Electrical engineering is an engineering discipline concerned with the study and application of equipment and systems which use electricity and electromagnetism. It emerged as an identifiable occupation in the latter half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, electrical power generation and use. Electrical engineering is now divided into a wide range of fields including, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing and electronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations including hardware engineering, power electronics and waves, microwave engineering, electrochemistry, renewable energies and electrical materials science. See glossary of electrical and electronics engineering. Electrical engineers hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body or an international standards organization.
These include the International Electrotechnical Commission, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. The IEC prepares international standards for electrical engineering, developed through consensus, thanks to the work of 20,000 electrotechnical experts, coming from 172 countries worldwide. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are variable; these range from circuit theory to the management skills of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software. Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. William Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity, he is credited with establishing the term "electricity". He designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects.
In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Wilcke invented a device named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed a forerunner of the electric battery. In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, of Michael Faraday, of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism. In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin the world's first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet.
This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph. In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803-1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva's electrolyte telegraph system was innovative though it was influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta's electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle's electrolysis of water. Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.
Over 50 years he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort. By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy. Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure, they led to the international standardization of the units volt, coulomb, ohm and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893; the publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, in many countries, the definitions were recognized in relevant legislation. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature; the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world's first department of electrical engineering in 1882 and introduced the first degree course in electrical engineering in 1883.
The first electrical engineering degree program in the United States was started a
Otman Baba was a 15th-century dervish who traveled throughout the Ottoman Empire, acquiring a following among heterodox Muslims in Bulgaria after 1445 that has developed into his veneration as a saint. After Otman Baba's death, a pilgrimage complex grew around his grave in the present-day Bulgarian village of Teketo, made a museum during communism; the hagiography of Otman Baba, written by his disciple Küçük Abdal and regarded by his followers as a canonical text, maintains that Otman Baba performed miracles that proved his superiority to other dervishes and Ottoman authorities Sultan Mehmed II. Straying from orthodox Islamic tenets, Otman Baba asserted his unity with God and his mastery of divine secrets—as the embodiment of monotheistic religious figures such as Muhammad and Moses. Written five-and-a-half years after his death, the vilâyetname of Otman Baba provides the most thorough if biased depiction of the mystic's life, it differs from similar hagiographic accounts, as it more prominently presents historical information during Otman Baba's lifetime.
Written by a direct disciple of Otman Baba named Küçük Abdal, the original vilâyetname was entitled Haza Kitab-i Risale-i Vilâyet-name-i Sultan Baba, kaddes’ Allahu sırruh ül-aziz. Known manuscripts of the vilâyetname include a 260-page one transcribed by Şeyh Ömer bin Dervish Ahmed in 1758 and one from the Bulgarian village of Gorna Krepost taken to Turkey with the Alevi emigrants. A modern Turkish retelling based on various sources exists. Other sources include the vilâyetname of Otman Baba's successor Demir Baba, which refers to Otman Baba as the "pole of poles" and "Pole of the Universe and Time", symbols of his high spiritual rank. Another source is the work of Evliya Çelebi, which cites Otman Baba as a leader of ascetic dervishes and a gazi who helped conquer the Ottoman Empire's European province of Rumelia. According to the vilâyetname, Otman Baba was born in 1378 or 1379, he belonged to the Amuca tribe, spoke an Azeri-accented Oghuz language with few Persian and Arabic influences, like the heterodox Muslims in northeastern Bulgaria.
Küçük Abdal characterized Otman Baba spiritually as a saint and prophet and physically as imposing and brave. While those outside his inner circle knew him as Otman Baba, other dervishes and the aristocratic sayyids called him Şah-i Kerbelâ—a reference to the prophet Muhammad's grandson Husayn, who died in the Battle of Karbala. A vilâyetname account attributes the mystic's common name "Otman Baba" to Ottoman ruler Mehmed II; when the sultan disguised himself as a commoner and visited the Eski Saray tekke in Constantinople, only Otman Baba recognized him. Convinced of the dervish's sainthood, Mehmed addressed him as "my beloved father, Otman"—"father" translating in Turkish as "baba". Dervish leaders faced accusations of turning commoners against the Ottoman government's policies. Otman Baba's proselytizing in the Eastern Balkans and Anatolia coincides with the settlements of the nomadic Yürüks, who were hostile toward the Ottoman bureaucracy that forcibly recruited them as soldiers; the vilâyetname asserts that Mehmed II recognized Otman Baba as a true saint and the true Ottoman leader, it presents supportive interactions between Otman Baba and Mehmed II.
In one account, Otman Baba appears in Mehmed's dream to predict his reign as sultan while the then-prince was in Manisa. Their relationship, was not always cordial, as scholars Stavrides and Gramatikova mention that Otman Baba frightened Mehmed II with his mastery over the elements, summoning a storm that flooded Constantinople after Mehmed ordered the dervish to enter a monastery. Although Küçük Abdal credits Mehmed II's military victories to Otman Baba's sainthood, the mystic predicted the sultan's defeat in the 1456 Serbia campaign. Otman Baba's relationships with other Ottoman authorities varied; those opposed to Otman Baba included the orthodox vizier Mahmud Paşa, who did not recognize the mystic's sainthood, an akıncı, who apprehended Otman Baba and whose wife forced the mystic to pasture ducks for a month. A sancakbey named Mihaloğlu Ali Bey, donated to Otman Baba's tomb after the mystic had supported his military victories. During his life, Otman Baba wandered throughout the Ottoman Empire in Rumelia, spending the most time in Bulgarian lands and Aegean Thrace.
After 30 September 1429 or 19 September 1430, Otman Baba began proselytizing in Rumelia. He performed his first miracle in the Balkans in Babaeski, extinguishing a candlestick's flame, lit by the mystic Sarı Saltık Baba, proving his sainthood to ordinary followers of Sufism; as Gramatikova notes, Otman Baba challenged rival Alevi and Bektashi spiritual guides and won, proving his spiritual superiority. Gramatikova dates Otman Baba's earliest presence in Bulgarian lands from 1445 to 1451, where he propagated and interpreted Islamic mysticism. Beginning his propagandizing alone, Otman Baba recruited dervish followers—called Abdals—from the Balkan Muslim population; when Otman Baba defeated a lamia in the Ludogorie region, he achieved his first miracle in Bulgarian lands, an act that Gramatikova characterizes as "one of the greatest miracles of the heterodox Muslim saints". Otman Baba travelled through the eastern foothills of Stara Planina, following Sufi doctrine by surviving on leaves and wild fruit as he meditated on God.
Gramatikova proposes that the local woodcutters who saw him and hosted him in their village were
Ramakrishna Mission Seva Pratishthan is a medical institution and hospital at Sarat Bose Road, which functions under the Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission. It started in July 1932 as Shishumangal Pratishthan, a maternity and child welfare clinic by Swami Dayanand, a disciple of Sarada Devi. Swami Dayananda was younger brother of Swami Madhavananda, the ninth President of the Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission. In 1956, the clinic paved way for the present hospital. Today the institution runs a 600-bed general hospital, Ma Sarada School of Nursing, Vivekananda Institute of Medical Sciences, besides mobile health units and community health services for rural areas. Ramakrishna Mission Seva Pratishthan, Official website