated by the Conservative candidate Harry Greenway.
Reflecting on the defeat at the 1983 general election, Benn said: "That was a formative experience for me because we went out on the doorstep and we didn't win the public's confidence. It made me uncomfortable; that left a mark on me."At the 1997 general election, Benn was on the shortlist for the seat of Pontefract and Castleford, but lost to Yvette Cooper. Following the 1997 general election, Benn served as a special adviser to David Blunkett the Secretary of State for Education and Employment. In 1999, Benn was selected as the Labour candidate for the Leeds Central by-election, 1999 following the death of Derek Fatchett. During the by-election campaign, he described himself as "a Benn, but not a Bennite". Benn won the by-election on 10 June 1999 by just over 2,000 votes, following a turnout of 19%, the smallest turnout at a by-election since World War II. Regarding the turnout, he said: "The turnout is disappointing and in a democracy this is a concern for all of us."He made his maiden speech in the House of Commons on Wednesday 23 June 1999.
He was re-elected as MP for Leeds Central at the 2001, 2005, 2010, 2015, 2017 general elections. He shares premises for his constituency office with Richard Corbett, a Labour Member of the European Parliament. Following the 2001 general election, Benn was appointed as a Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State at the Department for International Development. In 2002, he was reshuffled to become the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Prisons and Probation
Alexander David Sobel is a British Labour Co-op politician, Member of Parliament for Leeds North West in West Yorkshire, England since 2017. He was elected at the 2017 general election, succeeding Liberal Democrat Greg Mulholland, who had held the seat since 2005. Sobel's parents emigrated from Israel in 1971. Sobel was born in Leeds, educated at the University of Leeds, studying Information Systems; until his election as an MP, Sobel worked with social enterprises and ran the regional body Social Enterprise Yorkshire and the Humber. He was a Labour councillor for the Moortown ward of Leeds City Council from 2012, elected in 2012 winning again in 2016, he led the council's work on climate change. His priorities as MP include protecting membership of the EU single market, nationalising energy and the Royal Mail, he opposes the Trident nuclear programme. He is a founding member of the group Open Labour. A member of the Jewish Labour Movement, Sobel called in May 2016 for the Jewish community to work with Naz Shah "so she better understands Jewish Life in the UK, Israel and the rest of the diaspora".
Sobel is an Executive Committee Member for SERA, Labour's Environment Campaign. In October 2017, Sobel was elected as one of the officers of the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Rare and Undiagnosed Conditions. Sobel is the father of two children. Official website Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 2010–present Voting record at Public Whip Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Leeds has one of the most diverse economies of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city, it has the highest ratio of private to public sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities, with 77% of its workforce working in the private sector. Leeds has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area, with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds is ranked as a gamma world city by World Cities Research Network. Leeds is the cultural and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire Urban Area. Leeds is served by four universities, has the fourth largest student population in the country and the country's fourth largest urban economy. Leeds was a small manorial borough in the 13th century, in the 17th and 18th centuries it became a major centre for the production and trading of wool, in the Industrial Revolution a major mill town. From being a market town in the valley of the River Aire in the 16th century, Leeds expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century.
It now lies within the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.6 million. Today, Leeds has become the largest legal and financial centre, outside London with the financial and insurance services industry worth £13 billion to the city's economy; the finance and business service sector account for 38% of total output with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city, including an office of the Bank of England. Leeds is the UK's third-largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city and is worth over £7 billion to the local economy. The largest sub-sectors are engineering and publishing, food and drink and medical technology. Other key sectors include retail and the visitor economy and the creative and digital industries; the city saw several firsts, including the oldest-surviving film in existence, Roundhay Garden Scene, the 1767 invention of soda water.
Public transport and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds, the second phase of High Speed 2 will connect it to London via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield Meadowhall. Leeds has the third busiest railway station and the tenth busiest airport outside London; the name derives from the old Brythonic word Ladenses meaning "people of the fast-flowing river", in reference to the River Aire that flows through the city. This name referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century. Bede states in the fourteenth chapter of his Ecclesiastical History, in a discussion of an altar surviving from a church erected by Edwin of Northumbria, that it is located in...regione quae vocatur Loidis. An inhabitant of Leeds is locally known as a word of uncertain origin; the term Leodensian is used, from the city's Latin name. The name has been explained as a derivative of Welsh lloed, meaning "a place".
Leeds developed as a market town in the Middle Ages as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution, it became a co-ordination centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth, white broadcloth was traded at its White Cloth Hall. Leeds handled one sixth of England's export trade in 1770. Growth in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1816. In the late Georgian era, William Lupton, Lord of the Manor of Leeds, was one of a number of central Leeds landowners with the mesne lord title, some of whom, like him, were textile manufacturers. At the time of his death in 1828, Lupton's land in Briggate in central Leeds included a mill, manor house and outbuildings; the railway network constructed around Leeds, starting with the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1834, provided improved communications with national markets and for its development, an east-west connection with Manchester and the ports of Liverpool and Hull giving improved access to international markets.
Alongside technological advances and industrial expansion, Leeds retained an interest in trading in agricultural commodities, with the Corn Exchange opening in 1864. Marshall's Mill was one of the first of many factories constructed in Leeds from around 1790 when the most significant were woollen finishing and flax mills. Manufacturing diversified by 1914 to printing, engineering and clothing manufacture. Decline in manufacturing during the 1930s was temporarily reversed by a switch to producing military uniforms and munitions during World War II. However, by the 1970s, the clothing industry was in irreversible decline, facing cheap foreign competition; the contemporary economy has been shaped by Leeds City Council's vision of building a'24-hour European city' and'capital of the north'. The city has developed from the decay of the post-industrial era to become a telephone banking centre, connected to the electronic infrastructure of the modern global economy. There has been growth in the corporate and legal sectors, increased local affluence has led to an expanding retail sector, including the luxury goods market.
Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone was launched in April 2012 to promote development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road. Leeds was a manor and townshi
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis