DR Class 58.30

After the Second World War, the Deutsche Reichsbahn in East Germany had a requirement for powerful goods train locomotives with a 15-18 tonne axle load for routes in the Mittelgebirge, the mountainous areas in the south of the country. As a result, the DR Class 58.30 emerged, as part of the so-called'reconstruction programme', based on rebuilds of the former Prussian G 12 locomotives. Between 1958 and 1962, 56 locomotives from various state railways were converted at the former repair shop, RAW Zwickau; as part of this rebuild, the engines were given welded driver's cabs, newly designed boilers with combustion chambers, mixer-preheater systems, new welded cylinders, Trofimoff valves and Witte smoke deflectors. The reinforced Type 58E Rekokessel was a modified Type 50E boiler, installed on e.g. the Rekoloks of Class 50.35 and Class 52.80 as well as the DR Neubaulok, the DR Class 23.10. Due to the longer boiler, the frame had to be extended; the distance between the carrying axle wheelset and the first coupled axle increased by around 300 mm and the overall wheelbase of the locomotive from 8,500 to 8,800 mm.

That and other changes meant. After the reconstruction, the Class 58.30, with its new cab, higher-pitched boiler, steep smokebox skirts and two main air reservoirs located above the cylinders, had a new and striking appearance. Compared with the original Prussian G 12 engines, the reconstructed locomotives were more powerful, more economical and faster; the engine crews were pleased with the larger reserves of power of the new boiler. On the plains, the Reko-G12 matched the performance of the DRG Class 44; that said, the 58.30 was the most expensive locomotive of the entire reconstruction programme due to its extensive modernisation. Because the delivery of new tenders in the required quantities was not possible for various reasons and the original pr 3 T 20 and sä 3 T 21 tenders could not be used for safety reasons, there was a major shortage of tenders for this class for a long time. So the Class 58.30 was coupled with all available types of four-axled tender to begin with. For example, there are official photographs of engines with the large 2'2'T34 standard tenders as well as the 2'2'T30 tub tenders.

The rebuilt locomotives were stationed in Saxony and Thuringia, above all in the locomotive depots of Aue, Döbeln, Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Gera and Saalfeld. The last surviving engines were homed at Glauchau. On 12 February 1981, numbers 58 3028 and 58 3032 were taken out of service a Bw Glauchau, thus ending the official deployment of Class 58.30 steam locomotives. Two locomotives have been preserved as non-working examples for posterity. Locomotive no 58 3047, reconstructed in 1961 from 58 1955, is looked after today by the interest group of the same name in Glauchau. In Schwarzenberg, the Verein Sächsischer Eisenbahnfreunde accommodates and maintains locomotive no. 58 3049, rebuilt from 58 1725. The former museum locomotive is coupled with a new-design 2'2' T 28 tender. List of East German Deutsche Reichsbahn locomotives and railbuses Rekolok IG 58 3047 Glauchau Verein Sächsischer Eisenbahnfreunde site

Spanish–Taíno War of San Juan–Borikén

The Spanish and Taíno War of San Juan–Borikén known as the Taíno Rebellion of 1511, was the first major conflict to take place in the modern-day Puerto Rico after the arrival of the Spaniards on November 19, 1493. After the death of Agüeybaná I, the Taíno high chief who struck the initial peace agreement with Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in 1508, Agüeybaná II rose to power. Beginning his reign amidst native dissatisfaction with the encomiendas system and the acquisition of land territory that his predecessor allowed, the new leader soon formed a coalition that included several southern caciques, such as Urayoán, Yauco, Loquillo, Guayama and "Luis" among several others, declared war on the European settlers; the first act of war carried out by the Taínos was the execution of Cristóbal de Sotomayor, a high-ranking Spanish officer, the burning of his settlement. From this point onward, the conflict took place in stages, the first being an open confrontation where both sides clashed.

Two such confrontations took place in 1511 with the Spaniards, led by Ponce de León, winning the initial confrontations despite the numeric advantage of the Taínos. Throughout 1512, Spanish commanders Juan Cerón and Miguel Díaz led a series of horseback incursions into the territory of the ruling Caciques, destroying their villages and taking as many slaves as possible in the process; the ensuing Spanish counteroffensive was characterized by both political and economic motives, which would allow the mining of resources, such as gold, in their domains and the sale of natives as slaves. In March of that year, they focused on a cacique that they renamed "Alonso" in the central region of Otoao. During the following months, Humacao and Orocobix were targeted. On May 15, 1512, Juan Godínez led a new Spanish incursion against the Taíno. In total, the Spanish carried out 18 attacks against the Taíno during this year. In early 1513, the conquistadores targeted the domains of Cociguex, Yauco and the renamed "Luis", managing control of the region.

The natives employed guerrilla tactics moving throughout their offensives and moving in and out of Borikén/San Juan in canoes as necessary. The Taíno launched a counteroffensive from a base in the Daguao, in the eastern half of the main island, managing to burn down the Spanish capital of Caparra. In turn, Orocobix's domain was under siege from May to September. In September 1513, the conquistadores entered the domain of Hayuya twice. "Alonso" and Orocovis were targeted. That same month, the Spanish made another incursion into Otoao. During that year, the local Spanish carried out 23 incursions against the natives, viceroy Diego Colón ordered additional retaliatory attacks after the Taínos burned down the settlement of Caparra. Between 1514 and 1515, the Spanish made advances into the Daguao, pushing the Taínos to seek refuge in the Lesser Antilles, with the presence of Agüeybana II being reported at Guadeloupe; the last report of a Taíno that could have been the High Chief was made in 1518, after which he disappears from record.

Attacks carried out by exiled Taínos and their associates from neighboring islands extended through the 1520s stopping in 1529. The royal family that ruled over most of Borikén, now known as Puerto Rico, during the precolombian Taíno period used the honorific "Agüeybana" a title, akin to "High Chief", translated as the European concept of "king" in some English sources, that doubled as a family name; the title itself carried notable sociological and communal connotations, with its holder being revered and given utmost respect among the population. The Agüeybana family lived in Cayabo, located in the southern region of the main island of Puerto Rico, an agriculturally fertile region, from which they coordinated military and political actions with the lesser caciques scattered through the central and west regions such as well as the islands of Vieques and St. Croix. There were, signs that their domain was still in the consolidating stage despite being the oldest cacical alliance in the Caribbean and the most important of Borikén, such as the presence of some independent caciques in the region.

The caciques in the northeast had their own interests. Not counting political alliances and subordinate caciques, their personal domain extended from modern day began at the salt marshes at Ponce and extended through the mouth of the Jacaguas river and beyond, comprising the municipalities of Juana Díaz, Coamo, Peñuelas and Salinas, it is that their domain covered a space left blank by the conquistadores when describing the political divisions of the southern coast, between the lands of caciques Abey and Yauco. Aware of the events that had happened in the adjacent island of Hispaniola in the fifteen years since the Spanish first landed there, the caciques of Borikén tried different approaches. In 1508, Agüeybana I opted to welcome Juan Ponce de León warmly, after learning of impending arrival from a group of caciques that had met the Spanish Conquistador in 1506; the negotiation process to met the royal family took around a year and a half, with some caciques escorting him from Mona Island to the lands of Agüeybana, the Cayabo.

Ponce de León found himself before the High Chief, his mother and her husband, an uncle, two sisters and a brother. Agüeybana offered to create a symbolic brotherhood with the Spanish through th