Nobel Peace Prize
The Nobel Peace Prize is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Swedish industrialist and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature. Since March 1901, it has been awarded annually to those who have "done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses". Per Alfred Nobel's will, the recipient is selected by the Norwegian Nobel Committee, a five-member committee appointed by the Parliament of Norway. Since 1990, the prize is awarded on 10 December in Oslo City Hall each year; the prize was awarded in the Atrium of the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, the Norwegian Nobel Institute, the Parliament. Due to its political nature, the Nobel Peace Prize has, for most of its history, been the subject of numerous controversies. According to Nobel's will, the Peace Prize shall be awarded to the person who in the preceding year "shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses".
Alfred Nobel's will further specified that the prize be awarded by a committee of five people chosen by the Norwegian Parliament. Nobel died in 1896 and he did not leave an explanation for choosing peace as a prize category; as he was a trained chemical engineer, the categories for chemistry and physics were obvious choices. The reasoning behind the peace prize is less clear. According to the Norwegian Nobel Committee, his friendship with Bertha von Suttner, a peace activist and recipient of the prize, profoundly influenced his decision to include peace as a category; some Nobel scholars suggest. His inventions included dynamite and ballistite, both of which were used violently during his lifetime. Ballistite was used in war and the Irish Republican Brotherhood, an Irish nationalist organization, carried out dynamite attacks in the 1880s. Nobel was instrumental in turning Bofors from an iron and steel producer into an armaments company, it is unclear why Nobel wished the Peace Prize to be administered in Norway, ruled in union with Sweden at the time of Nobel's death.
The Norwegian Nobel Committee speculates that Nobel may have considered Norway better suited to awarding the prize, as it did not have the same militaristic traditions as Sweden. It notes that at the end of the 19th century, the Norwegian parliament had become involved in the Inter-Parliamentary Union's efforts to resolve conflicts through mediation and arbitration; the Norwegian Parliament appoints the Norwegian Nobel Committee, which selects the Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Each year, the Norwegian Nobel Committee invites qualified people to submit nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation specify categories of individuals who are eligible to make nominations for the Nobel Peace Prize. These nominators are: Members of national assemblies and governments and members of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Members of the Permanent Court of Arbitration and the International Court of Justice at the Hague Members of Institut de Droit International University professors of history, social sciences, philosophy and theology, university presidents, directors of peace research and international affairs institutes Former recipients, including board members of organizations that have received the prize Present and past members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee Former permanent advisers to the Norwegian Nobel Institute Nominations must be submitted to the Committee by the beginning of February in the award year.
Nominations by committee members can be submitted up to the date of the first Committee meeting after this deadline. In 2009, a record 205 nominations were received, but the record was broken again in 2010 with 237 nominations; the statutes of the Nobel Foundation do not allow information about nominations, considerations, or investigations relating to awarding the prize to be made public for at least 50 years after a prize has been awarded. Over time, many individuals have become known as "Nobel Peace Prize Nominees", but this designation has no official standing, means only that one of the thousands of eligible nominators suggested the person's name for consideration. Indeed, in 1939, Adolf Hitler received a satirical nomination from a member of the Swedish parliament, mocking the nomination of Neville Chamberlain. Nominations from 1901 to 1956, have been released in a database. Nominations are considered by the Nobel Committee at a meeting where a short list of candidates for further review is created.
This short list is considered by permanent advisers to the Nobel institute, which consists of the Institute's Director and the Research Director and a small number of Norwegian academics with expertise in subject areas relating to the prize. Advisers have some months to complete reports, which are considered by the Committee to select the laureate; the Committee seeks to achieve a unanimous decision. The Nobel Committee comes to a conclusion in mid-September, but the final decision has not been made until the last meeting before the official announcement at the beginning of October; the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee presents the Nobel Peace Prize in the presence of the King of Norway on 10 December each year. The Peace Pri
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n
Iosif Aleksandrovich Brodsky was a Russian and American poet and essayist. Born in Leningrad in 1940, Brodsky ran afoul of Soviet authorities and was expelled from the Soviet Union in 1972, settling in the United States with the help of W. H. Auden and other supporters, he taught thereafter at Mount Holyoke College, at universities including Yale, Columbia and Michigan. Brodsky was awarded the 1987 Nobel Prize in Literature "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity", he was appointed United States Poet Laureate in 1991. According to Professor Andrey Ranchin of Moscow State University: “Brodsky is the only modern Russian poet whose body of work has been awarded the honorary title of a canonized classic... Brodsky's literary canonization is an exceptional phenomenon. No other contemporary Russian writer has been honored as the hero of such a number of memoir texts. Brodsky was born into a Russian Jewish family in Leningrad, he was a descendant of a ancient rabbinic family Schorr.
His direct male-line ancestor is Joseph ben Isaac Bekhor Shor. His father, Aleksandr Brodsky, was a professional photographer in the Soviet Navy, his mother, Maria Volpert Brodskaya, was a professional interpreter whose work helped to support the family, they lived in poverty, marginalized by their Jewish status. In early childhood Brodsky survived the Siege of Leningrad where he and his parents nearly died of starvation, he suffered from various health problems caused by the siege. Brodsky commented that many of his teachers were anti-Semitic and that he felt like a dissident from an early age, he noted "I began to despise Lenin when I was in the first grade, not so much because of his political philosophy or practice... but because of his omnipresent images." As a young student Brodsky was "an unruly child" known for his misbehavior during classes. At fifteen, Brodsky tried to enter the School of Submariners without success, he went on to work as a milling machine operator. Having decided to become a physician, he worked at the morgue at the Kresty Prison and sewing bodies.
He subsequently held a variety of jobs in hospitals, in a ship's boiler room, on geological expeditions. At the same time, Brodsky engaged in a program of self-education, he learned Polish so he could translate the works of Polish poets such as Czesław Miłosz, English so that he could translate John Donne. On the way, he acquired a deep interest in classical philosophy, religion and English and American poetry. In 1955, Brodsky began producing literary translations, he circulated them in secret, some were published by the underground journal Sintaksis. His writings were apolitical. By 1958 he was well known in literary circles for his poems "The Jewish cemetery near Leningrad" and "Pilgrims". Asked when he first felt called to poetry, he recollected, "In 1959, in Yakutsk, when walking in that terrible city, I went into a bookstore. I snagged a copy of poems by Baratynsky. I had nothing to read. So I read that book and understood what I had to do in life. Or got excited, at least. So in a way, Evgeny Abramovich Baratynsky is sort of responsible."
His friend Ludmila Shtern recalled working with Brodsky on an irrigation project in his "Geological Period": "We bounced around the Leningrad Province examining kilometers of canals, checking their embankments, which looked terrible. They were falling down, coming apart, had all sorts of strange things growing in them... It was during these trips, that I was privileged to hear the poems "The Hills" and "You Will Gallop in the Dark". Brodsky read them aloud to me between two train cars as we were going towards Tikhvin."In 1960, the young Brodsky met Anna Akhmatova, one of the leading poets of the silver age. She encouraged his work, would go on to become his mentor. In 1962, in Leningrad, Anna Akhmatova introduced him to the artist Marina Basmanova, a young painter from an established artistic family, drawing Akhmatova's portrait; the two started a relationship. Bobyshev began to pursue the girl and Brodsky began to be pursued by the authorities. Brodsky dedicated much love poetry to Marina Basmanova: In 1963, Brodsky's poetry was denounced by a Leningrad newspaper as "pornographic and anti-Soviet".
His papers were confiscated, he was interrogated, twice put in a mental institution and arrested. He was charged with social parasitism by the Soviet authorities in a trial in 1964, finding that his series of odd jobs and role as a poet were not a sufficient contribution to society, they called him "a pseudo-poet in velveteen trousers" who failed to fulfill his "constitutional duty to work for the good of the motherland". The trial judge asked "Who has recognized you as a poet? Who has enrolled you in the ranks of poets?" – "No one," Brodsky replied, "Who enrolled me in the ranks of the human race?" Brodsky was not yet 24. For his "parasitism" Brodsky was sentenced to five years hard labor and served 18 months on a farm in the village of Norenskaya, in the Archangelsk region, 350 miles from Leningrad, he rented his own small cottage, though it was without plumbing or central heating, having one's own, private space was taken to be a great luxury at the time. Basmanova and Brodsky'
St Cross College, Oxford
St Cross College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Founded in 1965, St Cross is the fourth youngest of Oxford's 38 colleges, it is an all-graduate college with traditional-style buildings on a central site in St Giles', just south of Pusey Street. It aims to match the structure and support of undergraduate colleges, with the relaxed atmosphere of an all-graduate college. In May 2016, it was announced that the Fellows of St Cross College had elected Carole Souter CBE, Chief executive of the National Heritage Memorial Fund and Heritage Lottery Fund, as the next Master of the College. In September 2016, she succeeded Sir Mark Jones, Master of St Cross since 2011. St Cross College was formally set up as a society by the University on 5 October 1965. Like the majority of Oxford's newer colleges, St Cross has been coeducational since its foundation; the early location of St Cross was on a site in St Cross Road south of St Cross Church. The college was named for its proximity to these places.
In 1976 negotiations began between the college and the members of Pusey House over the possibility of moving the college to the St Giles site. The negotiations were successful, in 1981 the college moved from St Cross Road into a site owned by Pusey House for a leased period of 999-years; the old site on St Cross Road continued to be used by the Centre for Islamic Studies, subsequently in the early 1990s the site was developed by the college in collaboration with Brasenose College. The site now houses two residential buildings, which were opened in 1996. On 18 November 2010, it was announced that Sir Mark Jones Director of the Victoria and Albert Museum, had been elected as the next Master of the college. Unlike every other college head, the Master of St Cross is appointed not by the college's governing body but by the University Council. Therefore, the election has only the character of a recommendation to Council, albeit one, followed; the college is located on St Giles' near to the Ashmolean Museum, south of Regent's Park College and north of Blackfriars.
It is within metres of the Classics Faculty and the Oriental Institute. The college buildings are structured around two quads, the Richard Blackwell Quadrangle and the new West Quad. St Cross shares the site with Pusey House, which comprises the first floor and parts of the ground floor to the eastern side of the Blackwell quad, a library on the first floor on its western side, as well as the chapel; the original Pusey House buildings around the Blackwell quad, including the chapel, date from the period of 1884 to 1926 and are the work of the architects Temple and Leslie Moore and Ninian Comper. Discreet internal alterations were made when St Cross moved in by Geoffrey Beard and the Oxford Architects Partnership. Among these was the conversion of a cloister and store rooms into the Saugman Hall named after Per Saugman, a former Director of Blackwell Scientific Publications and a former fellow of the college; the first quadrangle was named the Richard Blackwell Quadrangle in honour of Richard Blackwell.
Most students, used to refer to the Richard Blackwell Quadrangle by its nickname:'the Quad'. After completion of the second quad, it is now known as'the front Quad'. At the west side of the Blackwell Quad lies the Four Colleges Arch, named after the four colleges which had contributed generous capital and recurrent funding to St Cross: Merton, All Souls, Christ Church, St John's. Behind the Four Colleges Arch lay a large open garden bordered by medieval boundary wall; this offered the college the possibility of expanding its buildings and erecting a second quadrangle, the West Quad. Work was first completed on the South Wing on the southern side of the West Quad, containing a hall and kitchen, with bar, the Ian Skipper conference room, the Caroline Miles games room below, a guest room and study bedrooms above; this development has in part been financed by Ian Skipper, Domus fellow of the college, after whom the conference room on the lower ground floor was named. A second building to the western and northern sides of the West Quad was set to be completed in time for the college's semicentennial in 2015.
However, planning permission for the new building was rejected, as it required the demolition of a medieval boundary wall, an action which the council qualified as'unjustifiable'. Planning permission was subsequently granted following an appeal, the new West Wing building was completed in 2017; the new West Quad includes 50 student bedrooms, a lecture theatre, a library with a garden room, several seminar rooms, the Audrey Blackman Guest Room. In addition to the current main site, the college still owns its original site on St Cross Road, located near the Law Faculty. After the college moved to its present location, this site was developed into student accommodation, the St Cross Annexe. Additional buildings which are run by St Cross College as student accommodation include Bradmore Road House, Stonemason House, the Wellington Square houses; the master's lodgings are located in Wellington Square. In 2016, St Cross had over 550 graduate students, studying for degrees in all subjects. There is a strong emphasis on international diversity, with over 75% of the students coming from outside the UK.
This is reflected in the college mot
Ralph Erskine (architect)
Ralph Erskine ARIBA was a British architect and planner who lived and worked in Sweden for most of his life. Erskine was born in London in 1914, spent his childhood in Mill Hill in Barnet, his parents were socialists, adherents of the Fabian Society, which promoted the idea of the evolution of Britain into a socialist state. His Scottish grandfather was a Presbyterian free church minister, a descendent of the ministers Ralph Erskine and Ebenezer Erskine, but his parents sent him to the Friends School Saffron Walden, a Quaker school because of their socialist beliefs. There, he became committed to the Quaker ideals, which laid the foundation for his views on society, man's place in it, on architecture. During the 1930s, Erskine studied architecture for five years at the Regent Street Polytechnic, London under the direction of Thornton White. At the time, White's curriculum required the study of classical architecture before students were free to follow their own ideas. One of his fellow students was Gordon Cullen who would become a well-known architectural illustrator, urban designer and theorist.
Cullen advocated the improvement of urban settlements through an understanding and analysis of their picturesque qualities. This approach was profoundly influential on Erskine, who insisted in his work that the context and landscaping of his buildings be integrated. After qualifying as an architect Erskine began work with the design team for Welwyn Garden City under the leadership of Louis de Soissons, he studied town planning and this interest broadened his approach to architecture, in particular about how buildings related physically and to their setting. In 1936 he became an associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Before the outbreak of World War II, Erskine travelled to Sweden, he was attracted there by his admiration for the work of the Functionalist Swedish architects Gunnar Asplund, Sven Markelius and Sigurd Lewerentz and by the country's adoption of the social welfare model. In Sweden the political will was reflected in the national architecture and these two factors coincided with his own humanist beliefs.
He would go on to make an important contribution to the architectural landscape of both his adopted country and to that of England. In Sweden and Canada, he was responsible for the design of numerous innovative buildings reflecting his particular ideology, they include: Nora Municipality, Sweden, 1945 to 1955, housing project for a factory town. Ski hotel at Borgafjall Shopping, the first purposely built enclosed shopping center in the world in Luleå, Sweden opened in October 1955 in the small town of Luleå in the north of Sweden; the Brittgården residential area at Tibro, Sweden, 1956 to 1959 Svappavaara, Kiruna Municipality, Sweden, 1962, housing project for a copper mine above the Arctic Circle. Esperanza row house area, Scania, around 1968. Build up 1969-70. Clare Hall, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, 1969. Resolute, Nunavut Eaglestone grid square, at Milton Keynes, from 1972 to 1976; the Byker redevelopment, at Newcastle upon Tyne, from 1969 to 1982. The Nya Bruket area in Sandviken, Sweden, 1973 to 1978.
The Stockholm University Library, as well as several other buildings on the university campus including: Aula Magna, the university's main auditorium Ekerö centrum in Ekerö Municipality outside Stockholm, 1983 to 1989. The Vasaterminalen bus terminal in Stockholm, together with Bengt Ahlqvist and Anders Tengbom The London Ark, London, 1990. Greenwich Millennium Village, from 2000 to 2005. Erskine was best known in Great Britain for his Byker Wall housing scheme in Newcastle upon Tyne and, The London Ark, a commercial project in Hammersmith, London. However, it was his achievement in designing the winning scheme in a 1997 competition to develop the Millennium Community at Greenwich, London that brought his work to widespread attention of his compatriot Britons; this recognition came late in a productive and important career. On his death in 2005, Councillor Peter Arnold, leader of Newcastle City Council said of Erskine that he "was one of the twentieth century's greatest architects and in Newcastle's Byker estate he gave the city one of Europe's finest post Second World War new housing communities.
His approach was so different from everything happening around that time as he put the focus on social regeneration and the interests of local people, rather than just bricks and mortar. He built Byker Wall Estate around the community. Local people were involved in the design and rather than clearing properties and moving people elsewhere, the community was able to remain together.” Ralph Erskine founded his own company in Sweden in 1939. In 2000 he invited his long-time collaborator Johannes Tovatt into a partnership, naming the company Erskine Tovatt Arkitekter AB, it was Erskine's will. Therefore, his legacy lives on in the company called Tovatt Architects and Planners in Drottningholm outside Stockholm. Erskine received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 1982 In 1984, with his wife he established the Ruth and Ralph Erskine Nordic Foundation, endowed by proceeds from the Wolf Prize in Arts, which he was awarded that year. Beginning in 1988, the foundation has awarded a bi-annual prize of US$10,000 and a medal designed by Ralph Erskine, for any person, group or organisation that "has contributed to the con
The High Table is a table for the use of fellows and their guests at Oxford, Cambridge and Durham colleges. Other academic institutions have high tables; the table is at the end of the dining hall on a raised platform, although this is not always the case. On more formal evening occasions, dinner jackets are worn, it is normal to wear academic gowns. High Table at Churchill College, Cambridge High Table at Princeton University