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John Smeaton

John Smeaton was an English civil engineer responsible for the design of bridges, canals and lighthouses. He was a capable mechanical engineer and an eminent physicist. Smeaton was the first self-proclaimed "civil engineer", is regarded as the "father of civil engineering", he pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete, using powdered brick as aggregate. Smeaton was associated with the Lunar Society. Smeaton was born in Austhorpe, England. After studying at Leeds Grammar School he joined his father's law firm, but left to become a mathematical instrument maker, among other instruments, a pyrometer to study material expansion. In 1750, his premises were in the Great Turnstile in Holborn, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1753, in 1759 won the Copley Medal for his research into the mechanics of waterwheels and windmills. His 1759 paper "An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills and Other Machines Depending on Circular Motion" addressed the relationship between pressure and velocity for objects moving in air, his concepts were subsequently developed to devise the'Smeaton Coefficient'.

Smeaton's water wheel experiments were conducted on a small scale model with which he tested various configurations over a period of seven years. The resulting increasing efficiency in water power contributed to the Industrial Revolution. Over the period 1759–1782 he performed a series of further experiments and measurements on water wheels that led him to support and champion the vis viva theory of German Gottfried Leibniz, an early formulation of conservation of energy; this led him into conflict with members of the academic establishment who rejected Leibniz's theory, believing it inconsistent with Sir Isaac Newton's conservation of momentum. In his 1759 paper "An Experimental Enquiry Concerning the Natural Powers of Water and Wind to Turn Mills and Other Machines Depending on Circular Motion" Smeaton developed the concepts and data which became the basis for the Smeaton coefficient, the lift equation used by the Wright brothers, it has the form: L = k V 2 A C l where: L is the lift k is the Smeaton coefficient V is the velocity A is the area in square feet C l is the lift coefficient The Wright brothers determined with wind tunnels that the Smeaton coefficient value of 0.005 was incorrect and should have been 0.0033.

In modern analysis, the lift coefficient is normalised by the dynamic pressure instead of the Smeaton coefficient. Smeaton is important in the history, rediscovery of, development of modern cement, identifying the compositional requirements needed to obtain "hydraulicity" in lime. Portland cement led to the re-emergence of concrete as a modern building material due to Smeaton's influence. Recommended by the Royal Society, Smeaton designed the third Eddystone Lighthouse, he pioneered the use of'hydraulic lime' and developed a technique involving dovetailed blocks of granite in the building of the lighthouse. His lighthouse remained in use until 1877 when the rock underlying the structure's foundations had begun to erode. Deciding that he wanted to focus on the lucrative field of civil engineering, he commenced an extensive series of commissions, including: the Calder and Hebble Navigation Coldstream Bridge over the River Tweed Improvements to the River Lee Navigation Smeaton's Pier in St Ives, Cornwall Perth Bridge over the River Tay in Perth Ripon Canal Smeaton's Viaduct, which carries the A616 road over the River Trent between Newark and South Muskham in Nottinghamshire the Forth and Clyde Canal from Grangemouth to Glasgow Langley on Tyne smelt mill, with Nicholas Walton, acting as receivers to the Greenwich Hospital, London Banff harbour Aberdeen bridge Peterhead harbour Nent Force Level Harbour works at Ramsgate Hexham bridge the Birmingham and Fazeley Canal St Austell's Charlestown harbour in Cornwall Smeaton is considered to be the first expert witness to appear in an English court.

Because of his expertise in engineering, he was called to testify in court for a case related to the silting-up of the harbour at Wells-next-the-Sea in Norfolk in 1782. He acted as a consultant on the disastrous 63-year-long New Harbour at Rye, designed to combat the silting of the port of Winchelsea; the project is now known informally as "Smeaton's Harbour", but despite the name his involvement was limited and occurred more than 30 years after work on the harbour commenced. It closed in 1839. Employing his skills as a mechanical engineer, he devised a water engine for the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew in 1761 and a watermill at Alston, Cumbria in 1767. In 1782 he built the Chimney Mill at Spital Tongues in Newcastle upon Tyne

Hugh de Balliol

Hugh de Balliol, Lord of Bywell, Barnard Castle and Gainford, was a 12th and 13th century nobleman. He was the son of Eustace de Petronilla FitzPiers. Balliol was a supporter of King John of England during the Barons Wars of 1215-17. Balliol was the eldest son and successor of Eustace de Balliol of Barnard Castle and Petronilla FitzPiers. Hugh succeeded to his father Eustace's lordships by 1209. Hugh and his brother Bernard were staunch supporters of King John. Balliol defended the northern borders of England against King Alexander II of Scotland in 1216, his castle of Barnard Castle was besieged by Alexander II, however the siege was abandoned after the death of Alexander II's brother in-law Eustace de Vesci. After Hugh's death in 1229, his son John succeeded to the chief Balliol estates. Balliol married Cecily, daughter of Aleaune de Fontaines and Laurette de St. Valerie, they had the following known issue: John de Balliol, married Dervorguilla of Galloway, had issue, their son become King John I of Scotland.

Eustace de Balliol Jocelin de Balliol Hugh de Balliol Bernard de Balliol Ada de Balliol, married John FitzRobert of Warkworth, had issue. Beam, Amanda; the Balliol Dynasty, 1210-1364. Edinburgh: John Donald. Stell, G. P. "Balliol, Bernard de", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 24 Jan 2008 Stell, G. P. "Balliol, John de", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, accessed 24 Jan 2008

La Bohème (1926 film)

La Bohème is a 1926 American silent drama film directed by King Vidor, based on the opera La bohème by Giacomo Puccini. Lillian Gish and John Gilbert star as ill-fated lovers. In February 2020, the film was shown at the 70th Berlin International Film Festival, as part of a retrospective dedicated to King Vidor's career. Several struggling bohemians try to survive in the Latin Quarter of Paris in the winter of 1830, hoping to one day become famous. Playwright Rodolphe and his painter roommate Marcel have trouble with Bernard, the landlord, who threatens to throw them out if they do not come up with the monthly rent that night. Rodolphe reluctantly starts writing an overdue article for a journal editor to earn some money, but the editor rejects his work. With the help of their friends, musician Schaunard and bookish Colline, they are able to raise the money, their next door neighbor, Mimi, an orphaned, friendless embroiderer, has the same problem. Bernard is attracted to her, but when she does not respond to his overture, he issues the same threat.

She takes her meager belongings to the municipal pawnshop, but does not receive enough money to pay the rent. On her way back, she is nearly run over by the carriage of the idle aristocrat Vicomte Paul, she has to fend off his advances. When Marcel is invited to dinner by his girlfriend and downstairs neighbor, Musette, he persuades her to allow Schaunard to join them; the musician gets her to include Colline, who asks for Rodolphe. Rodolphe misses his cue to join the festivities. Seeing how cold she is, he invites her to warm herself in his apartment. After she vacates her room, Rodolphe entices her to share in the food Musette has provided. Vicomte Paul comes over, she thinks he wants some embroidery done, not realizing he has baser motives. Rodolphe does and becomes jealous of the aristocrat. In any case, Mimi is able to stay. In spring, Mimi joins her friends out in the country for her first picnic, she and the love-smitten Rodolphe wander away. After a while, she admits; this inspires Rodolphe to write a play.

When Mimi takes his latest, long overdue article to his editor, she is requested to tell him that he is discharged. Wanting Rodolphe to continue working undisturbed on his play, she works secretly at night to keep up the deception that he still has a paying job; the strain, makes her sick. When Vicomte Paul comes to pick up Mimi's handiwork, she tells him of Rodolphe's new play. Still hoping to seduce her, he offers to show it to a theatrical manager, if she will come with him to the theatre. Rodolphe, in a rage, accuses Mimi of having an affair, she tries to explain. Rodolphe tries to forget Mimi; when he runs into the editor, he is surprised to hear. Meanwhile, with Musette's help, dresses up and goes with Vicomte Paul to the theatre, hoping to get Rodolphe's play accepted, she once again rejects the vicomte's advances. Returning home, she is confronted by Rodolphe, she admits having worked in secret for him. He forgives her, until he finds out that she went out with Vicomte Paul and jumps to the conclusion she got the money from him.

He hits her, but soon apologizes when he discovers she is sick. Rodolphe goes to find a doctor, but she leaves before they return, explaining in a letter that she will come back when his play is a success, he searches for her for months. Out of his anguish, a new and greater play is born; this turns out to be a hit. Meanwhile, Mimi is toiling in the slums of Paris, she collapses. The doctor tells, she stumbles out into the street and reaches her old apartment. Rodolphe is ecstatic to see her, their friends, realize her condition. While he goes to fetch her pet bird, she tells Musette. Lillian Gish as Mimi Brodeuse John Gilbert as Rodolphe Renée Adorée as Musette George Hassell as Schaunard Roy D'Arcy as Vicomte Paul Edward Everett Horton as Colline Karl Dane as Benoit Mathilde Comont as Madame Benoit Gino Corrado as Marcel Eugene Pouyet as Bernard Frank Currier as Theatre Manager David Mir as Alexis Catherine Vidor as Louise Valentina Zimina as Phemie Harry Crocker as Bit Part Blanche Payson Lillian Gish had just returned from a visit to Europe and wanted to reach out to her European fans.

Making a film which takes place in Paris seemed be a good way to do this. After seeing an uncut version of The Big Parade, she decided that John Gilbert and Renée Adorée were most suited as her co-stars; when she first arrived at the studio for filming, Gish was treated as "a queen". Co-stars said she was acting arrogant, with Marion Davies saying that Gish brushed off Gilbert and did not want to give director King Vidor a hand. According to Robert Osborne, host of Turner Classic Movies, Gish prepared for the death scene by not drinking or eating for three days; when Vidor saw her condition, he worried. She learned how to breathe without visible movement and visited hospitals to learn about stages of tuberculosis. Shooting lasted from August 19 to November 5, 1925. A previous version of the story had been filmed in 1916 with Alice Brady in a production financed by her father William A. Brady for his World Pictures; the film made a profit of $377,000. The film is recognized by American Film Institute in these lists: 2002: AFI's 100 Years...100 Pass