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City of Westminster

The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough that holds city status. It occupies much of the central area of Greater London including most of the West End. In Middlesex, it is to the west of the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, its southern boundary is the River Thames; the London borough was created with the 1965 establishment of Greater London. Upon its creation, it inherited the city status held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster from 1900, first awarded to Westminster in 1540. Aside from numerous large parks and open spaces, the population density of the district is high. Many sites associated with London are in the borough, including St James's Palace, Buckingham Palace, the Palace of Westminster and 10 Downing Street; the borough is divided into a number of localities including the ancient political district of Westminster. Much of the borough is residential, in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000.

The local government body is Westminster City Council. A study in 2017 by Trust for London and The New Policy Institute found that Westminster has the third-highest pay inequality of the 32 London boroughs, it has the second-least affordable private rent for low earners in London, behind only Kensington and Chelsea. The borough performs more positively on education, with 82% of adults and 69% of 19-year-olds having Level 3 qualifications; the current Westminster coat of arms were given to the city by an official grant on 2 September 1964. Westminster had other arms before; the symbols in the lower two thirds of the shield stand for former municipalities now merged with the city, Paddington and St. Marylebone; the original arms had a portcullis as the main charge. The origins of the City of Westminster pre-date the Norman Conquest of England. In the mid-11th century, King Edward the Confessor began the construction of an abbey at Westminster, only the foundations of which survive today. Between the abbey and the river he built a palace, thereby guaranteeing that the seat of Government would be fixed at Westminster, drawing power and wealth west out of the old City of London.

For centuries Westminster and the City of London were geographically quite distinct. It was not until the sixteenth century that houses began to be built over the adjoining fields absorbing nearby villages such as Marylebone and Kensington, creating the vast Greater London that exists today. Henry VIII's dissolution of the monasteries abolished the abbey at Westminster, although the former abbey church is still called Westminster Abbey; the church was the cathedral of the Diocese of Westminster created from part of the Diocese of London in 1540, by letters patent which granted city status to Westminster, a status retained after the diocese was abolished in 1550. The Westminster Court of Burgesses was formed in 1585 to govern the Westminster area under the Abbey's control; the City and Liberties of Westminster were further defined by Letters Patent in 1604, the court of burgesses and liberty continued in existence until 1900, the creation of the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster. The present-day City of Westminster as an administrative entity with its present boundaries dates from 1965, when the City of Westminster was created from the former area of three metropolitan boroughs: St Marylebone and the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster, which included Soho, Mayfair, St. James's, Westminster, Pimlico and Hyde Park.

This restructuring took place under the London Government Act 1963, which reduced the number of local government districts in London, resulting in local authorities responsible for larger geographical areas and greater populations. The Westminster Metropolitan Borough was itself the result of an administrative amalgamation which took place in 1900. Sir John Hunt O. B. E was the First Town Clerk of the City of Westminster, 1900–1928. Prior to 1900, the area occupied by what would become the Metropolitan Borough of Westminster had been administered by five separate local bodies: the Vestry of St George Hanover Square, the Vestry of St Martin in the Fields, Strand District Board of Works, Westminster District Board of Works and the Vestry of Westminster St James; the boundaries of the City of Westminster today, as well as those of the other London boroughs, have remained more or less unchanged since the Act of 1963. The following table shows the ethnic group of respondents in the 2001 and 2011 census in Westminster.

The city is divided into each electing three councillors. Westminster City Council is composed of 41 Conservative Party members and 19 Labour Party members. A lord mayor is elected annually to serve as the official representative of the city for one year. See List of mayors of Westminster for a list of former mayors and lord mayors; the City of Westminster covers all or part of the following areas of London: The City of Westminster is home to a large number of companies. Many leading global corporations have chosen to establish their global or European headquarters in the City of Westminster. Mayfair and St. James's within the City of Westminster have a large concentration of hedge fund and private equity funds; the West End is known as the Theatre District and is home to many of the leading performing arts businesses. Soho and its adjoining areas house a concentration of creative companies. Oxford Street is one of t

N'fa

N'fa is an African Australian hip hop recording artist born in London, but raised in Perth, Western Australia, best known as the frontman for 1200 Techniques. Forster-Jones was a nationally ranked 110m hurdler and placed third at the 2001 and 2002 Australian Championships, fourth in the 2000 Olympic trials, his personal best recorded time was 14.08s set in Brisbane on 25 March 2001, though clocked 13.91 "unofficial" in Auckland's trans-tasman test meet in 2001. N'fa was born in London to mother Michela Johnson, from Western Australia and father, Quashie Forster-Jones, from Sierra Leone. Brought up in suburban Perth, he met Heath Ledger at Guildford Grammar School and remained friends until the actor's death in 2008. At a young age, Forster-Jones dabbled in acting and appeared as a genie in a Tim Tam commercial and played a small role in the film Queen of the Damned – a 2002 film adaptation of the third novel of Anne Rice's, starring Aaliyah and Stuart Townsend. 1200 Techniques formed in 1997—the band included N'fa and his brother Kabba.

Kabba left the band in 1998. As of 2006, Forster-Jones has shipped over 50,000 albums with 1200 Techniques alone. In 2010, N'fa re-released the song "Cause An Effect" remastered as an EP with various remixes of the track and video clip on iTunes. Heath Ledger conceived and directed two video clips for Cause An Effect, "Seduction Is Evil", the title track "Cause An Effect", with the latter being edited by Matt Amato from Amato and Ledger's production company, The Masses. In 2011, N'fa became known as N'fa Jones with the release of the collaborative single "Wayooy" Ft Roots Manuva and M-Phazes, the lead single from his EP "Babylondon" on Australian Independent Label Rubber Records, who he signed to with Hip Hop act 1200 Techniques. In 2018 he founded a new afro-future-hip hop group called Cool Out Sun with producer Sensible J. Albums Choose One – No. 20 Australian album chart Consistency Theory – No. 38 Australian album chartSingles "Infinite Styles" EP "Karma" – No. 36 Australian singles chart "Eye of the Storm" – No. 84 Australia "Where Ur At" – No. 35 Australia "Fork in the Road" – No. 55 Australia "Time Has Come" DVDs One Time Live with "1200 techniques" Albums Cause An Effect Black + White Noise EPs First Step EP Brain Wash EP Cause An Effect remastered EP Babylondon Singles "Universal King" "Cause An Effect" "Seduction Is Evil"' "Wayooy" featuring Roots Manuva & M-Phazes "March On" featuring Bass Kleph "Stage Presence" Koolism featuring BVA and N'fa on the album Random Thoughts "Move Up" by Resin Dogs on the album More "Twist the Kids" by Daedelus on the album Love To Make Make Music To "Crazy" by Diafrix on the album Concrete Jungle "Keep Runnin" by M-Phazes on the album Good Gracious "Let It Go" & "Grey Skies Blue" by Nick Thayer on the album Just Let It Go "Bali Party" by Drapht on the album The Life of Riley "Satellite Disco" on the self-titled album by Bitrok "Hope You Don't Mind" by 360 on the album Falling & Flying "Like Boom" by Nick Thayer featuring Wizard Sleeve, N'fa & Kaba Jones on the EP Like Boom "What Props Ya Got" by Nick Thayer featuring N'fa on the EP Like Boom "1990's" by Drapht

Mamphela Ramphele

Mamphela Aletta Ramphele is a South African politician, a former activist against apartheid, a medical doctor, an academic and businesswoman. She was a partner of anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko, with, she is a former Vice-Chancellor at the University of Cape Town and a one-time Managing Director at the World Bank. Ramphele founded political party Agang South Africa in February 2013 and withdrew from politics in July 2014 after disputes within the party. Ramphele was born in the Bochum District in Northern Transvaal, she completed her schooling at Setotolwane High School in 1966 and subsequently enrolled for pre-medical courses at the University of the North. Her mother, Rangoato Rahab, her father, Pitsi Eliphaz Ramphele were primary school teachers. In 1944, her father was promoted as headmaster of Stephanus Hofmeyer School. Ramphele contracted severe whooping cough at the age of three months; the wife of the local reverend, Dominee Lukas van der Merwe, gave her mother medical advice and bought medicines for the sick child that saved her life.

In 1955, Ramphele witnessed a conflict between a racist Dominee and the people of the village of Kranspoort that contributed to her political awakening. Ramphele attended the G. H. Frantz Secondary School but in January 1962 she left for Bethesda Normal School, a boarding school, part of the Bethesda teachers training college. In 1964, she moved to Setotolwane High School for her matriculation where she was one of only two girls in her class. On completion of her schooling in 1966, in 1967, Ramphele enrolled for pre-medical courses at the University of the North. In 1968, she was accepted into the University of Natal Medical School the only institution that allowed black students to enroll without prior permission from the government, her meagre financial resources meant that she was forced to borrow money to travel to the Natal Medical School. Ramphele won the 1968 South African Jewish Women’s Association Scholarship and the Sir Ernest Oppenheimer Bursary worth about R150 annually for the rest of her years at Medical School.

While at university, Ramphele became involved in student politics and anti-apartheid activism, becoming one of the founders of the Black Consciousness Movement, where she met Steve Biko, with whom she had a relationship. As a member of the BCM, she was crucially involved in organising and working with community development programmes. Biko and Ramphele had two children during their affair. Lerato contracted fatal pneumonia, their son Hlumelo Biko was born after Biko's death. Ramphele and her son would work together in the Circle Group holding company for their family investments. Ramphele worked with the South African Students' Organisation, a breakaway from the National Union of South African Students that operated on English-speaking white campuses. NUSAS had white students as members. SASO was formed in 1969 under the leadership of Steve Biko. From 1970 onwards Ramphele became drawn into political activism with Biko, Barney Pityana and other student activists at the Medical School, she was elected the chairperson of the local SASO branch.

Ramphele received her qualification in medicine in 1972. She began her medical internship at Durban’s King Edward VIII Hospital transferring to Livingstone Hospital in Port Elizabeth. In 1974, Ramphele was charged under the Suppression of Communism Act for being in possession of banned literature. In 1975, she founded the Zanempilo Community Health Care Centre in Zinyoka, a village outside King William’s Town, it was one of the first primary health care initiatives outside the public sector in South Africa. During this time she was the manager of the Eastern Cape branch of the Black Community Health Programme, she travelled extensively in the Eastern Cape, organising people to be drawn into community projects. In addition to her medical duties, Ramphele became the director of the Black Community Programmes in the Eastern Cape when Biko was banned. In August 1976, Ramphele was detained under Section 10 of the Terrorism Act, one of the first persons to be detained under this newly promulgated law.

In April 1977, Ramphele was issued with banning orders and banished to Tzaneen, Northern Transvaal where she remained until 1984. A member of the local church arranged for her to live with two African nuns in a local village, Tickeyline, she established a home for herself in Lenyenye Township in Tzaneen, although she remained under police surveillance. During her stay in Tzaneen, Ramphele established the Isutheng Community Health Program, with monetary aid from the BCP; this foundation was used to empower local women, aid them in growing vegetable gardens, amongst other initiatives. During her stay in Tzaneen, Ramphele enjoyed occasional illicit outings to escape everyday life, as well as visits from Helen Suzman, MP of the Progressive Party. Suzman assisted Ramphele in securing a passport. Ramphele enjoyed visits from a Father Timothy Stanton. In 1983, she completed her B. Comm. degree through UNISA, which she had registered for in 1975. She completed a Postgraduate Diploma in Tropical Hygiene and a Diploma in Public Health at the University of Witwatersrand.

This required that Ramphele apply for a special dispensation to travel to Johannesburg where she had to report at the John Vorster Square Police Station upon her arrival and departure. Ramphele left Lenyenye in 1984 to go