Selective Service System
The Selective Service System is an independent agency of the United States government that maintains information on those subject to military conscription. All male-at birth U. S. citizens and male immigrant non-citizens, who are between the ages of 18 and 25 are required by law to have registered within 30 days of their 18th birthdays, must notify Selective Service within ten days of any changes to any of the information they provided on their registration cards, such as a change of address. In practice, the selective service system has minimal practical effect today since the U. S. military operates on a volunteer basis. It is seen as a contingency mechanism for the possibility that conscription someday becomes necessary again. A 2010 Government Accountability Office report estimated the registration rate at 92%, with the names and addresses of over 16.2 million men on file. However, the only audit of the addresses of registrants on file with the Selective Service System, in 1982, found that 20–40% of the addresses on file with the Selective Service System for registrants in the age groups that would be drafted first were outdated, up to 75% for those registrants in their last year of potential eligibility to be drafted would be invalid.
Registration with Selective Service is required for various federal programs and benefits, including the Free Application for Federal Student Aid, student loans and Pell Grants, job training, federal employment, naturalization. The Selective Service System provides the names of all registrants to the Joint Advertising Marketing Research & Studies program for inclusion in the JAMRS Consolidated Recruitment Database; the names are distributed to the Services for recruiting purposes on a quarterly basis. Regulations are codified at Title 32 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter XVI. Following the U. S. declaration of war against Germany on April 6, the Selective Service Act of 1917 was passed by the 65th United States Congress on May 18, 1917, creating the Selective Service System. President Woodrow Wilson signed the Act into law after the U. S. Army failed to meet its target of expanding to 1 million men after six weeks; the Act gave the President the power to conscript men for military service.
All men aged 21 to 30 were required to register for military service for a service period of 12 months. As of mid-November 1917, all registrants were placed in one of five new classifications. Men in Class I were the first to be drafted, men in lower classifications were deferred. Dependency deferments for registrants who were fathers or husbands were widespread; the age limit was raised in August 1918 to a maximum age of 45. The military draft was discontinued in 1920; the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 was passed by Congress on September 16, 1940, establishing the first peacetime conscription in United States history. It required all men between the ages of 18 to 64 to register with Selective Service, it conscripted all men aged 21 to 35 for a service period of 12 months. In 1941 the military service period was extended to 18 months. Following the sneak Japanese air raid attack on Pearl Harbor on Sunday, December 7, 1941, the subsequent declarations of war by the United States against the Empire of Japan and a few days against Nazi Germany, the service period was subsequently extended in early 1942 to last for the duration of the war plus a six-month service in the Organized Reserves.
In his 1945 State of the Union address, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt requested that the draft be expanded to include female nurses, to overcome a shortage, endangering military medical care. This began a debate over the drafting of all women, defeated in the House of Representatives. A bill to draft nurses died without a vote in the Senate; the publicity caused more nurses to volunteer, agencies streamlined recruiting, enemy forces in Europe were defeated. The Selective Service System created by the 1940 Act was terminated by the Act of March 31, 1947; the Selective Service Act of 1948, enacted in June of that year, created a new and separate system, the basis for the modern system. All men 18 years and older had to register with Selective Service. All men between the ages of 19 to 26 were eligible to be drafted for a service requirement of 21 months; this was followed by a commitment for either 12 consecutive months of active service or 36 consecutive months of service in the reserves, with a statutory term of military service set at a minimum of five years total.
Conscripts could volunteer for military service in the Regular United States Army for a term of four years or the Organized Reserves for a term of six years. Due to deep postwar budget cuts, only 100,000 conscripts were chosen in 1948. In 1950, the number of conscripts was increased to meet the demands of the Korean War; the outbreak of the Korean War fostered the creation of the Universal Military Training and Service Act of 1951. This lowered the draft age from 19 to 18 1⁄2, increased active-duty service time from 21 to 24 months, set the statutory term of military service at a minimum of eight years. Students attending a college or training program full-time could request an exemption, extended as long as they were students. A Universal Military Training clause was inserted that would have made all men obligated to perform 12 months of military service and training if the Act was amended by legislation. Despite successive attempts over the next several years, such legislation was never passed.
35th President John F. Ken
Edward Samuel Corwin
Edward Samuel Corwin was president of the American Political Science Association. Corwin was born in Plymouth, Michigan on January 19, 1878, he received his undergraduate degree from the University of Michigan in 1900. D. from the University of Pennsylvania in 1905. He was invited to join the faculty of Princeton University by Woodrow Wilson in 1905. In 1908 he was appointed the McCormick Professor of Jurisprudence, he authored many books on United States constitutional law, he remained at Princeton until he retired in 1946. He was buried in Princeton Cemetery, he was reinterred to Riverside Cemetery near his birthplace in Plymouth, where he is buried with his wife and other family members. A full biography of Corwin, with a comprehensive bibliography of his numerous publications, was written by Kenneth Crews and published in 1985, he has been quoted for saying that the Constitution "is an invitation to struggle for the privilege of directing American foreign policy." John Marshall and the Constitution.
Ralph Johnson Bunche was an American political scientist and diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his late 1940s mediation in Israel. He was the first African American, he was involved in the administration of the United Nations. In 1963, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President John F. Kennedy. For more than two decades, Bunche served as chair of the Department of Political Science at Howard University, where he taught generations of students, he served as a member of the Board of Overseers of his alma mater, Harvard University, as a member of the board of the Institute of International Education, as a trustee of Oberlin College, Lincoln University, New Lincoln School. In August 2008, the United States National Archives and Records Administration made public the fact that Bunche had joined the US Office of Strategic Services – the precursor organization to the Central Intelligence Agency – during World War II. Bunche was baptized at the city's Second Baptist Church.
His father Fred Bunche was a barber and his mother, Olive Agnes, was an amateur musician, from a "large and talented family." Her siblings included Ethel Johnson. His maternal grandfather, Thomas Nelson Johnson, was mixed-race, the son of Eleanor Madden and her husband. Eleanor was the mixed-race daughter of Irish planter father. Thomas Nelson Johnson graduated from Shurtleff College in Alton, Illinois in 1875, worked there as a teacher. In September 1875 he married one of his students. Genealogist Paul Heinegg thinks that Fred Bunche were descended from the South Carolina branch of the family but notes it has not been proven, he said that the censuses of 1900 and 1910 for Detroit "list several members of the Bunch family who were born in South Carolina, but Fred Bunch was not among them." He believes that Bunche was descended from Bunch ancestors established as free people of color in Virginia before the American Revolution. There were men of the Bunch surname in South Carolina by the end of the 18th century.
The Bunch/Bunche surname was rare. Several generations of the Bunch men, free men of color, married white women colonists from the British Isles, who were free, so their children were free; when Ralph was a child, his family moved to Toledo, where his father looked for work. They returned to Detroit in 1909 after his sister Grace was born, with the help of their maternal aunt, Ethel Johnson, their father did not live with the family again after Ohio and had not been "a good provider." But he followed them. Because of the declining health of his mother and uncle, Ralph moved with his maternal grandmother, Lucy Taylor Johnson, to Albuquerque, New Mexico in 1915, his mother died in 1917. Bunche was 13 years old. In 1918, Lucy Taylor Johnson moved with the two Bunche grandchildren to the South Central neighborhood of Los Angeles, mostly white. Fred Bunche remarried, Ralph never saw him again. Bunche was a brilliant student, a debater, the valedictorian of his graduating class at Jefferson High School.
He attended the University of California, Los Angeles, graduated summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa in 1927 as the valedictorian of his class. Using the money his community raised for his studies and a graduate scholarship at Harvard University, he earned a doctorate in political science. To help with living expenses at Harvard, Bunche sought a job at a local bookstore; the owner offered him a part-time job, Bunche ran the store to his employer's satisfaction. One day the owner said, "Folks tell me you're a Negro. I don't give a damn, but are you?" Bunche asked, "What did you think?" and the owner said, "I couldn't see you clear enough."Bunche earned a master's degree in political science in 1928 and a doctorate in 1934, while he was teaching in the Department of Political Science at Howard University, an black college established at the end of the Civil War. At the time, it was typical for doctoral candidates to start teaching before completion of their dissertations, he was the first African American.
He published his first book, World View of Race, in 1936. From 1936 to 1938, Ralph Bunche conducted postdoctoral research in anthropology at the London School of Economics, at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. In 1940, Bunche contributed, as an investigative researcher and writer, to Swedish sociologist Gunnar Myrdal's landmark study of racial dynamics in the U. S. An American Dilemma. During World War II, Bunche worked in the Office of Strategic Services, the precursor to the CIA, as a senior social analyst on Colonial Affairs. In 1943, he was transferred from the OSS to the State Department, he was appointed Associate Chief of the Division of Dependent Area Affairs under Alger Hiss. With Hiss, Bunche became one of the leaders of the Institute of Pacific Relations, he participated in the preliminary planning for the United Nations at the San Francisco Conference of 1945. In 2008, the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration released a 51-page PDF of his OSS records, available online.
Near the close of World War II in 1944, Bunche took part in planning for the United Nations at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, held in Washington, D. C, he was an adviser to the U. S. delegation for the "Charter Conference" of the United Nations held in 1945, when the governing document was drafted. Together with First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, Bunch
Paul Samuel Reinsch
Paul Samuel Reinsch, was an American political scientist and diplomat. Reinsch was born in Wisconsin of German-American parents, he graduated from the University of Wisconsin in 1892, attended the school of law there, after graduating in 1894, was admitted to the bar and practiced law in Milwaukee for some time. He returned to the University of Wisconsin for additional schooling in 1895, earning a Ph. D. in political science under Frederick Jackson Turner in 1898. He was employed there as an assistant professor of political science. In 1913 he became the United States Minister to China, a position he held until 1919. Before and after that date he served as a delegate to various international conferences.. The Common Law in the Early American Colonies.. World Politics at the End of the Nineteenth Century.. Colonial Government.. Colonial Administration.. American Legislatures and Legislative Methods.. Readings on American Federal Government.. Civil Government.. Readings on American State Government.. Intellectual and Political Currents in the Far East..
Public International Unions.. An American Diplomat in China. "A Parliament for China," The Atlantic, December 1, 1909. He was a contributor to the New International Encyclopedia. Works by or about Paul Samuel Reinsch at Internet Archive Works by Paul Samuel Reinsch, at Hathi Trust Works by Paul Samuel Reinsch, at JSTOR Works by Paul Samuel Reinsch, at Unz.org
Leo Stanton Rowe
Leo Stanton Rowe was the director general of the Pan-American Union from 1920 to 1946. He was born on September 1871 in McGregor, Iowa to Louis Rowe and Catherine Raff, his family moved to Philadelphia and he attended high school and graduated in 1887. He attended the University of Pennsylvania and graduated with a Bachelor of Philosophy degree in 1890, he received his Ph. D. from the University of Halle in 1893. He received his J. D. from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 1895. He taught political science at the University of Pennsylvania from 1896 to 1917, he was United States Assistant Secretary of the Treasury from 1917 to 1919. He was the director general of the Pan-American Union from 1920 to 1946, he died on December 5, 1946 in Washington, DC. The United States and Porto Rico: With Special Reference to the Problems Arising Out of Our Contact with the Spanish-American Civilization. Longmans and Company. 1904..
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
John Bassett Moore
John Bassett Moore was an American lawyer and authority on international law. Moore was a State Department official, a professor at Columbia University, a judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice from 1921 to 1938, the first American judge to sit on that judicial body. Moore graduated from the University of Virginia and was admitted to the Delaware bar in 1883, he practiced law in Wilmington, before working as a law clerk at the Department of State from 1885 to 1886. He was an Third Assistant Secretary of State from 1886 to 1891, when he became Hamilton Fish Professorship of International Law and Diplomacy at Columbia Law School, the first chair of international law in the United States. Moore remained a Columbia professor until 1924, taking frequent leaves of absence to take up U. S. diplomatic posts. Moore was Assistant Secretary of State in 1898. During his service with the Department of State he acted as secretary to the Conference on Samoan Affairs and to the Fisheries Conference.
After the close of the war with Spain was secretary and council to the American Peace Commission at Paris. In 1901, he served as professor of International Law at the Naval War College, where he initiated that college's long series of "International Law Blue Book" publications. Subsequently, Moore represented the government as agent before the United States and Dominican Arbitration Tribunal, as delegate to the Fourth International American Conference at Buenos Aires and special plenipotentiary to the Chilean centenary, as delegate to the International Commission of Jurists at Rio de Janeiro, he was on the Hague Tribunal from 1912 to 1938, was a judge of the Permanent Court of International Justice from 1920 to 1928. Moore was a proponent of neutrality, believing that the post-World War I system of alliances would tend to broaden wars into global conflicts, he was a strong believer in the principle of separation of powers under the United States Constitution, asserting in 1921, "There can hardly be room for doubt that the framers of the constitution, when they vested in Congress the power to declare war, never imagined that they were leaving it to the executive to use the military and naval forces of the United States all over the world for the purpose of coercing other nations, occupying their territory, killing their soldiers and citizens, all according to his own notions of the fitness of things, as long as he refrained from calling his action war or persisted in calling it peace."
Moore was honored on a U. S. definitive postage stamp issued December 3, 1966, the five-dollar value of the Prominent Americans series. In 1922, a new school was dedicated to Moore in his hometown of Delaware; the John Bassett Moore Intermediate School now serves as a public school for the fifth and sixth grades. Moore is buried in Woodlawn Cemetery in New York City. Reports on Extraterritorial Crime Extradition and Interstate Rendition American Notes on the Conflict of Laws History and Digest of International Arbitrations American Diplomacy Digest of International Law Works of James Buchanan Four Phases of American Development International Law and Some Current Illusions The Permanent Court of International Justice International Adjudications and Modern Collected Papers Works related to John Bassett Moore at Wikisource This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Moore, John Basset". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Works by or about John Bassett Moore at Internet Archive