Dutch elm disease
Dutch elm disease is caused by a member of the sac fungi affecting elm trees, is spread by elm bark beetles. Although believed to be native to Asia, the disease was accidentally introduced into America and Europe, where it has devastated native populations of elms that did not have resistance to the disease, it has reached New Zealand. The name "Dutch elm disease" refers to its identification in 1921 and in the Netherlands by Dutch phytopathologists Bea Schwarz and Christine Buisman who both worked with Professor Johanna Westerdijk; the disease affects species in the genera Ulmus and Zelkova, therefore it is not specific to the Dutch elm hybrid. The causative agents of DED are ascomycete microfungi. Three species are now recognized: Ophiostoma ulmi, which afflicted Europe from 1910, reaching North America on imported timber in 1928. Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, a species endemic to the western Himalaya. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, an virulent species from Japan, first described in Europe and North America in the 1940s and has devastated elms in both continents since the late 1960s.
DED is spread in North America by three species of bark beetles: The native elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes. The European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus; the banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi. In Europe, while S. multistriatus still acts as a vector for infection, it is much less effective than the large elm bark beetle, S. scolytus. H. rufipes is inefficient compared to the other vectors. S. schevyrewi was found in 2003 in Utah. Other reported DED vectors include Scolytus sulcifrons, S. pygmaeus, S. laevis, Pteleobius vittatus and Р. kraatzi. Other elm bark beetle species are likely vectors.'Field resistance' is an umbrella term covering the various factors by which some elms avoid infection in the first place, rather than survive it. A clear example would be the European White Elm Ulmus laevis which, while having little or no genetic resistance to DED, synthesizes a triterpene, rendering the bark distasteful to the vector beetles, obliging them to look further afield for more suitable elms.
Another would be the inability of the beetles to see elms which did not break the silhouette.'Weeping' elms are spared infection owing to the beetles' aversion to hanging upside-down while feeding. In an attempt to block the fungus from spreading farther, the tree reacts by plugging its own xylem tissue with gum and tyloses, bladder-like extensions of the xylem cell wall; as the xylem delivers water and nutrients to the rest of the plant, these plugs prevent them from travelling up the trunk of the tree, starving the tree of water and nutrients, therefore killing it. The first sign of infection is an upper branch of the tree with leaves starting to wither and yellow in summer, months before the normal autumnal leaf shedding; this progressively spreads with further dieback of branches. The roots die, starved of nutrients from the leaves. Not all the roots die: the roots of some species, notably the English elm, Ulmus procera, can engage in putting up suckers which flourish for 15 years, after which they too succumb.
Dutch elm disease was first noticed in continental Europe in 1910, spread and extending to all other countries except Greece and Finland. In Britain, the disease was first identified in 1927 by T R Peace on English elm in Hertfordshire; this first strain was a mild one, which killed only a small proportion of elms, more just killing a few branches, had died out by 1940 owing to its susceptibility to viruses. The disease was isolated in The Netherlands in 1921 by Bea Schwarz, a pioneering Dutch phytopathologist, this discovery would lend the disease its name. Circa 1967, a new, far more virulent, strain arrived in Britain via east coast ports on shipments of rock elm U. thomasii logs from Canada destined for the small-boat industry, confirmed in 1973 when another consignment was examined at Southampton Docks. This strain proved both contagious and lethal to European elms; the disease spread northwards, reaching Scotland within 10 years. By 1990 few mature elms were left in Britain or much of continental Europe.
One of the most distinctive English countryside trees, the English elm U. procera Salisb. is susceptible as it is the elm most favoured by the Scolytus beetles. Thirty years after the outbreak of the epidemic, nearly all these trees, which grew to more than 45 m high, are gone; the species still survives in hedgerows, as the roots send up root sprouts. These suckers reach more than 5 m tall before succumbing to a new attack of the fungus. However, established hedges kept low by clipping have remained healthy throughout the nearly 40 years since the onset of the disease in the UK; the largest concentrations of mature elms in Europe are now in The Hague. In 2005, Amsterdam was declared the "Elm City of Europe": the city’s streets and canals are lined with at least 75,000 elms, including several generations of research-elms; some 30,000 of the 100,000 mature trees in The Hague are elms, planted because of their tolerance of salty sea-winds. Since the 1990s, a programme of antifungal injections of the most prominent 10,000 elms, of sanitation felling, has reduc
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Cable News Network is an American news-based pay television channel owned by WarnerMedia News & Sports, a division of AT&T's WarnerMedia. CNN was founded in 1980 by American media proprietor Ted Turner as a 24-hour cable news channel. Upon its launch, CNN was the first television channel to provide 24-hour news coverage, was the first all-news television channel in the United States. While the news channel has numerous affiliates, CNN broadcasts from the Time Warner Center in New York City, studios in Washington, D. C. and Los Angeles. Its headquarters at the CNN Center in Atlanta is only used for weekend programming. CNN is sometimes referred to as CNN/U. S. to distinguish the American channel from CNN International. As of August 2010, CNN is available in over 100 million U. S. households. Broadcast coverage of the U. S. channel extends to over 890,000 American hotel rooms, as well as carriage on subscription providers throughout Canada. As of July 2015, CNN is available to about 96,374,000 pay-television households in the United States.
Globally, CNN programming airs through CNN International, which can be seen by viewers in over 212 countries and territories. The Cable News Network was launched at 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on June 1, 1980. After an introduction by Ted Turner, the husband and wife team of David Walker and Lois Hart anchored the channel's first newscast. Burt Reinhardt, the executive vice president of CNN at its launch, hired most of the channel's first 200 employees, including the network's first news anchor, Bernard Shaw. Since its debut, CNN has expanded its reach to a number of cable and satellite television providers, several websites, specialized closed-circuit channels; the company has 42 bureaus, more than 900 affiliated local stations, several regional and foreign-language networks around the world. The channel's success made a bona-fide mogul of founder Ted Turner and set the stage for conglomerate Time Warner's eventual acquisition of the Turner Broadcasting System in 1996. A companion channel, CNN2, was launched on January 1, 1982 and featured a continuous 24-hour cycle of 30-minute news broadcasts.
The channel, which became known as CNN Headline News and is now known as HLN focused on live news coverage supplemented by personality-based programs during the evening and primetime hours. The first Persian Gulf War in 1991 was a watershed event for CNN that catapulted the channel past the "Big Three" American networks for the first time in its history due to an unprecedented, historical scoop: CNN was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the Coalition bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett; the moment when bombing began was announced on CNN by Shaw on January 16, 1991, as follows: This is Bernie Shaw. Something is happening outside.... Peter Arnett, join me here. Let's describe to our viewers what we're seeing... The skies over Baghdad have been illuminated.... We're seeing bright flashes going off all over the sky. Unable to broadcast live pictures from Baghdad, CNN's coverage of the initial hours of the Gulf War had the dramatic feel of a radio broadcast – and was compared to legendary CBS news anchor Edward R. Murrow's gripping live radio reports of the German bombing of London during World War II.
Despite the lack of live pictures, CNN's coverage was carried by television stations and networks around the world, resulting in CNN being watched by over a billion viewers worldwide. The Gulf War experience brought CNN some much sought-after legitimacy and made household names of obscure reporters. In 2000, media scholar and director of the Center for the Study of Popular Television at Syracuse University, Robert Thompson, stated that having turned 20, CNN was now the "old guard." Shaw, known for his live-from-Bagdhad reporting during the Gulf War, became CNN's chief anchor until his retirement in 2001. Others include then-Pentagon correspondent Wolf Blitzer and international correspondent Christiane Amanpour. Amanpour's presence in Iraq was caricatured by actress Nora Dunn as ruthless reporter Adriana Cruz in the 1999 film Three Kings. Time Warner-owned sister network HBO produced a television movie, Live from Baghdad, about CNN's coverage of the first Gulf War. Coverage of the first Gulf War and other crises of the early 1990s led officials at the Pentagon to coin the term "the CNN effect" to describe the perceived impact of real time, 24-hour news coverage on the decision-making processes of the American government.
CNN was the first cable news channel. Anchor Carol Lin was on the air to deliver the first public report of the event, she broke into a commercial at 8:49 a.m. Eastern Time that morning and said:This just in. You are looking at a disturbing live shot there; that is the World Trade Center, we have unconfirmed reports this morning that a plane has crashed into one of the towers of the World Trade Center. CNN Center right now is just beginning to work on this story calling our sources and trying to figure out what happened, but something devastating happening this morning there on the south end of the island of Manhattan; that is once again, a picture of one of the towers of the World Trade Center. Sean Murtagh, CNN vice president of finance and administration, was the first network employe
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
The Webb Schools
The Webb Schools is the collective name for two private schools for grades 9-12, founded by Thompson Webb, located in Claremont, California. The Webb School of California for boys was established in 1922, the Vivian Webb School for girls in 1981. Both are boarding schools, but they enroll a limited number of day students; the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology is a part of The Webb Schools; the schools share a campus of 70 acres in the foothills of the San Gabriel Mountains. There are 58 faculty members. Annual tuition is $60,845 for boarding students and $43,273 for day students, including meals and fees. For the 2017-2018 school year, Webb offered $4.9 million in need-based financial aid awards. The majority of ninth- and tenth-grade classes are taught in a single-sex environment. Co-educational courses are introduced to upperclassmen; the official student newspaper of The Webb Schools is the Webb Canyon Chronicle. The Webb School's founder, Thompson Webb, was born in 1887 as the youngest of eight children.
His father, William Robert “Sawney” Webb, had established the Webb School in Tennessee in 1870. Thompson graduated from his father’s school in 1907, continued his education at the University of North Carolina, graduating in 1911. After college, Webb's health and the suggestions of doctors led him to move west to a warmer climate, he moved to the California desert near Indio, worked as a farm hand, bought his own piece of land and started a career as a farmer. He married Vivian Howell, the 20-year-old daughter of a Los Angeles Methodist minister, on June 22, 1915, she joined him in farming. The Webbs farmed together and increased their holdings until 1918, when a diseased onion crop wiped out all their savings. Broke and carrying high debt, Webb did not have the capital to farm and, because the country was involved in World War I, he was unable to sell his land. Webb returned to Tennessee, where his father's school was experiencing a shortage of male teachers that threatened the school’s existence.
Thompson Webb worked as an instructor at the school in Bell Buckle, Tennessee for four years, after which he returned to California to open his own private residential school. The first suggestion that Thompson Webb start a school in California came from Sherman Day Thacher, founder of the Thacher School in Ojai Valley. Thacher told Webb that his school was turning down dozens of qualified students every year and that an empty school near Claremont was for sale. If Thompson opened a school there, Thacher agreed to refer his applicants. Through a proposal to I. W. Baughman, real estate broker for the Claremont property, Thompson Webb struck a deal that got him his school in 1922. Initial enrollment at the school was 14 boys. Over the years Webb built the school through the support of many influential business leaders in the greater Los Angeles community, including the Chandlers, Guggenheims and many others; as the number of students grew in the ’30s and ’40s, Webb added seven major buildings, five faculty homes, two smaller structures to the campus.
Two of Webb’s landmark buildings were constructed during this time: the Thomas Jackson Library and the Vivian Webb Chapel. The school operated as a family-owned stock company until the late 1950s, when the Webb family turned it over to a non-profit corporation. After the non-profit corporation was established, Thompson Webb continued as headmaster of the school and Vivian Webb as general housemother until their retirements in 1962. Vivian Webb died in 1971; the concept of a girls’ school on the Webb campus first came up for discussion in the early 1980s. After the private Girls Collegiate High School in Claremont closed, a group of Claremont parents led a campaign and persuaded the board of trustees to establish a girls’ school on the Webb campus. Vivian Webb School opened with 34 girls as day students. Four years Vivian Webb School admitted girls as boarding students for the first time; the school's 70 acres sit on a planted hillside. The lower part of campus contains the "plaza group," consisting of the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology, the W. Russell Fawcett Library, the Susan A. Nelson Performing Arts Center, the Price Dining Hall, the administration building, the Copeland Donahue Theater, the Frederick R. Hooper Student Center.
One original building remains: a clapboard structure built in 1917, called the "Old School House." East of the plaza group is the house that the Webb family occupied for years, a girl’s dormitory, the Thomas Jackson Library. Up the hillside are dormitories, the Barbara Mott McCarthy Aquatics Center, Chandler Field, one of four large playing fields. Further up the hill are the health center, the Vivian Webb Chapel, additional dormitories, tennis courts, faculty houses. At the top of the hill are a cross-country track course, the Les Perry Gymnasium, McCarthy Fitness Center, Faculty Field at the Mary Stuart Rogers Sports Center. South of the football field is a functional astronomical observatory. Behind the Faculty Field the Webb property extends into the San Gabriel Mountains; the cross-country course goes through this part of the property. Webb is the only high school in the United States with a nationally accredited museum, the only high school in the world with a paleontology museum on campus.
The Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology is named for long-time Webb science teacher Raymond M. Alf. In the late 1930s, Alf and several students found a fossil skull in the Mojave Desert in the Barstow area; this discovery of a new species of Miocene-age pecca
Pasadena is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located 10 miles northeast of Downtown Los Angeles. The estimated population of Pasadena was 142,647 in 2017, making it the 183rd-largest city in the United States. Pasadena is the ninth-largest city in Los Angeles County. Pasadena was incorporated on June 19, 1886, becoming one of the first cities to be incorporated in what is now Los Angeles County, following the city of Los Angeles, it is one of the primary cultural centers of the San Gabriel Valley. The city is known for hosting Tournament of Roses Parade. In addition, Pasadena is home to many scientific and cultural institutions, including Caltech, Pasadena City College, Fuller Theological Seminary, ArtCenter College of Design, the Pasadena Playhouse, the Ambassador Auditorium, the Norton Simon Museum, the USC Pacific Asia Museum; the original inhabitants of Pasadena and surrounding areas were members of the Native American Hahamog-na tribe, a branch of the Tongva Nation. They had lived in the Los Angeles Basin for thousands of years.
Tongva dwellings lined the Arroyo Seco in present day Pasadena and south to where it joins the Los Angeles River and along other natural waterways in the city. The native people lived in dome-shape lodges, they lived on a diet of acorn meal and herbs, other small animals. They traded for ocean fish with the coastal Tongva, they made cooking vessels from steatite soapstone from Catalina Island. The oldest transportation route still in existence in Pasadena is the old Tongva foot trail known as the Gabrielino Trail, that follows the west side of the Rose Bowl and the Arroyo Seco past the Jet Propulsion Laboratory into the San Gabriel Mountains; the trail has been in continuous use for thousands of years. An arm of the trail is still in use in what is now known as Salvia Canyon; when the Spanish occupied the Los Angeles Basin they built the San Gabriel Mission and renamed the local Tongva people "Gabrielino Indians," after the name of the mission. Today, several bands of Tongva people live in the Los Angeles area.
Pasadena is a part of the original Mexican land grant named Rancho del Rincon de San Pascual, so named because it was deeded on Easter Sunday to Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné of Mission San Gabriel Arcángel. The Rancho comprised the lands of today's communities of Pasadena and South Pasadena. Before the annexation of California in 1848, the last of the Mexican owners was Manuel Garfias who retained title to the property after statehood in 1850. Garfias sold sections of the property to the first Anglo settlers to come into the area: Dr. Benjamin Eaton, the father of Fred Eaton. Much of the property was purchased by Benjamin Wilson, who established his Lake Vineyard property in the vicinity. Wilson, known as Don Benito to the local Indians owned the Rancho Jurupa and was mayor of Los Angeles, he was the grandfather of Jr. and the namesake of Mount Wilson. In 1873, Wilson was visited by Dr. Daniel M. Berry of Indiana, looking for a place in the country that could offer a mild climate for his patients, most of whom suffered from respiratory ailments.
Berry claimed that he had his best three night's sleep at Rancho San Pascual. To keep the find a secret, Berry code-named the area "Muscat" after the grape. To raise funds to bring the company of people to San Pascual, Berry formed the Southern California Orange and Citrus Growers Association and sold stock in it; the newcomers were able to purchase a large portion of the property along the Arroyo Seco and on January 31, 1874, they incorporated the Indiana Colony. As a gesture of good will, Wilson added 2,000 acres of then-useless highland property, part of which would become Altadena. Colonel Jabez Banbury opened the first school on South Orange Grove Avenue. Banbury had twin daughters, named Jessie; the two became the first students to attended Pasadena’s first school on Orange Grove. At the time, the Indiana Colony was a narrow strip of land between the Arroyo Seco and Fair Oaks Avenue. On the other side of the street was Wilson's Lake Vineyard development. After more than a decade of parallel development on both sides, the two settlements merged into the City of Pasadena.
The popularity of the region drew people from across the country, Pasadena became a stop on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway, which led to an explosion in growth. From the real estate boom of the 1880s until the Great Depression, as great tourist hotels were developed in the city, Pasadena became a winter resort for wealthy Easterners, spurring the development of new neighborhoods and business districts, increased road and transit connections with Los Angeles, culminating with the opening of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, California's first freeway. By 1940, Pasadena had become the eighth-largest city in California and was considered a twin city to Los Angeles; the first of the great hotels to be established in Pasadena was the Raymond atop Bacon Hill, renamed Raymond Hill after construction. Pasadena was served by the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway at the Santa Fe Depot in downtown when the Second District was opened in 1887; the original Mansard Victorian 200-room facility burned down on Easter morning of 1895, was rebuilt in 1903, razed during the Great Depression to make way for residential development.
The Maryland Hotel existed from the early 1900s and was demolished in 1934. The world-famous Mount Lowe Railway and associated mountain hotels shu
Pomona is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. Pomona is located between the Inland Empire and the San Gabriel Valley; as of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 149,058. The area was occupied by the Tongva Native Americans; the city is named for the ancient Roman goddess of fruit. For horticulturist Solomon Gates, "Pomona" was the winning entry in a contest to name the city in 1875, before anyone had planted a fruit tree there; the city was first settled by Ricardo Vejar and Ygnacio Palomares in the 1830s, when California and much of the now-American Southwest were part of Mexico. The first Anglo-Americans arrived in prior to 1848 when the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo resulted in California becoming part of the United States. By the 1880s, the arrival of railroads and Coachella Valley water had made it the western anchor of the citrus-growing region. Pomona was incorporated on January 6, 1888. In the 1920s Pomona was known as the "Queen of the Citrus Belt", with one of the highest per-capita levels of income in the United States.
In the 1940s it was used as a movie-previewing location for major motion picture studios to see how their films would play to modally middle-class audiences around the country. Religious institutions are embedded in the history of Pomona. There are now more than 120 churches, representing most religions in today's society; the historical architectural styles of these churches provide glimpses of European church design and architecture from other eras. In 2005, Pomona citizens elected Norma Torres, the first woman of Guatemalan heritage to be elected to a mayoral post outside of Guatemala, she would become a U. S. congresswoman representing California's 35th congressional district in 2015. Pomona is 30 miles east of the Los Angeles area of Los Angeles County in the Pomona Valley, located at 34°3′39″N 117°45′21″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.964 square miles, over 99% of it land. Pomona is 30 miles east of downtown Los Angeles, 27 miles north of Santa Ana, 26 miles west of Riverside, 33 miles west of San Bernardino.
Pomona is bordered by the cities of San Dimas on the northwest, La Verne and Claremont on the north and Chino on the east, Chino Hills and Diamond Bar on the south, Walnut, South San Jose Hills, Industry on the southwest. The Los Angeles/San Bernardino county line forms most of the city's eastern boundaries. Pomona has a Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and mild, damp winters and a large amount of sunshine year-round. August is the warmest month with an average daytime high temperature of 92 °F. Summers are characterized by sunny days and little rainfall during the months of June through September. Fall brings cooler temperatures and occasional showers, as well as seasonal Santa Ana winds originating from the northeast. December is the coolest month with an average high temperature of 68 °F. Winter brings the majority of annual precipitation. Snowfall is unheard of, but frost can occur once or twice a year. Annual precipitation averages 17.32 inches. The 2010 United States Census reported that Pomona had a population of 149,058, a slight decline from the 2000 census population.
The population density was 6,491.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Pomona was 71,564 White, 10,924 African American, 1,763 Native American, 12,688 Asian, 282 Pacific Islander, 45,171 from other races, 6,666 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 105,135 persons; the Census reported that 144,920 people lived in households, 2,782 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 1,356 were institutionalized. There were 38,477 households, out of which 19,690 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 19,986 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 6,960 had a female householder with no husband present, 3,313 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 2,823 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 299 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 5,810 households were made up of individuals and 2,010 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 30,259 families; the population was spread out with 43,853 people under the age of 18, 20,155 people aged 18 to 24, 42,311 people aged 25 to 44, 31,369 people aged 45 to 64, 11,370 people who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 29.5 years. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. There were 39,620 housing units at an average density of 1,771.8 per square mile, of which 21,197 were owner-occupied, 17,280 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 2.0%. 80,968 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 63,952 people lived in rental housing units During 2009–2013, Pomona had a median household income of $49,474, with 21.6% of the population living below the federal poverty line. Since the 1980s, Pomona's newest neighborhood Phillips Ranch, experienced rapid growth with homes still being built in the hilly area between Downtown and Diamond Bar. Today, Phillips Ranch is nearly all residential. Northern