Claude Elwood Shannon was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, cryptographer known as "the father of information theory". Shannon is noted for having founded information theory with a landmark paper, "A Mathematical Theory of Communication", that he published in 1948, he is well known for founding digital circuit design theory in 1937, when—as a 21-year-old master's degree student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology —he wrote his thesis demonstrating that electrical applications of Boolean algebra could construct any logical numerical relationship. Shannon contributed to the field of cryptanalysis for national defense during World War II, including his fundamental work on codebreaking and secure telecommunications; the Shannon family lived in Gaylord and Claude was born in a hospital in nearby Petoskey. His father, Claude Sr. was a businessman and for a while, a judge of probate and his mother, Mabel Wolf Shannon, was a language teacher, who served as the principal of Gaylord High School.
Most of the first 16 years of Shannon's life were spent in Gaylord, where he attended public school, graduating from Gaylord High School in 1932. Shannon showed an inclination towards electrical things, his best subjects were science and mathematics. At home he constructed such devices as models of planes, a radio-controlled model boat and a barbed-wire telegraph system to a friend's house a half-mile away. While growing up, he worked as a messenger for the Western Union company, his childhood hero was Thomas Edison, whom he learned was a distant cousin. Both Shannon and Edison were descendants of John Ogden, a colonial leader and an ancestor of many distinguished people. Shannon was an atheist. In 1932, Shannon entered the University of Michigan, where he was introduced to the work of George Boole, he graduated in 1936 with two bachelor's degrees: one in electrical engineering and the other in mathematics. In 1936, Shannon began his graduate studies in electrical engineering at MIT, where he worked on Vannevar Bush's differential analyzer, an early analog computer.
While studying the complicated ad hoc circuits of this analyzer, Shannon designed switching circuits based on Boole's concepts. In 1937, he wrote A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits. A paper from this thesis was published in 1938. In this work, Shannon proved that his switching circuits could be used to simplify the arrangement of the electromechanical relays that were used in telephone call routing switches. Next, he expanded this concept, proving that these circuits could solve all problems that Boolean algebra could solve. In the last chapter, he presented diagrams of several circuits, including a 4-bit full adder. Using this property of electrical switches to implement logic is the fundamental concept that underlies all electronic digital computers. Shannon's work became the foundation of digital circuit design, as it became known in the electrical engineering community during and after World War II; the theoretical rigor of Shannon's work superseded the ad hoc methods. Howard Gardner called Shannon's thesis "possibly the most important, the most noted, master's thesis of the century."Shannon received his PhD from MIT in 1940.
Vannevar Bush had suggested that Shannon should work on his dissertation at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, in order to develop a mathematical formulation for Mendelian genetics. This research resulted in Shannon's PhD thesis, called An Algebra for Theoretical Genetics. In 1940, Shannon became a National Research Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. In Princeton, Shannon had the opportunity to discuss his ideas with influential scientists and mathematicians such as Hermann Weyl and John von Neumann, he had occasional encounters with Albert Einstein and Kurt Gödel. Shannon worked across disciplines, this ability may have contributed to his development of mathematical information theory. Shannon joined Bell Labs to work on fire-control systems and cryptography during World War II, under a contract with section D-2 of the National Defense Research Committee. Shannon is credited with the invention of signal-flow graphs, in 1942, he discovered the topological gain formula while investigating the functional operation of an analog computer.
For two months early in 1943, Shannon came into contact with the leading British mathematician Alan Turing. Turing had been posted to Washington to share with the U. S. Navy's cryptanalytic service the methods used by the British Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park to break the ciphers used by the Kriegsmarine U-boats in the north Atlantic Ocean, he was interested in the encipherment of speech and to this end spent time at Bell Labs. Shannon and Turing met at teatime in the cafeteria. Turing showed Shannon his 1936 paper that defined what is now known as the "Universal Turing machine"; this impressed Shannon. In 1945, as the war was coming to an end, the NDRC was issuing a summary of technical reports as a last step prior to its eventual closing down. Inside the volume on fire control, a special essay titled Data Smoothing and Prediction in Fire-Control Systems, coauthored by Shannon, Ralph Beebe Blackman, Hendrik Wade Bode, formally treated the problem of smoothing the data in fire-control by analogy with "the problem of separating a signal from interfering noise in communications systems."
In other words, it modeled the problem in terms of data and signal processing and thus heralded the coming of the Information Age. Shannon's work on cryptography was more r
Anthony Sean Neal is an author and philosophy professor at Mississippi State University. He is the first African-American to teach in the department of philosophy's history at Mississippi State University, he is a 2019 inductee into the Morehouse College Collegium of Scholars. Neal received his masters at Mercer University and his doctorate in Humanities with a concentration in African American Philosophy and Religion from Clark Atlanta University, his main research areas include Aesthetics, Africana Philosophy, Critical Theory, Neo-Platonism, Philosophy of Religion. Neal is a specialist on the philosophy of Howard Thurman and the Modern Era of the African American Freedom Struggle. Dr. Neal is a past president of the Mississippi Philosophical Association. Common ground: a comparison of the ideas of consciousness in the writings of Howard W Thurman and Huey P. Newton Crimes Against Humanity in the Land of the Free: Can a Truth and Reconciliation Process Heal Racial Conflict in America? Howard Thurman's Philosophical Mysticism: Love Against Fragmentation evolutions of Consciousness in Thurman and Newton: Anthony Neal, Author of Common Ground, Meets Critics Dwayne A. Tunstall and Felipe Hinojosa The Acorn 17, 61-77 Howard Thurman's Mystical Logic: Creatively Encountering Oneness–A Logical Analysis of Thurman's Theology Black Theology 15, 224-244 Connecting the Ideological Lineage: From W.
E. B. Du Bois to Huey P. Newton, Journal of Pan African Studies 9, 32-46 What Is Philosophy and What Is Its Purpose in Freemasonry?, Phylaxis 53, 17-18 Imposing Morality: Cultural Perspectives on Truth and Forgiveness in the United States Anthony Sean Neal publications indexed by Google Scholar
Stranded is a 2001 English-language Spanish science fiction film about a fictional first manned mission to Mars. It stars Vincent Gallo and Maria de Medeiros, was directed by Spanish filmmaker and actress María Lidón, with screenplay by Spanish science fiction author Juan Miguel Aguilera. Lidón won the "Grand Prize of European Fantasy Film in Silver", Gallo and de Medeiros were named best actors at the 2002 Fantafestival in Rome; the film begins as the Ares spacecraft enters orbit around Mars. Andre Vishniac commands an international crew of seven astronauts, they try to land. Vishniac is killed, five other crew members are stranded inside the toppled landing craft, unable to return to the waiting Ares mothercraft. With no spare landing craft, the pilot of the Ares, returns to Earth with it, it will take 26 months for Lowell to send a rescue ship from Earth, but the stranded landing crew have supplies for less than a year and need to find ways to extend the life support system. The main problem is the thermoelectric power generator, since air and water recycling require electrical power.
Since the lander is damaged beyond repair, it no longer requires fuel, Sagan proposes to use what is left to power an improvised silicate reactor to produce methane and water vapor from the martian soil. They try to build it, but the landing engines and propellant tanks prove to be too damaged to salvage; the landing crew tries to find ways to save electrical power, but draconian measures will only extend the life of the generator to fourteen months. The required lifetime can be attained. Sanchez, the new commander, decides that she and Rodrigo should abandon the craft, since their specialist skills are less important to the survival of the mission, they don their spacesuits and walk to the edge of the Valles Marineris valley, not far from the crash site. Recent radar scans from the orbiter reveal a maze-like structure hidden below a thick cloud of water vapor in the Valles Marineris; the structure appears artificial and is identical to another one near the martian south pole. The three astronauts try to reach the bottom of the valley.
Sagan dies of asphyxiation, but Sanchez and Rodrigo stumble upon an artificial tunnel near the bottom of the valley, containing the mummified bodies of humanoid alien beings. They find that the air pressure and oxygen content in some of the tunnels is just like that on Earth. Rodrigo dies when accidentally entering a tunnel with no atmosphere, but Sanchez manages to contact the two astronauts still at the lander, who have meanwhile discovered that they are losing air pressure and have realised that there must be an air leak somewhere. Sanchez urges them to join her, as there is enough oxygen and water in the valley for them to survive until the rescue ship arrives; the scenes set on the surface of Mars were filmed on Lanzarote, the interior scenes were filmed at Panavision Studios in Hollywood. To save costs, they used the Space Shuttle interior set used for Space Cowboys. List of films set on Mars Stranded on IMDb