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Clement Freud

Sir Clement Raphael Freud was a British broadcaster, writer and chef. The grandson of Sigmund Freud and brother of Lucian Freud, he moved to the United Kingdom from Germany as a child and worked as a prominent chef and food writer before becoming known to a wider audience as a television and radio personality, he was elected as a Liberal Member of Parliament in 1973, retaining his seat until 1987, when he received a knighthood. In 2016, seven years after his death, three women made public allegations of child sexual abuse and rape by Freud, which led to police investigations, he was born Clemens Rafael Freud in Berlin, the son of Jewish parents Ernst L. Freud and Lucie née Brasch, he was the brother of artist Lucian Freud. His family fled to Britain from Nazi Germany and his forenames were anglicised to Clement Raphael, he spent his childhood in Hampstead where he attended the Hall School, Hampstead, a preparatory school. He attended two independent schools: he boarded at Dartington Hall, went to St Paul's School, London.

He was naturalised as a British subject on 4 September 1939, one day after the outbreak of World War II. During the war Freud served in the ranks, he acted as an aide to Field Marshal Montgomery. He worked in 1947 was commissioned as an officer, he married June Flewett in 1950, the couple had five children. Flewett had taken the stage name Jill Raymond in 1944, after her husband's knighthood, has been known as Lady Freud. Freud became an Anglican at the time of his marriage. Freud was one of Britain's first "celebrity chefs", he worked at the Dorchester Hotel, went on to run his own restaurant in Sloane Square at a young age. He appeared in a series of dog food advertisements in which he co-starred with a bloodhound called Henry which shared his trademark "hangdog" expression. In 1968, he wrote the children's book Grimble, followed by a sequel, Grimble at Christmas, six years later. Whilst running a nightclub, he met a newspaper editor. From there he became an award-winning drink writer, writing columns for many publications.

Freud stood in the 1973 Isle of Ely by-election, becoming the Liberal Member of Parliament for that constituency from 1973 to 1987. His departure from Parliament was marked by the award of a knighthood. In his column in the Racing Post of 23 August 2006, he wrote about his election to Parliament in a by-election: "Politically, I was an anti-Conservative unable to join a Labour party hell-bent on nationalising everything that moved, so when a by-election occurred in East Anglia, where I lived and live, I stood as a Liberal and was fortunate in getting in. Ladbrokes quoted me at 33–1 in this three-horse contest, so Ladbrokes paid for me to have rather more secretarial and research staff than other MPs, which helped to keep me in for five parliaments." His autobiography, Freud Ego, recalls his election win, shortly after, when asked by his wife June, "Why aren't you looking happier?", he wrote "It occurred to me that after nine years of fame I now had something solid about which to be famous... and cheered up no end."

During his time as a Member of Parliament, he visited China with a delegation of MPs, including Winston Churchill, the grandson of the wartime prime minister. When Churchill was given the best room in the hotel, on account of his lineage, Freud declared it was the first time in his life that he had been "out-grandfathered". In the last year of Callaghan's government it proposed reinventing the one year Lib-Lab Pact which lapsed in July 1978, to include introducing a freedom of information act, long proposed by the Liberals. Towards the end of the five-year term was a March 1979 Vote of No Confidence against Callaghan's government and Freud was expected to follow his party and vote with the Opposition. Due to by-election defeats Labour's Callaghan ran a minority government and sought support of members from opposing parties to support him that day, he declined the offer and voted as stated by his party, after the lapse of the Lib-Lab pact, for an immediate general election. Otherwise the government could have continued until October 1979.

For many, Freud was best known as a panellist on the long-running Radio 4 show Just a Minute. Freud performed a small monologue for the Wings 1973 album Band on the Run and appeared on the album's cover, he made the occasional film appearance, with acting roles in movies such as The Mini-Affair and The Best House in London. In 1974, he served two three-year terms. A generation in 2002, he was elected Rector of the University of St Andrews, beating feminist and academic Germaine Greer and local challenger Barry Joss, holding the position for one term, his son Matthew Freud founded the London public relations firm Freud Communications in 1985. He was married to Caroline Hutton, the second wife of Earl Spencer. Freud's daughter Emma Freud, a broadcaster, is the partne

Paulo Costa (footballer)

Paulo Sérgio Cardoso da Costa is a Portuguese retired footballer who played as an attacking midfielder. After hardly settling at any club for more than one decade, having played professionally in Portugal, Italy and Greece, he moved to Cyprus in his mid-20s, spending his remaining career there, he scored once from 42 Primeira Liga games over the course of three seasons, representing Alverca and Gil Vicente in the competition. Born in Moita, Setúbal District, Costa began playing as a senior at Sporting Clube Lourinhanense, Sporting Clube de Portugal's farm team. In 1999 he joined F. C. Alverca, rejoining another youth product of the Primeira Liga powerhouse, Marco Caneira. In June 2000, both Costa and Caneira signed with Inter Milan, who bought the pair in a co-ownership deal with Reggina Calcio. Costa was sold for €2 million and, in June 2001, Reggina acquired him outright for €1,3 million and Inter bought back Caneira for an undisclosed fee. C. Venezia and FC Girondins de Bordeaux, rejoining former teammate Caneira in the latter.

Costa joined Aris Thessaloniki F. C. from Greece in January 2006, with his new club starting the second division season in poor fashion but improving their game and results under Nikos Anastopoulos and returning to the Superleague, with the player contributing with 13 games. In August 2007, Costa started a Cypriot adventure, as many Portuguese players in that timeframe years, by joining Aris Limassol FC. On 3 January 2008 he signed a three-and-a-half-year contract with another side in the country, Anorthosis Famagusta FC. On 28 December 2008, continuing in Cyprus, Costa signed a six-month contract with APOEL FC, but had it mutually rescinded on 13 March of the following year. In August 2009 he returned to Greece and penned a two-year deal with Levadiakos FC, leaving the club in January 2010 and moving back to Cyprus, signing for one-and-a-half-years with domestic cup holders APOP Kinyras FC. Costa was released shortly after, he finished the season with another team in the country, former club Aris Limassol, netting four goals as they returned to the top flight after one year.

Paulo Costa at ForaDeJogo Paulo Costa – French league stats at LFP National team data Paulo Costa – FIFA competition record

Subdivisions of Portugal

Sub-divisions of Portugal. For an overview of the administrative subdivisions see: administrative divisions of Portugal. In Portugal, urban centers have no legal authority and are social constructs based on a series of institutional functions. In fact, administrative power lies within the extraterritorial parishes; these have authority in the constitution and may include various towns within each territory and may have their own constituent assemblies and executives. The town or city does not correspond to the boundaries of various municipalities, with the exception of the urban municipalities; the municipality with the most cities is Paredes Municipality. Due to changes throughout history, the Portuguese unitary state has seen a continuous process of centralisation and de-centralisation, resulting in changes to the toponomy of various territorial divisions; the many names have been appropriated at different levels to represent alterations to the geographic map of the country. This is the case with the transitive period between the medieval provinces and 19th century Liberal reforms.

Further, the influence of the Nationalist movement during the 20th century, resulted in the re-appearance of toponymic names long since abandoned. The modern unitary state is influenced considerable by names passed between generations, have been applied and re-applied, resulting in a historical ambiguity in the historical record, where one name may be used for two different areas; as is the case with the following examples: Minho: Province / Subregion Alto Alentejo: Province / Subregion Baixo Alentejo: Province / Subregion Douro Litoral: Province / Subregion Trás-os-Montes: region / Province Estremadura Province: two different ones Beira Litoral: postal region, 1936 provinceEven between administrative level there several instances where the same name is used to represent a territorial division at the local, municipal or regional level. Gwillim Law. "Portugal". Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 through 1998. US: McFarland & Company. Pp. 296+. ISBN 0786407298

Tupolev Tu-95

The Tupolev Tu-95 is a large, four-engine turboprop-powered strategic bomber and missile platform. First flown in 1952, the Tu-95 entered service with the Soviet Union in 1956 and is expected to serve the Russian Aerospace Forces until at least 2040. A development of the bomber for maritime patrol is designated Tu-142, while a passenger airliner derivative was called Tu-114; the aircraft has four Kuznetsov NK-12 engines with contra-rotating propellers. It is the only propeller-powered strategic bomber still in operational use today; the Tu-95 is one of the loudest military aircraft because the tips of the propeller blades move faster than the speed of sound. Its distinctive swept-back wings are set at an angle of 35°; the Tu-95 is unique as a propeller-driven aircraft with swept wings, built in large numbers. The design bureau, led by Andrei Tupolev, designed the Soviet Union's first intercontinental bomber, the 1949 Tu-85, a scaled-up version of the Tu-4, a Boeing B-29 Superfortress copy. A new requirement was issued to both Tupolev and Myasishchev design bureaus in 1950: the proposed bomber had to have an un-refueled range of 8,000 km —far enough to threaten key targets in the United States.

Other goals included the ability to carry an 11,000 kg load over the target. Tupolev was faced with selecting a suitable type of powerplant: the Tu-4 showed that piston engines were not powerful enough for such a large aircraft, the AM-3 jet engines for the proposed T-4 intercontinental jet bomber used too much fuel to give the required range. Turboprop engines were more powerful than piston engines and gave better range than the turbojets available at the time, gave a top speed between the two. Turboprops were initially selected for the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress to meet its long range requirement, for the British long-range transport aircraft, the Saunders-Roe Princess, the Bristol Brabazon and the Bristol Britannia. Tupolev proposed a turboprop installation and Tu-95 design with this configuration was approved by the government on 11 July 1951, it used four Kuznetsov coupled turboprops, each fitted with two contra-rotating propellers with four blades each, with a nominal 8,948 kW power rating.

The engine, advanced for its time, was designed by a German team of ex-Junkers prisoner-engineers under Ferdinand Brandner. The fuselage was conventional with a mid-mounted wing with 35 degrees of sweep, an angle which ensured that the main wing spar passed through the fuselage in front of the bomb bay. Retractable tricycle landing gear was fitted, with all three gear strut units retracting rearwards, with the main gear units retracting rearwards into extensions of the inner engine nacelles; the Tu-95/I, with 2TV-2F engines, first flew in November 1952 with test pilot Alexey Perelet at the controls. After six months of test flights this aircraft suffered a propeller gearbox failure and crashed, killing Perelet; the second aircraft, Tu-95/II used four 12,000 eshp Kuznetsov NK-12 turboprops which proved more reliable than the coupled 2TV-2F. After a successful flight testing phase, series production of the Tu-95 started in January 1956. For a long time, the Tu-95 was known to U. S./NATO intelligence as the Tu-20.

While this was the original Soviet Air Force designation for the aircraft, by the time it was being supplied to operational units it was better known under the Tu-95 designation used internally by Tupolev, the Tu-20 designation fell out of use in the USSR. Since the Tu-20 designation was used on many documents acquired by U. S. intelligence agents, the name continued to be used outside the Soviet Union. The United States Department of Defense evaluated the Tu-95 as having a maximum speed of 644 km/h with a range of 12,500 km; these numbers had to be revised upward numerous times. Like its American counterpart, the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, the Tu-95 has continued to operate in the Russian Air Force while several subsequent iterations of bomber design have come and gone. Part of the reason for this longevity was its suitability, like the B-52, for modification to different missions. Whereas the Tu-95 was intended to drop free-falling nuclear weapons, it was subsequently modified to perform a wide range of roles, such as the deployment of cruise missiles, maritime patrol, civilian airliner.

An AWACS platform was developed from the Tu-114. An icon of the Cold War, the Tu-95 has served, not only as a weapons platform, but as a symbol of Soviet and Russian national prestige. Russia's air force has received the first examples of a number of modernised strategic bombers in Tu-95MSs following upgrade work. Enhancements have been confined to targeting systems. Designed as a stopgap in case the Tu-114A was not finished on time, two Tu-95 bombers were fitted with passenger compartments. Both aircraft had the same layout: office space, a passenger cabin consisting of 2 sections which could each accommodate 20 people in VIP seating, the rest of the 70 m³ cabin configured as a normal airliner. Both aircraft were used as crew ferries by the various Tu-95 squadrons. One of these machines is preserved at Ulyanovsk Central Airport. Ongoing modernization of the Russia's Tu-95MS bombers is aimed on the aircraft armament, namely adaptation of the new Kh-101/102 stealth cruise missile; the modernization includes installation of four underwing pylons for up to 8 Kh-101/102 cruise missiles as well as adjusting aircraft's main weapons bay for cruise missiles of size the Kh-101/102.

Besides, the modernized Tu-95MS aircraft use radio-radar equipment and target-acquiring

Doreen Kartinyeri

Doreen Kartinyeri was an Ngarrindjeri elder and historian, born in the Australian state of South Australia. She played a key role in the Hindmarsh Bridge controversy and made many contributions to Indigenous activism. Kartinyeri was born on 3 February 1935, in the Aboriginal reserve at Point MacLeay in South Australia, to parents Thelma Kartinyeri and Oswald Kartinyeri, she had two sisters and Nancy, one brother, Ron. However, Doris was the only sibling with whom Kartinyeri maintained contact, as Ron was in prison and Nancy died on the operating table when having a tonsilectomy. Kartinyeri struggled with authority for most of her life, beginning when she was a child, after her mother died. Kartinyeri and her newborn sister, were placed in different childcare institutions. In an interview on ABC radio in 2007, Kartinyeri discussed this experience, saying: “I said I want to know where Doris is, what did you do with her, she's not in the home, someone took her. I didn't know where she was, we didn't, I was only 13, just turned 13”.

As the interview continued, Kartinyeri continued to reveal her passionate and argumentative nature, describing herself as “a fiery girl who talked too much”. She mentioned a particular time when she was trying to see Doris. “All right,” Kartinyeri said, “so I just kicked my shoes off, climbed the top of the wall, said, ‘if you don't tell me I'm going to jump,’ so she told me where Doris was". Kartinyeri's education began at the Raukkan Mission School. Kartinyeri said that she did not like her teacher at this school because he was “too strict”. After the death of her mother, Kartinyeri was, moved to the Salvation Army Home in Fullarton, on the condition that she would stay with her sister, Doris. Coincidentally, this was a lie - Doris did not go with Kartinyeri to Fullarton, but was instead sent to the Colebrook Home at Eden Hills. Kartinyeri said that the conditions of this institution were “military style”, claiming that she was beaten on her first night for swearing. Kartinyeri did not do well in school - she was rebellious, was punished performed poorly did not do work, when she did, teachers accused her of cheating.

During her time at school, Kartinyeri found enjoyment in seeing boys. Kartinyeri would get into mischief with the other nunga girls, Kartinyeri claimed that they were the scapegoats for the white girls. On, Kartinyeri was expelled for getting into a fight with girls who were bullying a disabled girl. From there, she never continued her formal education but she did go on to win many honorary academic awards and has since received lots of praise for her academic work. After being expelled from Fullarton in 1949, Kartinyeri believed she was being sent back home to Raukkan. After the initial shock had subdued, Kartinyeri settled well into life at Adelaide Hills and came to love and respect Joan and George. After her two years with the Dunns were complete, Kartinyeri was offered another position, working for the Motterams, who lived in the Adelaide suburb of Kings Park. Having known the Motterams as friends of the Dunns and liking them, she accepted the job. While working there, Kartinyeri did few physical or taxing tasks, describing her main purpose as keeping Mrs Motterham company, easy because she had a “good sense of humour and was easy going.”

At the age of 15, Kartinyeri returned to Raukkan to care for her sick grandmother. She took up a position as a domestic servant for the superintendent of the mission, where her small wages went to supporting her grandparents who weren't entitled to a pension because of their indigenous status. At the age of 16, Kartinyeri had her first experience as a full-time foster mother, taking care of her cousins and her cousin's children. Finding motherhood exhausting, Kartinyeri went back to working domestically, taking a job at the Maitland Hotel. Deciding that caring for grandmother back home was too stressful, Kartinyeri left Raukkan and took up work sorting grapes at Barmera. Doreen played a significant and controversial role in the Hindmarsh Island Bridge Affair in the 1990s. All of her prior research sparked her passionate and argumentative side in 1993, when the South Australian State Government put forward a proposal to build a bridge between Hindmarsh Island and Goolwa. Doreen became a key figure in the movement against this proposal, saying that Hindmarsh Island was sacred land for Indigenous women, for reasons which her and her group would not disclose.

In early 1994, Doreen's group were successful in their application to the Federal Government to gain a heritage order to prohibit the bridge being built. However, in 1995, the Royal Commission conducted an investigation into Doreen's movement and concluded that their “indigenous women” argument was fabricated. In addition, several Ngarrindjeri, said that they knew nothing of the spiritual importance that Doreen was talking about. Furthermore, in March 1996, the Howard Government re-approved the plans for the bridge and in the year 2000, it was built. During this time, there was lots of debate and discussion as to whether Doreen and her group were telling the truth or not. Doreen always maintained her passion and that what she was saying was true and as a result, she bore the brunt of the criticism and debate. In 2010, the South Australian government recognised the honesty of Doreen and her group, formally acknowledging that "women members of the Ngarrindjeri traditional owners were genuine in the mid-1990

Bell, California

Bell is an incorporated city in Los Angeles County, near the center of the former San Antonio Township. Its population was 35,477 at the 2010 census, down from 36,664 in the 2000 census. Bell is located on the west bank of the Los Angeles River and is a suburb of the city of Los Angeles. At 2.5 square miles, Bell is the thirteenth-smallest city in the United States with a population of at least 25,000. In 2007, the U. S. Census Bureau ranked Bell's land area at 1245 out of 1257 cities and two unincorporated areas that had a population of at least 25,000 in year 2000. Ten cities in the list of 1267 cities had no land area data. City residents voted to become a charter city in a special municipal election on November 29, 2005. Fewer than 400 voters turned out for that special election. More than half of those votes were dubiously obtained absentee votes. Being a charter city meant that city officials were exempt from state salary caps. A scandal ensued, in which several city officials were indicted for giving themselves extraordinarily high salaries.

The area comprising the city of Bell has a Native American history dating back thousands of years. The Gabrieliño Indians migrated to the place now called Bell in 500 BC. Spaniards have been living in this area of California since the mid-18th century. Among the early Spanish settlers was one of California’s first families, the Lugos. While stationed at Mission San Antonio de Padua near Salinas, Francisco Lugo’s first California son, Antonio Maria Lugo was born in 1775; that son became Don Antonio Maria Lugo, Spanish aristocrat and soldier, who settled on 30,000 acres of land that encompasses what is now the city of Bell. In 1810, the King of Spain formally granted the land to Lugo as a reward for his military service. Lugo became the mayor of a little town called Los Angeles, from 1816–1819, the acreage became known as Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the Mexican governor in 1838. By 1865, the Lugo family's fortune had dwindled and most of the Rancho was sold for less than a dollar per acre.

The Lugo family did manage to retain its home, built about 1810, the now oldest house in Los Angeles County. The original adobe house was on Gage Avenue. Between 1870 and 1890, settlers arrived to the area and among those was the city’s founder. In 1876, the pioneer residents for whom the city is named, James George Bell and his wife Susan Abia Hollenbeck Bell, their two children, Maude Elizabeth and Alphonzo Sr. moved from Los Angeles where they lived for a short period with Susan's brother, John Hollenbeck, in their Victorian style home — the Bell House, now a historic landmark located at 4401 East Gage Avenue. On April 6, 2000, the Bell House was dedicated as a California State Historical Resource, they acquired about 360 acres of land and in the next decade, helped in its development as a small farming and cattle raising community. The Bell Family lived at the Hollenbeck’s “Town House” on 4th and Breed Street until they moved into the “ranch” Bell House in 1876; the Bell House was an early Victorian style farm house.

In 1898, the town’s name was changed from Rancho San Antonio to Bell, in honor of its pioneer founders. At the turn of the 20th century, the Bell area was a sparsely settled countryside with a scattering of houses, including the Bell family's home. Between 1900 and 1915, more people settled into the area. More homes, churches and a library were built, several small businesses were established by 1913; the citizens agreed to provide all services for the library, except for the books. Between 1920 and 1935, an explosive growth in population occurred in the Bell area. Old and new residents built new businesses, established schools, founded community organizations, such as the Bell Chamber of Commerce and the Woman's Club. An area-wide sanitation district was formed in 1923 to provide sewer facilities. In 1924, George O. Wheeler founded the local newspaper. By the early 1960s, the Bell Industrial Post had become the Bell-Maywood-Cudahy Industrial Post, it was renamed the Community News, became part of the Los Cerritos Community Newspaper Group.

In 1998 it was sold again. The Community News disappeared not long after, facilitating a chain of corrupt practiced that led to criminal convictions for city administrator Robert Rizzo, hired around 1998, six other Bell city officials. In 1925, the Alcazar Theater to show "talking pictures", was opened, it has since been demolished. In 1926, Bell High School was opened. Bell was incorporated as a city in 1927. Since its incorporation, the city of Bell has acquired land for public parks and the recreational program; the city has constructed an adequate sewer system, widened all major streets, built a city hall, provided fire department buildings, with the cooperation of the city of Maywood and the County of Los Angeles, the city of Bell constructed an indoor public swimming pool at Bell High School. The city's Chamber of Commerce is located at the historic James George Bell House, which serves as a meeting place and in addition, a museum showcasing artifacts from the city's founding family and period furniture.

The house is open to the general public with free admission. In March 2007, the city of Bell held its first contested election for city council in a decade; the next election for City Council was held in March 2011, included the recall of all the city council members save one, not re-elected. In March 2000, Bell gained worldwide publicity, as the media announced that a shipment of 55 Oscar statuettes was stolen from a trucking company loading dock in Bell. In addition to the Los Angeles and Bell police departments, FBI