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Cleanroom

A cleanroom or clean room is a facility ordinarily utilized as a part of specialized industrial production or scientific research, including the manufacture of pharmaceutical items, integrated circuits, CRT, LCD, OLED and microLED displays. Cleanrooms are designed to maintain low levels of particulates, such as dust, airborne organisms, or vaporized particles. Cleanrooms have a cleanliness level quantified by the number of particles per cubic meter at a predetermined molecule measure; the ambient outdoor air in a typical urban area contains 35,000,000 particles for each cubic meter in the size range 0.5 μm and bigger in measurement, equivalent to an ISO 9 cleanroom, while by comparison an ISO 1 cleanroom permits no particles in that size range and just 12 particles for each cubic meter of 0.3 μm and smaller. The modern cleanroom was invented by American physicist Willis Whitfield; as employee of the Sandia National Laboratories, Whitfield created the initial plans for the cleanroom in 1960.

Prior to Whitfield's invention, earlier cleanrooms had problems with particles and unpredictable airflows. Whitfield designed his cleanroom with a constant filtered air flow to flush out impurities. Within a few years of its invention in the 1960s, Whitfield's modern cleanroom had generated more than US$50 billion in sales worldwide; the majority of the integrated circuit manufacturing facilities in Silicon Valley were made by three companies: MicroAire, PureAire, Key Plastics. These competitors made laminar flow units, glove boxes, clean rooms and air showers, along with the chemical tanks and benches used in the'Wet Process' building of integrated circuits; these three companies were the pioneers of the use of Teflon for airguns, chemical pumps, water guns, other devices needed for the production of integrated circuits. William C. McElroy Jr. worked as engineering manager, drafting room supervisor, QA/QC, designer for all three companies and his designs added 45 original patents to the technology of the time.

McElroy wrote a four-page article for MicroContamination Journal, wet processing training manuals, equipment manuals for wet processing and clean rooms. Cleanrooms can be large. Entire manufacturing facilities can be contained within a cleanroom with factory floors covering thousands of square meters, they are used extensively in semiconductor manufacturing, solar panel, rechargeable battery, LED, LCD and OLED display manufacturing, the life sciences, other fields that are sensitive to environmental contamination. There are modular cleanrooms; the outside air entering a cleanroom is filtered and cooled by several outdoor Air handlers using progressively finer filters to exclude dust, the air inside is recirculated through fan filter units containing high-efficiency particulate air, MERV 17-20 and/or ultra-low particulate air filters to remove internally generated contaminants. Special lighting fixtures, walls and other materials are used to minimize the generation of airborne particles. Plastic sheets can be used to restrict air turbulence.

The air temperature and humidity levels inside the cleanroom are tighly controlled. Static electricity may be controlled using ionizing bars. Cleanrooms may have numerous seismic base isolation systems to prevent costly equipment malfunction. Staff enter and leave through airlocks, wear protective clothing such as hoods, face masks, gloves and coveralls; this is to minimize the carrying of particulate by the person moving into the cleanroom. Equipment inside the cleanroom is designed to generate minimal air contamination. Only special mops and buckets are used. Cleanroom furniture is easy to clean; the selection of material for the construction of the cleanroom should not generate any particle hence monolithic epoxy or polyurethane floor coating is preferred. Buffed Stainless steel or Powder-coated MS sandwich partition panels & ceiling panel are used. Corners like the wall to wall, wall to floor, wall to ceiling are avoided by providing coved surface and all joints need to sealed with epoxy sealant to avoid any deposition or generation of particles at the joints.

Common materials such as paper and fabrics made from natural fibers are excluded, alternatives used. Cleanrooms are not sterile. Particle levels are tested using a particle counter and microorganisms detected and counted through environmental monitoring methods. Polymer tools used in cleanrooms must be determined to be chemically compatible with cleanroom processing fluids as well as ensured to generate a low level of particle generation; some cleanrooms are kept at a positive pressure so if any leaks occur, air leaks out of the chamber instead of unfiltered air coming in. Some cleanroom HVAC systems control the humidity to such low levels that extra equipment like air ionizers are required to prevent electrostatic discharge problems. Low-level cleanrooms may only require special shoes, with smooth soles that do not track in dust or dirt. However, for safety reasons, shoe soles must not create slipping hazards. Access to a cleanroom is restricted to those wearing a cleanroom suit. In cleanrooms in which the standards of air contamination are less rigorous, the entrance to the cleanroom may not have an air shower.

An anteroom is used to put on clean-room clothing. Some manufacturing facilities do not use realized cleanrooms, but use some practices or technologies typical of cleanrooms to meet their contamination requirements. In hospitals, theatres

Abdel Wahab El-Messiri

Abdel-Wahab El-Messiri was an Egyptian scholar and general coordinator of the opposition organization Kefaya. El-Messiri was born in Damanhur, graduated with a BA in English literature from Alexandria University in 1959, he received a MA in English and comparative literature from Columbia University in 1964 and a PhD in the same field from Rutgers University in 1969. He was professor emeritus of English and comparative literature at Ain Shams University, Egypt since 1988, he was a University Professor at King Saud University, Saudi Arabia and at Kuwait University, Kuwait and a visiting Professor at the International Islamic University Malaysia. He is considered as one of Egypt's most famous thinkers and well known among Arab scholars. El-Messiri's major areas of research included: Jews and Zionism. Over the course of his life his outlook moved from western secularism to a modern Islamic vision. El-Messiri wrote several articles about his ideas, including "Chosen Community, an Exceptional Burden", "A People Like Any other".

He has written for children. His eight-volume Encyclopedia of Jews and Zionism, written in Arabic with an analytical/methodological form rather than an encyclopedic collection of information, is intended to provide analysis of the Middle East crisis, the history of Jews and the history of Zionism, as well as an in-depth analysis of Zionism, its ideology and beliefs, the goals of such movement. On July 2, 2008 he died after a long battle against cancer at the Palestine Hospital, Cairo. "The functional nature of Israel means that it was created by the colonialism for a specific purpose. It is thus a colonial project that has nothing to do with Judaism". According to MEMRI, in 2004, Al-Massiri said in an interview on owned Egyptian Dream2 TV that the United States and Israel are hedonistic societies, devoid of values, are less willing to fight and suffer casualties in order to defend their homeland or their honor. "Israel, Base of Western Imperialism" A Lover from Palestine and Other Poems Israel and South Africa: The Progression of a Relationship The Land of Promise: A Critique of Political Zionism Three Studies in English Literature The Palestinian Wedding: A Bilingual Anthology of Contemporary Palestinian Resistance Poetry A Land of Stone and Thyme: Palestinian Short Stories.

Translated by Anthony Calderbank "Epistemological Bias in the Social and Physical Sciences" Haggag Ali Mapping the Secular Mind: Modernity's Quest for a Godless Utopia. London: International Institute of Islamic Thought. ISBN 9781565645943 Official homepage including an online version of the Jews and Zionism encyclopedia. "A people like any other" Al-Ahram Abdelwahab M. Elmessiri 1938-2008 in TheFreeLibrary.com. Dr. Abdul-Wahab El-Messiri: leading intellectual light of Islam and politics in Egypt Obituary in the Yemen Times, 15 July 2008 "On life and Palestine, a tribute to Abdelwahab Elmessiri" Obituary on The Electronic Intifada, 4 August 2008 Abdel-Wahab M. El-Messiri: A global specialist in the Zionist movement’s history Samir Abuzaid, Professor Abdel-Wahab Elmessiri at arabphilosophers.com

Water supply and sanitation in Greece

Water supply and sanitation in Greece is characterised by diversity. While Athens receives its water from a series of reservoirs, some of which are located 200 km away, some small islands are supplied with water from tankers. Greeks have suffered from repeated droughts, the most recent one occurring in 2007; the EU supported the construction of numerous wastewater treatment plants since the 1990s in order to achieve EU environmental standards. While the wastewater discharge of the biggest cities is now in compliance with these standards, some smaller towns still lag behind. In Athens and Thessaloniki, two state utilities – EYDAP and EYATH – are in charge of water supply and sanitation; the companies, which are listed on the Athens stock exchange, post profits despite low tariffs due to investment subsidies from the state. Outside the two largest cities, 230 different municipal utilities are in charge of water supply and sanitation; as part of the so-called Kallikratis plan for local government reform, smaller municipalities and municipal utilities are to be merged into larger units.

The Greek financial crisis is making it difficult for Greek utilities to increase tariffs, to enforce payment of arrears and to service their debt. On average, Greece has quite abundant water resources of 58 billion cubic metres per year, of which the country uses only 12 percent. Of that, 87 percent is used by agriculture, 3 percent by industry and only 10% for municipal water supply. However, the average masks substantial variations between years and regions. Water resources are scarce on the Greek islands, some of which are supplied by tanker ships or have turned to seawater desalination. Droughts are a recurrent phenomenon throughout Greece, including a drought in 1993, considered the worst in at least 50 years and another drought in 2007; because local water sources are insufficient and to hedge against the risk of drought, the metropolitan area of the capital Athens, where more than a third of the population of Greece lives, is supplied by five different water sources, the most distant one located 200 km away.

The five sources are: Lake Marathon close to the city with an operational capacity of 34 million cubic meters and tapped since 1931 through the Boyati tunnel. Lake Yliki, 60 km northwest of the capital with an operational capacity of 590 million cubic metres and tapped since 1959; the Mornos reservoir 192 km to the west of Athens with an operational capacity of 670 million cubic metres, tapped since 1980 through a system of tunnels and canals. The Evinos reservoir with an operational capacity of 113 million cubic metres, completed in 2001, linked via a tunnel with the Mornos Reservoir. 105 boreholes in three wellfields. Due to the need to pump large quantities of water over long distances and mountains, the water company of Athens is the second-largest electricity customer in Greece. Thessaloniki is supplied by the Aliakmon River; the Aegean islands are supplied by local groundwater sources. However, some smaller islands have insufficient water resources and have to be supplied via tanker ships at a high cost.

For example, the islands Kimolos, Schoinoussa, Halki and Kastelorizo were or supplied via tankers as of 2008. Seawater desalination using renewable energy is an emerging option for these islands. A small wind-powered floating desalination plant has been built as a pilot in 2008 and has been anchored off the shore of Irakleia; the inhabitants of Greek islands have harvested winter rains from rooftops for use during the summer. Policy responsibility. Within the Greek government the Ministry of Environment is in charge of water resources management and the Ministry of Interior is in charge of supervising municipalities which are responsible for providing water and sanitation services; the Ministry of Finance plays an important role in providing subsidies for investment. Responsibility for service provision. Water and sanitation services in Greece are provided by 230 utilities; the largest utility is the Athens Water and Sewerage Company serving 4 million inhabitants, followed by the Thessaloniki Water and Sewerage Company serving about one million inhabitants.

Both companies buy raw water from the Greek government that operates the dams and pipelines necessary to store and transfer the raw water. The majority of the shares of EYDAP and EYATH are owned by the government. Private companies and individuals own minorities of 39% in the case of EYDAP and 10% in the case of EYATH; the shares of both companies are listed on the Athens stock exchange. The largest single shareholder of EYDAP is the hedge fund of Hank Paulson who bought 9.9% of the shares in May 2014 from Piraeus Bank, which in turn had received the shares when it rescued the collapsed Agricultural Bank of Greece in 2012.4 million Greeks are served by 230 municipality-owned companies called DEYA. The Hellenic Union of Municipal Enterprises of Water Supply and Sewerage, founded in 1989, represents 155 DEYAs. There are about a 1,000 municipalities in some of them with fewer than 100 inhabitants. Consolidation of municipal utilities; the so-called Kallikratis plan approved in May 2010 foresees the redrawing of the boundaries of Greek municipalities and giving them more resources and responsibilities.

Under the plan, to become effective as early as January 2011, the number of DEYAs is expected to be reduced through mergers from 230 to 142. The number of DEYAs had been only 80 as as 1997 when the so-called Kapodistria law increased their number. Many of the municipal utilities created at that time were small a

Carnosine

Carnosine is a dipeptide molecule, made up of the amino acids beta-alanine and histidine. It is concentrated in muscle and brain tissues. Carnosine and carnitine were discovered by Russian chemist Vladimir Gulevich, it has been proven to scavenge reactive oxygen species as well as alpha-beta unsaturated aldehydes formed from peroxidation of cell membrane fatty acids during oxidative stress. It buffers pH in muscle cells, acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain, it is a zwitterion, a neutral molecule with a positive and negative end. Like carnitine, carnosine is composed of the root word carn, meaning "flesh", alluding to its prevalence in animal protein. There are no plant-based sources of carnosine. Therefore, a vegetarian or vegan diet provides little or no carnosine in comparison to the amounts found in a diet that includes meat. Carnosine can chelate divalent metal ions. Carnosine can increase the Hayflick limit in human fibroblasts, as well as appearing to reduce the telomere shortening rate.

It is considered as a geroprotector. Carnosine is synthesized in vivo from histidine. Since beta-alanine is the limiting substrate, supplementing just beta-alanine increases the intramuscular concentration of carnosine. Carnosine has a pKa value of 6.83, making it a good buffer for the pH range of animal muscles. Since beta-alanine is not incorporated into proteins, carnosine can be stored at high concentrations. Occurring at 17–25 mmol/kg, carnosine is an important intramuscular buffer, constituting 10-20% of the total buffering capacity in type I and II muscle fibres. Carnosine acts as an antiglycating agent, reducing the rate of formation of advanced glycation end-products, reducing development of atherosclerotic plaque build-up. Chronic glycolysis is speculated to accelerate aging, making carnosine a candidate for therapeutic potential. Acetylcarnosine, a similar molecule used to treat lens cataracts Anserine, another dipeptide antioxidant Carnosine synthase, an enzyme that helps carnosine production Carnosinemia, a disease of excess carnosine due to an enzyme defect/deficiency

Fang Bao

Fang Bao, courtesy names Fengjiu and Wangxi, was a Chinese nobleman, orator, poet, scholar and government official in the service of the Qing dynasty. He is best known as an icon of the Tongcheng school of literary prose, influential during the mid-Qing dynasty. Fang Bao was born in Tongcheng, Zongyang County, Anhui Province in 1668 during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, he was the second son in a family of the Qing nobility with landed interests at Jiangning, Liuhe County and at Tongcheng, an area in the southern vicinity of Nanjing. His father was an imperial official and second son of Fang's grandfather, his paternal grandfather was Fang Zhi, a Xinghua County didactic and noted scholar of the Wuhe discipline. Fang Bao was the middle son of three boys, his elder brother was Fang Zhou, a scholar of the Five Classics, his younger brother was Fang Lin. At the time of Fang Bao's birth, the Kangxi Emperor had not yet assumed power and the real dominance over the throne was in the hands of two of the Four Regents and Oboi.

In 1669, as the Kangxi Emperor consolidated power, Oboi was brought up on imperial charges and put to death. Fang Bao studied literature at a school, he would go on to invent the concept of Yi Fa where Yi refers to the ideas or concept of an article and Fa to the structure and literary form. This concept is considered one of the basic theories of the Tongcheng School form of writing, which gained its name due to Tongcheng being Fang Bao's hometown. From 1692 to 1695, Fang served in Beijing as a senior licentiate together with his friend Zhang Boxing who shared his philosophical allegiance surrounding the teachings of the brothers Cheng Xi and Zhu Xi. Fang obtained his jinshi degree or advanced scholar degree following the imperial examination system in 1706 under the reign of the Kangxi Emperor and was given a posting at the Hall of Military Glory as its Director-General of Compilation, he was promoted within the hall to the position of Instructor-Bachelor and to Vice-Minister of Rights. In either 1711 or 1713, whilst still at the Hall of Military Glory, Fang was involved in the Nanshan Incident.

The incident surrounded the contents of a work written by Dai Mingshi, Fang's relation via his wife, titled Nanshan Ji for which Fang had written a preface. The book was a nostalgic history of one of the author's ancestors who had fought with Wu Sangui against the Qing Empire; as a result of a political realignment, the work had been judged seditious by the court of the Kangxi Emperor, who promoted scholarly officials. The political change on the part of the Qing court was due in large part to the emperor's awareness and perception of threat from political factions that were forming for the purpose of influencing the imperial succession. Fang was arrested by the Governor of his friend Zhang Boxing. Dai was executed by imperial order, but Fang was spared death and punished instead with dismissal from his post and exile to Gansu Province or with the imprisonment of his entire family. Zhang would later be accused of aiding Fang Bao before the court but he was unpunished. In 1728, the death of an Eleuth leader provided an excuse for the new Yongzheng Emperor to continue his father's wars in Gansu Province.

Fang Bao had written a bold critique of the Governor of Gansu Province, Xu Rong and the Yongzheng Emperor's strategy with regards to the effects of the war on the people of the region. Despite this writing, by the end of the Yongzheng era, Fang was back in the imperial court's favor and he was promoted to Vice-Director of the Board of Rights. Fang Bao's critical work of the Yongzheng Emperor proved influential in around 1735 when the incoming Qianlong Emperor used it to indict Xu Rong as a part of his larger purge of government officials to cement his hold on power. Accordingly, Fang was made the Vice-Director of the Bureau for the compilation of the Three Ritual Classics. In this role, he gained imperial support to pursue one of his most famous works, the "Imperial Anthology of Essays on the Four Books" which transformed the entire imperial writing system. Fang Bao died in 1749. One of his lasting contributions to the imperial system apart from his literary writings was the establishment of the guwen style as the essay style of the imperial examination system which thereafter put emphasis on Song dynasty neo-Confucian theory.

This influence drastically changed the imperial examination system which imposed standards and made the guwen essays the foundational part of scholarly writing across the Qing Empire. Fang Bao is an ancestor of Fang Gongcheng, a tutor of the Qing imperial court, of Fang Guancheng, the Viceroy of Zhili, of Fang Chih, the influential cold war-era statesman of the Republic of China, Thomé H. Fang, a philosopher and contemporary of Fang Chih and of Anna Sui, the American fashion designer; the following is an incomplete list of the works of Fang Bao. Fang Bao's Random Notes From Prison Biographies of Four Gentlemen, Si Junzi Zhuan Critique and Punctuation of the Zuo Zuoshi Pingdian Zhouguan Jizheng Zhouguan Xiyi Zhouguan Bian Yili Xiyi Kaogongji Xiyi Liji Xiyi Chunqiu Zhijie Sangli Huowen Chunqiu Tonglun Chunqiu Bishi Mulu Zuozhuan Yifa Juyao Shiji Zhu Buzheng Lisao Zhengyi Wangxi Wenji Works by Fang Bao at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Fang Bao at Internet Archive

Minster Son

Minster Son, was a British Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. In a career which lasted from late summer 1987 until September 1988, he ran eight times and won five races, he recorded his most important success when winning the Classic St. Leger Stakes as a three-year-old in 1988, ridden by his breeder, Willie Carson. In the same year in which he won the Newmarket Stakes, the Predominate Stakes and the Gordon Stakes, he was retired to stud following his St Leger victory. Minster Son was a strongly-built chestnut horse with a white blaze bred by the leading jockey Willie Carson who rode him in all of his races, he was sired by the American-bred stallion Niniski, who won the Irish St Leger and the Prix Royal-Oak in 1979 before going on to sire many good staying horses including Petoski and Lomitas. His dam, Honey Bridge, was a member of Thoroughbred family 14-a, which produced notable horses including Tetratema and Polynesian. Before his racing career began, Minster Son entered the ownership of Lady Beaverbrook and was sent into training with Major Dick Hern at West Ilsley in Berkshire.

Minster Son made his first appearance in a maiden race at Newbury Racecourse in which he defeated his stable companion Unfuwain and twenty-five others. He was beaten in his two remaining starts in 1987. Minster Son began his three-year-old season in the Newmarket Stakes over ten furlongs in April. Carson rode the colt to a one length victory over the favourite Red Glow. Two weeks Red Glow won the Dante Stakes at York. Minster Son was sent to Goodwood for the Predominate Stakes on 18 May, a recognised trial race for The Derby, he won by one and a half lengths from Sheriff's Star. At Epsom on 1 June, Minster Son started the 6/1 third favourite for the Derby behind Red Glow and Unfuwain. Carson chose to ride the horse he had bred in preference to the more fancied Unfuwain and the 2000 Guineas runner-up Charmer. Minster Son was never in contention for the lead and finished eighth of the fourteen runners behind Kahyasi, it was to be his only defeat of the season. In July, Minster Son returned to Goodwood for the Gordon Stakes and won by two lengths from Assatis to establish himself as major contender for the St Leger.

Shortly after Minster Son's win in the Gordon Stakes, Hern underwent heat surgery, the colt's training was taken over by his assistant Neil Graham. At Doncaster Racecourse on 10 September, Minster Son started third favourite for the St Leger behind the filly Diminuendo who had won The Oaks, Irish Oaks and Yorkshire Oaks. Sheriff's Star was made second favourite after winning the King Edward VII Stakes and the Great Voltigeur Stakes. Carson kept his horse towards the front of the field before sending him into the lead three furlongs from the finish, Diminuendo emerged as his only serious challenger. Minster Son "stayed on gamely" to beat the filly by a length, with Sheriff's Star finishing eight lengths further back in third. Willie Carson became the first man to win a Classic on a horse. After the race, Carson explained that Minster Son's performance as the colt had been affected by a back injury in his previous two starts, he expressed the hope the colt would be better as a four-year-old. Minster Son remained in training in 1989 but in March Lady Beaverbrook announced that he would be retired to stud without racing again.

Minster Son stood as a stallion at the Acrum Lodge Stud near Bishop Auckland in County Durham from his retirement until his death on 30 August 2006. He had more success as a National Hunt stallion; the best of his progeny was the steeplechaser Rambling Minster who started second favourite for the 2009 Grand National after winning the Blue Square Gold Cup at Haydock