Andreas Johannes Kirkerup was a Danish architect and master builder, one of the most significant pupils of Caspar Frederik Harsdorff. Together with architects such as Andreas Hallander and Johan Martin Quist, Kirkerup was born in Copenhagen in 1749. He won the Academys small and large silver medals in 1768, Kirkerup set up a business as master carpenter in 1774 and was appointed architect for the engineering troops. He won great recognition for his work and was appointed Court Carpenter in 1775, still a student, Kirkerup enrolled in the fire corps in 1772 and was promoted through the ranks. He led the efforts to control the fire during the British Bombardment of Copenhagen in 1807 but was hurt in the line of duty. He died a few years from his wounds and is buried at Frederiksberg churchyard
The rigsdaler was the name of several currencies used in Denmark until 1875. The similarly named Reichsthaler and rijksdaalder were used in Germany and Austria-Hungary and these currencies were often anglicized as rix-dollar or rixdollar. The Danish currency system established in 1625 consisted of 12 penning =1 skilling,16 skilling =1 mark,6 mark =1 rigsdaler and 8 mark =1 krone. From 1713, two separate systems coexisted and species, with courant being a debased currency used for banknote issue, the rigsdaler species contained 4⁄37 of a Cologne mark of fine silver. In 1813, following a crisis, a new currency system was introduced, based on the rigsbankdaler. For six rigsdaler in old banknotes, a new one rigsbankdaler note was exchanged, the rigsbankdaler This was divided into 96 rigsbank skilling and was equal to half a rigsdaler species or 6 rigsdaler courant. A further change was made in 1854, the rigsdaler species name disappeared and the names rigsbankdaler and rigsbank skilling became rigsdaler and skilling rigsmønt.
Thus, there were 96 skilling rigsmønt to the rigsdaler, in 1873, Denmark and Sweden formed the Scandinavian Monetary Union and the rigsdaler was replaced by the Danish krone on 1 January 1875. An equal valued krone/krona of the union replaced the three currencies at the rate of 1 krone/krona = 1⁄2 Danish rigsdaler = 1⁄4 Norwegian speciedaler =1 Swedish riksdaler. Because of this reform, where two Danish kroner was of equal worth to the Danish daler, the coins got the common name of daler as they were functionally the same. This has however, become an uncommon name as a result of a gap in the tokrone coins existence from 1959 to 1993. In the late 18th century, coins were issued in denominations of 1⁄2,1,2,4,8,24 and 32 skilling, 1⁄15, 1⁄4, 1⁄3, 1⁄2 and 1 rigsdaler specie. Between 1813 and 1815, copper coins bearing the legend rigsbanktegn were issued in denominations of 2,3,4,6,12 and 16 skilling, from 1818,1,2 and 32 rigsbank skilling coins were issued, with 1 rigsdaler species from 1820.
From 1826, gold coins were issued denominated in Frederiks dOr or Christians dOr, the dor was nominally worth 10 rigsdaler, although the currency was on a silver standard. In 1838, 1⁄2 rigsbank skilling coins were introduced, between 1840 and 1843, a new coinage was introduced, consisting of 1⁄5, 1⁄2,1,2,3,4,8,16 and 32 rigsbank skilling,1 rigsbankdaler and 1 rigsdaler species. These denominations were 1 1⁄4, 2 1⁄2,5,10 and 30 Schilling Courant, the renaming of the currency units in 1854 lead to the issuing of coins for 1⁄2,1,4 and 16 skilling rigsmønt,1 and 2 rigsdaler. Gold dor coins continued to be issued, in 1713, the government introduced notes for 1,2 and 3 mark,1,5,10,25,50 and 100 rigsdaler. The Copenhagen Assignation and Loans Bank issued notes between 1737 and 1804 for 10,20,30,40,50 and 100 rigsdaler courant
Johan Frederik Classen
Johan Frederik Classen, frequently J. F. Classen, was a Danish-Norwegian industrialist, major general and founder of Det Classenske Fideicommis. Classen was born in Oslo, where his father, was an organist, the father, who had the same name as his son, was born 1697 and died 1775, his mother, born Walter, was from a Norwegian farmer family. After having gone through grammar school in his hometown, he became a candidate at University of Copenhagen in 1741. Despite his studies, it was not Classens intention to make a theological career, when only 24, Classen became a supplier of munitions to the State, in particular as commissioner for the Moss foundry, a post he held until c. As such, he conducted negotiations with army headquarters and he seems to have had influential friends in the kings immediate circle. In 1751, he received the title of Chancellry Counsellor and in 1753, was appointed Secretary of Kommercekollegiet, immediately after the 1750 death of the Danish merchant, Andreas Bjørn, Classen became involved in the annual delivery of munitions to the Berbers in Algiers.
He began by delivering 8,000 cannonballs, followed by gunpowder and timber and his international trading ties developed through his connection with the former Spanish ambassador in Copenhagen, Marqués de Puente Fuerte. The work brought him contact with a variety of industrialists. In 1754, Classen unsuccessfully sought to establish a glassworks, the following year, in 1756, a dispute arose between Classen and the directors of the Moss foundry, and by 1759, Classen ceased to be an agent there. De Peyrembert, a Frenchman, had attempted to produce cannons there. Responding to the wishes and Fabritius embarked not only on the production of cannons and gunpowder. As the land had been allocated by Frederik V, Classen named the foundry Frederiksværk, the business did well, benefitting from supplies for the Seven Years War from 1756. Although he was interested in the side of the enterprise, it was above all Classens abilities as an administrator. Within a few years, Frederiksværk became Denmarks one and only industrial town, thanks to the quality of both its gunpowder and cannons, the factory quickly became competitive.
By 1765, the number of workers had increased to some 400, Classens enterprise received support from the State. One of Classens patrons was Saint-Germain who was striving to improve Danish artillery, shortly afterwards, Saint-Germain was dismissed and in April 1768, a investigative committee was set up with Classens opponent, Ditlev Reventlow as chairman. The contract, which specified an annual subsidy for operating the factory in addition to payments for the supplies, was renewed every year until Classen died. Furthermore, Frederiksværk concluded contracts for supplying weapons and munitions to large trading companies, in 1769, the business was extended to produce stoves and cooking pots although not all Classens attempts to bring other industries to the town were successful
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years, playing its part in the development of the art of Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Portraiture and Architecture in Copenhagen was inaugurated on 31 March 1754 and its name was changed to the Royal Danish Academy of Painting and Architecture in 1771. The building boom resulting from the Great Fire of 1795 greatly profited from this initiative, in 1814 the name was changed again, this time to the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. It is still situated in its building, the Charlottenborg Palace. The School of Architecture has been situated in former naval buildings on Holmen since 1996, the academy is larger and better funded than the Jutland Art Academy and Funen Art Academy, which offer similar programs. It teaches and conducts research on the subjects of painting, architecture, photography, the academy is under the administration of the Danish Ministry of Culture. The academy’s School of Architecture offers education in the fields of design and restoration and landscape planning and industrial, graphic.
The school has nine departments, four research institutes and six affiliated research centres. The undergraduate course, leading to the Bachelor of Architecture diploma, in 2011, the Wall Street Journal named Ingels the Innovator of the Year for architecture. Hansen Medal Thorvaldsen Medal Eckersberg Medal Thorvald Bindesbøll Medal N. L. Høyen Medal The School of Visual Arts C. C
Ancient Roman architecture
Ancient Roman architecture adopted the external language of classical Greek architecture for the purposes of the ancient Romans, but differed from Greek buildings, becoming a new architectural style. The two styles are considered one body of classical architecture. Roman architecture flourished in the Roman Republic and even more so under the Empire and it used new materials, particularly concrete, and newer technologies such as the arch and the dome to make buildings that were typically strong and well-engineered. Large numbers remain in some form across the empire, sometimes complete, Roman Architecture covers the period from the establishment of the Roman Republic in 509 BC to about the 4th century AD, after which it becomes reclassified as Late Antique or Byzantine architecture. Almost no substantial examples survive from before about 100 BC, and most of the major survivals are from the empire, after about 100 AD. They moved from trabeated construction mostly based on columns and lintels to one based on walls, punctuated by arches.
The classical orders now became largely decorative rather than structural, except in colonnades, they did not feel entirely restricted by Greek aesthetic concerns, and treated the orders with considerable freedom. Innovation started in the 3rd or 2nd century BC with the development of Roman concrete as a readily available adjunct to, or substitute for, more daring buildings soon followed, with great pillars supporting broad arches and domes. The freedom of concrete inspired the colonnade screen, a row of decorative columns in front of a load-bearing wall. In smaller-scale architecture, concretes strength freed the floor plan from rectangular cells to a more free-flowing environment, factors such as wealth and high population densities in cities forced the ancient Romans to discover new architectural solutions of their own. The use of vaults and arches, together with a knowledge of building materials. Examples include the aqueducts of Rome, the Baths of Diocletian and the Baths of Caracalla and these were reproduced at a smaller scale in most important towns and cities in the Empire.
Some surviving structures are almost complete, such as the walls of Lugo in Hispania Tarraconensis. The administrative structure and wealth of the empire made possible very large even in locations remote from the main centres, as did the use of slave labour. Especially under the empire, architecture often served a function, demonstrating the power of the Roman state in general. The influence is evident in many ways, for example, in the introduction and use of the Triclinium in Roman villas as a place, Roman builders employed Greeks in many capacities, especially in the great boom in construction in the early Empire. The Roman Architectural Revolution, known as the Concrete Revolution, was the use in Roman architecture of the previously little-used architectural forms of the arch, vault. For the first time in history, their potential was fully exploited in the construction of a range of civil engineering structures, public buildings
A loggia is an architectural feature which is a covered exterior gallery or corridor usually on an upper level, or sometimes ground level. The outer wall is open to the elements, usually supported by a series of columns or arches, Loggias can be located either on the front or side of a building and are not meant for entrance but as an out-of-door sitting room. From the early Middle Ages, nearly every Italian comune had an arched loggia in its main square which served as a symbol of communal justice and government. The main difference between a loggia and a portico is the role within the layout of the building. The portico allows entrance to the inside from the exterior and can be found on vernacular, the loggia is accessed only from inside and intended as a place for leisure. Thus, it is mainly on noble residences and public buildings. A classic use of both is that represented in the Mosaics of Basilica of Sant Apollinare Nuovo of the Royal Palace, a double loggia occurs when a loggia is located on an upper floor level above a loggia on the floor beneath.
In Italian architecture, a loggia often takes the form of a small, often ornate, summer house built on the roof of a residence to enjoy cooling winds and they were especially popular in the 17th century and are prominent in Rome and Bologna, Italy. Grinnell College in Grinnell, contains three sets of dorms connected by loggias. In the town center of Chester in the United Kingdom, a number of timber-framed buildings dating from the Tudor to Victorian periods have first-floor loggias called the Chester Rows, in Russia, a loggia can be a recessed balcony on a residential apartment building. A loggia was added to the Sydney Opera House in 2006, at the archeological site of Hagia Triada on the Greek island of Crete, several loggias constructed around 1400 BC have been located and whose column bases still remain. Peristyle Portico Veranda Curl, James Stevens, a Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. The dictionary definition of loggia at Wiktionary Media related to Loggias at Wikimedia Commons
For its Antillian namesake, see Charlotte Amalie, U. S. Virgin Islands Amalienborg is the home of the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Amalienborg was originally built for four families, when Christiansborg Palace burned on 26 February 1794. Over the years various kings and their families have resided in the four different palaces, the Frederiksstaden district was built on the former grounds of two other palaces. The first palace was called Sophie Amalienborg, other parts of the land were used for Rosenborg Castle and the new Eastern fortified wall around the old city. Work on the began in 1664, and the castle was built 1669-1673. The King died in 1670, and the Queen Dowager lived there until her death on 20 February 1685, the presentation was a great success, and it was repeated a few days on 19 April. However, immediately after the start of the performance a stage decoration caught fire, causing the theatre and the palace to burn to the ground. The King planned to rebuild the palace, whose church, Royal Household, ole Rømer headed the preparatory work for the rebuilding of Amalienborg in the early 1690s.
In 1694, the King negotiated a deal with the Swedish building master Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and his drawing and model were completed in 1697. The King, found the plans too ambitious, and instead began tearing down the buildings that same year. The second Amalienborg was built by Frederick IV at the beginning of his reign, the second Amalienborg consisted of a summerhouse, a central pavilion with orangeries, and arcades on both side of the pavilion. On one side of the buildings was a French-style garden, the pavilion had a dining room on the groundfloor. On the upper floor was a salon with an out to the harbour, the garden. This development is thought to have been the brainchild of Danish Ambassador Plenipotentiary in Paris. Heading the project was Lord High Steward Adam Gottlob Moltke, one of the most powerful and influential men in the land, with Nicolai Eigtved as royal architect and supervisor. The project consisted of four identical mansions, built to house four distinguished families of nobility from the royal circles and these mansions form the modern palace of Amalienborg, albeit much modified over the years.
The noblemen who owned them were willing to part with their mansions for promotion and money, and the Moltke and Schack Palaces were acquired in the course of a few days. A colonnade, designed by royal architect Caspar Frederik Harsdorff, was added 1794-1795 to connect the recently occupied King’s palace, Moltke Palace, with that of the Crown Prince, Schack’s Palace
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Peter Hersleb Classen
Peter Hersleb Classen, frequently P. H. Classen, was a Norwegian-Danish statesman and director of Det Classenske Fideicommis. Classen was born in Christiania, after completing schooling in Christiania in 1756, Classen attended the University of Copenhagen. Classen had shown special interest in the factory on Blegdamsvej in Copenhagens Østerbro district. However, when on one occasion he supported the position rather than that of the State, he was severely reprimanded. In 1784, he received a further disappointment when he was moved from second to place in Kommercecollegiet so that Johan Ludvig Reventlow could move into his position. From that time on, on the grounds of health, he no longer participated in the colleges deliberations. When the foundation built a library at 38 Amaliegade in Copenhagen, it was by a design of Classen, an amateur architect and he in turn left a considerable fortune to the foundation when he died in Copenhagen in 1825. Classen had at least one son, Peter Hersleb Classen, the Younger, Classen became a Knight of the Dannebrog in 1793 and was awarded the Order of the Elephant in 1823.
He became a member of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences
Bibliophilia or bibliophilism is the love of books, and a bibliophile or bookworm is an individual who loves books. The classic bibliophile is one who loves to read and collect books, often amassing a large, Bibliophiles do not necessarily want to possess the books that they love, an alternative would be unusual bindings, autographed copies, etc. The New York Public Library follows the same practice, according to Arthur H. Minters, the private collecting of books was a fashion indulged in by many Romans, including Cicero and Atticus. The term bibliophile entered the English language in 1824, lord Spencer and the Marquess of Blandford were noted bibliophiles. J. P. Morgan was a noted bibliophile, in 1884, he paid $24,750 for a 1459 edition of the Mainz Psalter. Antiquarian book trade in the United States Book collecting The Book Club of Detroit Caxton Club The Club of Odd Volumes Grolier Club Oxford University Society of Bibliophiles Merriam-Webster, a Gentle Madness, Bibliophiles and the Eternal Passion for Books, Henry Holt and Company, Inc.
The love of books, The Philobiblon translated by E. C. Thomas, Frances Lincoln ISBN 0-7112-2685-7 Thomas Frognall Dibdin. The Committed Reader, Reading for Utility and Fulfillment in the Twenty-First Century, forbes article on bibliomania by Finn-Olaf Jones, December 12,2005