A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering – the application of planning, constructing and operating infrastructures while protecting the public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected. Civil engineering is one of the oldest engineering disciplines because it deals with constructed environment including planning and overseeing construction and maintenance of building structures, facilities, such as roads, airports, harbors, dams, irrigation projects, power plants, water and sewage systems; the term "civil engineer" was established by John Smeaton in 1750 to contrast engineers working on civil projects with the military engineers, who worked on armaments and defenses. Over time, various sub-disciplines of civil engineering have become recognized and much of military engineering has been absorbed by civil engineering. Other engineering practices became recognized as independent engineering disciplines, including chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering.
In some places, a civil engineer may perform land surveying. Civil engineers practice in a particular specialty, such as construction engineering, geotechnical engineering, structural engineering, land development, transportation engineering, hydraulic engineering, environmental engineering. A civil engineer is concerned with determining the right design for these structures and looking after the construction process so that the longevity of these structures is guaranteed after completion; these structures should be satisfactory for the public in terms of comfort. Some civil engineers those working for government agencies, may practice across multiple specializations when involved in critical infrastructure development or maintenance. Civil engineers work in a variety of locations and conditions. Much of a civil engineer's work is dealing with non-engineers or other from different technical disciplines, so training should give skills preparing future civil engineers in organizational relationships between parties to projects and time.
Many spend time outdoors at construction sites so that they can monitor operations or solve problems onsite. The job is a blend of in-office and on-location work. Most work full-time. In most countries, a civil engineer will have graduated from a post-secondary school with a degree in civil engineering, which requires a strong background in mathematics and the physical sciences. In many countries, civil engineers are subject to licensure. In some jurisdictions with mandatory licensing, people who do not obtain a license may not call themselves "civil engineers". In Belgium, Civil Engineer is a protected title applicable to graduates of the five-year engineering course of one of the six universities and the Royal Military Academy, their speciality can be all fields of engineering: civil, electrical, chemical and computer science. This use of the title may cause confusion to the English speaker as the Belgian "civil" engineer can have a speciality other than civil engineering. In fact, Belgians use the adjective "civil" in the sense of "civilian", as opposed to military engineers.
The formation of the civil engineer has a strong mathematical and scientific base and is more theoretical in approach than the practical oriented industrial engineer educated in a five-year program at a polytechnic. Traditionally, students were required to pass an entrance exam on mathematics to start civil engineering studies; this exam was abolished in 2004 for the Flemish Community, but is still organised in the French Community. In Scandinavian countries, civil engineer is a first professional degree equivalent to Master of Science in Engineering, a protected title granted to students by selected institutes of technology; as in English the word has its origin in the distinction between civilian and military engineers, as in before the start of the 19th century only military engineers existed and the prefix "civil" was a way to separate those who had studied engineering in a regular University from their military counterparts. Today the degree spans over all fields within engineering, like civil engineering, mechanical engineering, computer science, electronics engineering, etc.
There is a slight difference between a Master of Science in Engineering degree and the Scandinavian civil engineer degree, the latter's programme having closer ties with the industry's demands. A civil engineer is the most well-known of the two. A noteworthy difference is the mandatory courses in mathematics and physics, regardless of the equivalent master's degree, e.g. computer science. Although a'college engineer' is equivalent to a Bachelor of Science in Scandinavia, to become a'civil engineer' one has had to do up to one extra year of overlapping studies compared to attaining a B. Sc./M. Sc. Combination; this is because the higher educational system is not adopted to the international standard graduation system, since it is treated as a professional degree. Today this is starting to change due to th
Kartidaya is an Indonesian non-profit organization, focused on promoting and supporting the work of Bible translation throughout Indonesia. They are an independent organization affiliated with Wycliffe Global Alliance, have working agreements with numerous denominations throughout Indonesia; each Kartidaya member has to find donors to cover their ministry and living expenses since Kartidaya does not give salaries to its members. Kartidaya first began in 1989, they have grown over the years and serve with over 20 different language communities. The current director of Kartidaya is Marnix Riupassa; the previous director was Nitya Travis. Kartidaya has a strong focus on training, they desire to equip Indonesians to be trained and prepared to translate the Bible into their own languages. There are over 400 languages in Indonesia without any of the Bible; this training is done in multiple locations including Kartidaya's main office in west Jakarta and Papua. Multiple times each year various aspects of the training are held at the various training locations.
Kartidaya is a participant in the Wycliffe Global Alliance as well as the Forum of Bible Agencies International in Indonesia. They work with the Indonesian Bible Society, the Indonesian Fellowship of Churches, Fellowship of Gospel Churches and Organizations in Indonesia, the International Reading Association, many different churches and organizations throughout Indonesia and across Asia. Bible translations into the languages of Indonesia and Malaysia Christianity in Indonesia
Mand Inderpur is a village in Sultanpur Lodhi in Kapurthala district of Punjab State, India. It is located 20 kilometres from sub district headquarter and 45 kilometres from district headquarter; the village is administrated by Sarpanch an elected representative of the village. As of 2011, The village has a total number of 34 houses and the population of 159 of which 78 are males while 81 are females. According to the report published by Census India in 2011, out of the total population of the village 130 people are from Schedule Caste and the village does not have any Schedule Tribe population so far. List of villages in India Tourism of Punjab Census of Punjab