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Engineering

Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines and other items, including bridges, roads and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, types of application. See glossary of engineering; the term engineering is derived from the Latin ingenium, meaning "cleverness" and ingeniare, meaning "to contrive, devise". The American Engineers' Council for Professional Development has defined "engineering" as: The creative application of scientific principles to design or develop structures, apparatus, or manufacturing processes, or works utilizing them singly or in combination. Engineering has existed since ancient times, when humans devised inventions such as the wedge, lever and pulley, etc; the term engineering is derived from the word engineer, which itself dates back to the 14th century when an engine'er referred to "a constructor of military engines."

In this context, now obsolete, an "engine" referred to a military machine, i.e. a mechanical contraption used in war. Notable examples of the obsolete usage which have survived to the present day are military engineering corps, e.g. the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the word "engine" itself is of older origin deriving from the Latin ingenium, meaning "innate quality mental power, hence a clever invention."Later, as the design of civilian structures, such as bridges and buildings, matured as a technical discipline, the term civil engineering entered the lexicon as a way to distinguish between those specializing in the construction of such non-military projects and those involved in the discipline of military engineering. The pyramids in ancient Egypt, ziggurats of Mesopotamia, the Acropolis and Parthenon in Greece, the Roman aqueducts, Via Appia and Colosseum, Teotihuacán, the Brihadeeswarar Temple of Thanjavur, among many others, stand as a testament to the ingenuity and skill of ancient civil and military engineers.

Other monuments, no longer standing, such as the Hanging Gardens of Babylon and the Pharos of Alexandria, were important engineering achievements of their time and were considered among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. The six classic simple machines were known in the ancient Near East; the wedge and the inclined plane were known since prehistoric times. The wheel, along with the wheel and axle mechanism, was invented in Mesopotamia during the 5th millennium BC; the lever mechanism first appeared around 5,000 years ago in the Near East, where it was used in a simple balance scale, to move large objects in ancient Egyptian technology. The lever was used in the shadoof water-lifting device, the first crane machine, which appeared in Mesopotamia circa 3000 BC, in ancient Egyptian technology circa 2000 BC; the earliest evidence of pulleys date back to Mesopotamia in the early 2nd millennium BC, ancient Egypt during the Twelfth Dynasty. The screw, the last of the simple machines to be invented, first appeared in Mesopotamia during the Neo-Assyrian period BC.

The Egyptian pyramids were built using three of the six simple machines, the inclined plane, the wedge, the lever, to create structures like the Great Pyramid of Giza. The earliest civil engineer known by name is Imhotep; as one of the officials of the Pharaoh, Djosèr, he designed and supervised the construction of the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara in Egypt around 2630–2611 BC. The earliest practical water-powered machines, the water wheel and watermill, first appeared in the Persian Empire, in what are now Iraq and Iran, by the early 4th century BC. Ancient Greece developed machines in both military domains; the Antikythera mechanism, an early known mechanical analog computer, the mechanical inventions of Archimedes, are examples of Greek mechanical engineering. Some of Archimedes' inventions as well as the Antikythera mechanism required sophisticated knowledge of differential gearing or epicyclic gearing, two key principles in machine theory that helped design the gear trains of the Industrial Revolution, are still used today in diverse fields such as robotics and automotive engineering.

Ancient Chinese, Greek and Hunnic armies employed military machines and inventions such as artillery, developed by the Greeks around the 4th century BC, the trireme, the ballista and the catapult. In the Middle Ages, the trebuchet was developed; the earliest practical wind-powered machines, the windmill and wind pump, first appeared in the Muslim world during the Islamic Golden Age, in what are now Iran and Pakistan, by the 9th century AD. The earliest practical steam-powered machine was a steam jack driven by a steam turbine, described in 1551 by Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf in Ottoman Egypt; the cotton gin was invented in India by the 6th century AD, the spinning wheel was invented in the Islamic world by the early 11th century, both of which were fundamental to the growth of the cotton industry. The spinning wheel was a precursor to the spinning jenny, a key development during the early Industrial Revolution in the 18th century; the crankshaft and camshaft were invented by Al-Jazari in Northern Mesopotamia circa 1206, they became central to modern machinery such as the steam en

Íñigo López de Mendoza y Zúñiga

Don Íñigo López de Mendoza y Zúñiga, archbishop of Burgos and bishop of Coria, was a Castilian clergyman and diplomat in the service of Emperor Charles V. Don Iñigo was the second son of Don Pedro de Zúñiga, 2nd Count of Miranda del Castañar, Catalina de Velasco, daughter of Pedro Fernández de Velasco, 2nd Count of Haro. Although a Zúñiga, he was named Mendoza after his maternal grandmother Mencia de Mendoza. In 1526 he went as ambassador for Charles V to England. On his way there, he was arrested for 4 months by the French. In 1528 he was imprisoned by the English because of deteriorating relations between Charles and Henry VIII, he was only allowed to send letters. After this, he asked for his recall, both because of bad health, because the English didn't trust him, he was succeeded in his post by Eustace Chapuys. After that he went to Italy, where he witnessed Charles' coronation as Holy Roman Emperor at Bologna in 1530; that same year he was made a cardinal. De Mendoza is portrayed by Declan Conlon in Showtime's series The Tudors.

On the show it is not mentioned. José Pablo Alzina, Embajadores de España en Londres. Una guía de retratos de la embajada de España Salvador. "LÓPEZ DE MENDOZA Y ZÚÑIGA, Íñigo". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Florida International University

Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin

The Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin was a state in the Weimar Republic, established in 1918 following the abdication of the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin following the German Revolution. In 1933, after the onset of Nazi rule, it was united with the smaller neighbouring state of Mecklenburg-Strelitz to form the united state of Mecklenburg. Hugo Wendorff 1918–1919 Hugo Wendorff 1919–1920 Hermann Reincke-Bloch 1920–1921 Johannes Stelling 1921–1924 Joachim Freiherr von Brandenstein 1924–1926 Paul Schröder 1926–1929 Karl Eschenburg 1929–1932 Walter Granzow 1932–1933 Hans Egon Engell 1933 Friedrich Hildebrandt 1933 States of Germany since 1918