City of London Corporation

The City of London Corporation and the Mayor and Commonalty and Citizens of the City of London, is the municipal governing body of the City of London, the historic centre of London and the location of much of the United Kingdom's financial sector. In 2006 the name was changed from Corporation of London as the corporate body needed to be distinguished from the geographical area thus avoiding confusion with the wider London local government, the Greater London Authority. Both businesses and residents of the City, or "Square Mile", are entitled to vote in City elections, in addition to its functions as the local authority—analogous to those undertaken by the 32 boroughs that administer the rest of the Greater London region—it takes responsibility for supporting the financial services industry and representing its interests; the corporation's structure includes the Lord Mayor, the Court of Aldermen, the Court of Common Council, the Freemen and Livery of the City. The rights and privileges of the City of London are enshrined in Magna Carta’s clause 9—as enumerated in 1297—and, along with clauses 1 and 29, it remains in statute.

In Anglo-Saxon times, consultation between the City's rulers and its citizens took place at the Folkmoot. Administration and judicial processes were conducted at the Court of Husting and the non-legal part of the court's work evolved into the Court of Aldermen. There is no surviving record of a charter first establishing the Corporation as a legal body, but the City is regarded as incorporated by prescription, meaning that the law presumes it to have been incorporated because it has for so long been regarded as such; the City of London Corporation has been granted various special privileges since the Norman Conquest, the Corporation's first recorded Royal Charter dates from around 1067, when William the Conqueror granted the citizens of London a charter confirming the rights and privileges that they had enjoyed since the time of Edward the Confessor. Numerous subsequent Royal Charters over the centuries extended the citizens' rights. Around 1189, the City gained the right to have its own mayor being advanced to the degree and style of Lord Mayor of London.

Over time, the Court of Aldermen sought increasing help from the City's commoners and this was recognised with commoners being represented by the Court of Common Council, known by that name since at least as far back as 1376. The earliest records of the business habits of the City's Chamberlains and Common Clerks, the proceedings of the Courts of Common Council and Aldermen, begin in 1275, are recorded in fifty volumes known as the Letter-Books of the City of London; the City of London Corporation had its privileges stripped by a writ quo warranto under Charles II in 1683, but they were restored and confirmed by Act of Parliament under William III and Mary II in 1690, after the Glorious Revolution. With growing demands on the Corporation and a corresponding need to raise local taxes from the commoners, the Common Council grew in importance and has been the principal governing body of the City of London since the 18th century. In January 1898, the Common Council gained the full right to collect local rates when the City of London Sewers Act 1897 transferred the powers and duties of the Commissioners of Sewers of the City of London to the Corporation.

A separate Commission of Sewers was created for the City of London after the Great Fire in 1666, as well as the construction of drains it had responsibility for the prevention of flooding. The individual commissioners were nominated by the Corporation, but it was a separate body; the Corporation had earlier limited rating powers in relation to raising funds for the City of London Police, as well as the militia rate and some rates in relation to the general requirements of the Corporation. The Corporation is unique among British local authorities for its continuous legal existence over many centuries, for having the power to alter its own constitution, done by an Act of Common Council. Local government legislation makes special provision for the City to be treated as a London borough and for the Common Council to act as a local authority; the Corporation does not have general authority over the Middle Temple and the Inner Temple, two of the Inns of Court adjoining the west of the City which are historic extra-parochial areas, but many statutory functions of the Corporation are extended into these two areas.

The Chief Executive of the administrative side of the Corporation holds the ancient office of Town Clerk of London. Because of its accumulated wealth and responsibilities the Corporation has a number of officers and officials unique to its structure who enjoy more autonomy than most local council officials, each of whom has a separate budget: The Town Clerk, the Chief Executive; the Chamberlain, the City Treasurer and Finance Officer. The City Remembrancer, responsible for protocol, security issues as well as legislative matters that may affect the Corporation and is qualified; the City Surveyor, provides guidance to combine the fund management of a major central London commercial property portfolio extending to over 16 million square feet of space, with the management of the City's 600 operational properties stretching across Greater London, including Guildhall, The Mansion House, Central Criminal Court. The Comptroller and City Solicitor; the Recorder of London, the senior judge at the Central Criminal Court'Old Bailey', technically a member of the Court of Aldermen.

Battle of Rosillo Creek

The Battle of Rosillo Creek was a conflict between the Republican Army of the North and Spanish Royalist forces which occurred on March 29, 1813 in Coahuila y Tejas. The battle took place during the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition, a filibustering campaign which took place during the Mexican War of Independence; the battle involved the Republican Army of the North, led by filibusters Samuel Kemper, Augustus Magee, Bernardo Gutiérrez de Lara, the expedition's leader, fighting against the Spanish Royalist forces commanded by Manuel María de Salcedo, Governor of the province of Texas, Simón de Herrera, the governor of Nuevo León. The RAN comprised Anglo-Americans and Indigenous Indians; the group had some help from the United States, In 1812 the RAN crossed over the Sabine River from Louisiana into Texas. Flying a green flag, they captured the town of Nacogdoches on August 7, 1812, they marched to Goliad, where they captured the Presidio La Bahía. Kemper became a commander of the force upon the death of Colonel Magee there.

From November 13, 1812, to February 19, 1813, Goliad was besieged when the Royalist army arrived to confront them. Unable to defeat the Republican Army, the Royalists were forced to retreat to San Antonio in March, 1813. Kemper and the RAN, numbering about 900 men, pursued; the Royalist force, numbering 1,500 men, planned to ambush the RAN from a ridge which overlooked Rosillo Creek near its confluence with Salado Creek nine miles southeast of San Antonio de Bexar. Their trap failed when they were detected by the Republican forces, who defeated them in less than an hour. At a cost of six men, the Republican Army killed 100 to 330 Royalists and captured materiel including six cannon and 1,500 horses; the Royalists retreated to San Antonio where they surrendered to the Republican Army on April 1. Two days Salcedo, 12 others were executed by the victors. On April 6 the Republican Army issued a draft declaration of independence; the battle site is near the present-day intersection of W. W. White and Hildebrandt roads in southeastern Bexar County in the U.

S. state of Texas, nine miles southeast of what is now downtown San Antonio. History of Texas "The Sons of the Republic of Texas" By Thomas B. Green, "Texas Tales Your Teacher Never Told You" by C. F. Eckhardt, published by Wordware publishing, Inc. "Program for Ceremonies Commemorating the 175th Anniversary of the Battle of Medina August 21, 1988" by Robert H. Thonhoff "Green Flag Over Texas" by Julia Kathryn Garrett, Cordova Press, New York Battle of Rosillo/Medina.


FreeWeibo is a website that monitors and makes available content from leading Chinese microblogging site Sina Weibo, censored and deleted by Chinese authorities under the Great Firewall. The home page is updated to show the latest most-censored Weibo content; the site allows searches for any deleted microblogging strings and content, such as the names of dissidents, "64", "tiananmen", dalai, "Xinjiang independence", "Winnie the Pooh", terms related to any breaking news deemed sensitive. In addition, there are many terms relating to advertising content, so on; the founder of the site goes by the name "Martin Johnson". According to Deutsche Welle, he describes his mission as: breaking Chinese Internet censorship and creating a free Internet; the establishment of the FreeWeibo site targets system-deleted posts on Sina Weibo and other large community websites, since around 12 percent of all posts for other Weibo platforms are removed by censors. The United States magazine Quartz reported that one of the three founders of the site, "Charlie Smith", said out of concern about the CCP's censorship, they established in 2011 the Chinese website GreatFire with the aim to provide a resource to show what was blocked.

"Martin Johnson" said. They would manually remove content deemed sensitive, as automatic filtering cannot catch all such posts. Many comments are live for a few minutes or hours before they are reviewed and deleted, so FreeWeibo makes use of this loophole and collect those posts. "Charlie Smith" said that they copy every Sina Weibo post, but this approach requires a huge storage capacity. According to the Deutche Welle report, to access the FreeWeibo page from within China, people must use VPN software to bypass the authorities. FreeWeibo gathers data directly from Sina Weibo as well as from WeiboScope, a project by the Journalism and Media Studies Centre at the University of Hong Kong. In the Quartz report, "Charlie Smith" expected to defeat the censorship system with FreeWeibo, he said. On October 4, 2013, the outfit released an app version of the site in the Chinese Apple App Store in a collaboration with Radio Netherlands Worldwide. However, under pressure from the Government of China, Apple took down the app on November 28.

2013: Winner of Deutsche Welle "The Bobs" for Best Innovation. 2014: Nominated for the Index on Censorship’s Freedom of Expression Awards in digital activism. Internet censorship in China Official website Official website