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Claudius

Claudius was a Roman emperor from AD 41 to 54. Born to Drusus and Antonia Minor at Lugdunum in Roman Gaul, where his father was stationed as a military legate, he was the first Roman emperor to be born outside Italy. Nonetheless, Claudius was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty; because he was afflicted with a limp and slight deafness due to sickness at a young age, his family ostracized him and excluded him from public office until his consulship, shared with his nephew Caligula in 37. Claudius's infirmity saved him from the fate of many other nobles during the purges of Tiberius' and Caligula's reigns, his survival led to his being declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard after Caligula's assassination, at which point he was the last man of his family. Despite his lack of experience, Claudius proved to be an efficient administrator, he expanded the imperial bureaucracy to include freedmen, helped to restore the empire's finances after the excess of Caligula's reign. He was an ambitious builder, constructing many new roads and canals across the Empire.

During his reign the Empire started its successful conquest of Britain. Having a personal interest in law, he presided at public trials, issued up to twenty edicts a day, he was seen as vulnerable throughout his reign by elements of the nobility. Claudius was forced to shore up his position; these events damaged his reputation among the ancient writers, though more recent historians have revised this opinion. Many authors contend. After his death in 54, his grand-nephew, step-son, adopted son Nero succeeded him as emperor, his 13-year reign would not be surpassed by any successors until that of Domitian, who reigned for 15 years. He was a descendant of the Octavii Rufi, Julii Caesares, the Claudii Nerones, he was a great-nephew of Augustus. He was a nephew of Tiberius through Tiberius's brother. Through his brother Germanicus, Claudius was a great uncle of Nero. Through his mother Antonia Minor he was a grandson of Octavia Minor. Claudius was born on 1 August 10 BC at Lugdunum, he had two older siblings and Livilla.

His mother, may have had two other children who died young. His maternal grandparents were Mark Antony and Octavia Minor, Augustus' sister, he was therefore the great-great grandnephew of Gaius Julius Caesar, his paternal grandparents were Livia, Augustus' third wife, Tiberius Claudius Nero. During his reign, Claudius revived the rumor that his father Drusus was the illegitimate son of Augustus, to give the appearance that Augustus was Claudius' paternal grandfather. In 9 BC, his father Drusus unexpectedly died on campaign in Germania from illness. Claudius was left to be raised by his mother, who never remarried; when Claudius' disability became evident, the relationship with his family turned sour. Antonia referred to him as a monster, used him as a standard for stupidity, she seems to have passed her son off to his grandmother Livia for a number of years. Livia was a little kinder, but often sent him short, angry letters of reproof, he was put under the care of a "former mule-driver" to keep him disciplined, under the logic that his condition was due to laziness and a lack of will-power.

However, by the time he reached his teenage years his symptoms waned and his family took some notice of his scholarly interests. In AD 7, Livy was hired to tutor him with the assistance of Sulpicius Flavus, he spent a lot of his time with the philosopher Athenodorus. Augustus, according to a letter, was surprised at the clarity of Claudius' oratory. Expectations about his future began to increase, his work as a budding historian damaged his prospects for advancement in public life. According to Vincent Scramuzza and others, Claudius began work on a history of the Civil Wars, either too truthful or too critical of Octavian—then reigning as Augustus Caesar. In either case, it was far too early for such an account, may have only served to remind Augustus that Claudius was Antony's descendant, his mother and grandmother put a stop to it, this may have convinced them that Claudius was not fit for public office. He could not be trusted to toe the existing party line; when he returned to the narrative in life, Claudius skipped over the wars of the Second Triumvirate altogether.

But the damage was done, his family pushed him into the background. When the Arch of Pavia was erected to honor the Imperial clan in 8 AD, Claudius' name was inscribed on the edge—past the deceased princes and Lucius, Germanicus' children. There is some speculation that the inscription was added by Claudius himself decades and that he did not appear at all; when Augustus died in AD 14, Claudius—then aged 23—appealed to his uncle Tiberius to allow him to begin the cursus honorum. Tiberius, the new Emperor, responded by granting Claudius consular ornaments. Claudius was snubbed. Since the new Emperor was no more generous than the old, Claudius gave up hope of public office and retired to a scholarly, private life

Telangana Forest Department

Ministry of Forest and Environment is one of the administrative divisions of the government of Telangana. It is headed by the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests; the primary function of this department is protection and management of forests in Telangana State. Telangana, located strategically in the central region of the Indian sub-continent, has representatives of Indian plant and animal life; the vegetation found in the state is of dry deciduous type with a mixture of teak, species of the genera Terminalia, Anogeissus etc. The varied habitat harbors a diversity of fauna which includes tiger, wolf, wild dog, sloth bear, Black Buck, Chowsingha, Cheetal, Sambar and a number of birds and reptiles in the forest; the overall objective of the Telangana Forest Department is to conserve biodiversity and eco-systems of forests and wilderness areas to ensure water security and food security of the state. Wildlife and wildlife habitats should be conserved and sustainably managed to meet the social, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of the present and future generations of people in the state.

The government has launched Haritha Haram, to make the entirety of Telangana green. Telangana government has decided to launch a massive tree plantation programme to bring entire Telangana under green cover in the next three years, it is estimated that the entire Telangana state requires 210 crore saplings to bring 33 per cent of the area under green cover. The Forest Department is organised in an administrative hierarchy ranging from Principal Chief Conservator of Forests to Forest Watchers and others; the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests is in charge of Forest Department, who must review and sign all significant orders, permissions and authorisations. Telangana has three national parks in the state; the state has three national parks

George Bigge

George Orde Bigge was an English first-class cricketer and British Army officer. Bigge served with the Royal Engineers from 1887 to 1920, seeing action in the both the Second Boer War and the First World War, he played first-class cricket for the Marylebone Cricket Club. The son of Major Thomas Scovell Charles Bigge and his wife, Ellen Bigge, he was born at Ferozepore in British India, he graduated from the Royal Military Academy in July 1887, entering into the Royal Engineers as a second lieutenant. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant in July 1890, with promotion to the rank of captain in April 1898. Bigge made a single appearance in first-class cricket for the Marylebone Cricket Club against Derbyshire at Lord's in June 1898. Batting twice in the match, he was dismissed in the MCC first-innings for 11 runs by George Davidson, while in their second-innings he was dismissed by the same bowler for a single run, he made his debut in minor counties cricket for Hertfordshire in July 1898. He played minor counties cricket for Hertfordshire until 1903.

He was decorated with the Queen's South Africa Medal. He was promoted to the rank of major in February 1906. After serving in the First World War, he held the rank of lieutenant colonel by October 1919. In December 1919 he was made an OBE, before retiring from active service in June 1920, he died in March 1935 at Stone in Kent. He was survived by his wife, Eliza Augusta Bigge, whom he had married at Rye in 1906, his brother-in-law, Henry Braybrooke, was a first-class cricketer. George Bigge at ESPNcricinfo