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Clinical psychology

Clinical psychology is an integration of science and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development. Central to its practice are psychological assessment, clinical formulation, psychotherapy, although clinical psychologists engage in research, consultation, forensic testimony, program development and administration. In many countries, clinical psychology is a regulated mental health profession; the field is considered to have begun in 1896 with the opening of the first psychological clinic at the University of Pennsylvania by Lightner Witmer. In the first half of the 20th century, clinical psychology was focused on psychological assessment, with little attention given to treatment; this changed after the 1940s when World War II resulted in the need for a large increase in the number of trained clinicians. Since that time, three main educational models have developed in the USA—the Ph.

D. Clinical Science model, the Ph. D. science-practitioner model, the Psy. D. Practitioner-scholar model. In the UK and the Republic of Ireland, the Clinical Psychology Doctorate falls between the latter two of these models, whilst in much of mainland Europe, the training is at the masters level and predominantly psychotherapeutic. Clinical psychologists are expert in providing psychotherapy, train within four primary theoretical orientations—psychodynamic, cognitive behavioral therapy, systems or family therapy; the earliest recorded approaches to assess and treat mental distress were a combination of religious, magical and/or medical perspectives. Early examples of such physicians included Patañjali, Rhazes and Rumi. In the early 19th century, one approach to study mental conditions and behavior was using phrenology, the study of personality by examining the shape of the skull. Other popular treatments at that time included the study of the shape of the face and Mesmer's treatment for mental conditions using magnets.

Spiritualism and Phineas Quimby's "mental healing" were popular. While the scientific community came to reject all of these methods for treating mental illness, academic psychologists were not concerned with serious forms of mental illness; the study of mental illness was being done in the developing fields of psychiatry and neurology within the asylum movement. It was not until the end of the 19th century, around the time when Sigmund Freud was first developing his "talking cure" in Vienna, that the first scientific application of clinical psychology began. By the second half of the 1800s, the scientific study of psychology was becoming well established in university laboratories. Although there were a few scattered voices calling for applied psychology, the general field looked down upon this idea and insisted on "pure" science as the only respectable practice; this changed when Lightner Witmer, a past student of Wundt and head of the psychology department at the University of Pennsylvania, agreed to treat a young boy who had trouble with spelling.

His successful treatment was soon to lead to Witmer's opening of the first psychological clinic at Penn in 1896, dedicated to helping children with learning disabilities. Ten years in 1907, Witmer was to found the first journal of this new field, The Psychological Clinic, where he coined the term "clinical psychology", defined as "the study of individuals, by observation or experimentation, with the intention of promoting change"; the field was slow to follow Witmer's example, but by 1914, there were 26 similar clinics in the U. S; as clinical psychology was growing, working with issues of serious mental distress remained the domain of psychiatrists and neurologists. However, clinical psychologists continued to make inroads into this area due to their increasing skill at psychological assessment. Psychologists' reputation as assessment experts became solidified during World War I with the development of two intelligence tests, Army Alpha and Army Beta, which could be used with large groups of recruits.

Due in large part to the success of these tests, assessment was to become the core discipline of clinical psychology for the next quarter century, when another war would propel the field into treatment. The field began to organize under the name "clinical psychology" in 1917 with the founding of the American Association of Clinical Psychology; this only lasted until 1919, after which the American Psychological Association developed a section on Clinical Psychology, which offered certification until 1927. Growth in the field was slow for the next few years when various unconnected psychological organizations came together as the American Association of Applied Psychology in 1930, which would act as the primary forum for psychologists until after World War II when the APA reorganized. In 1945, the APA created what is now called Division 12, its division of clinical psychology, which remains a leading organization in the field. Psychological societies and associations in other English-speaking countries developed similar divisions, including in Britain, Canada and New Zealand.

When World War II broke out, the military once again called upon clinical psychologists. As soldiers began to return from combat, psychologists started to notice symptoms of psychological trauma labeled "shell shock" that were best treated as soon as possible; because physicians (including psy

HNLMS Guinea

HNLMS Guinea was an Buffel-class monitor built for the Royal Netherlands Navy in the early 1870s. Rearmed in 1887 with more modern ordnance, she was sold for scrap in 1897. Guinea was 62.68 meters long overall with a beam of 12.25 meters. The ship had a draft of 4.75 meters. She displaced 2,198 metric tons, her crew consisted of 117 officers and enlisted men, but increased to 159 crewmen. The Buffel-class monitors had two 2-cylinder compound-expansion steam engines, each driving a single propeller shaft. Steam for the engines was provided by four boilers and the engines were rated at a total of 2,000 indicated horsepower for a designed speed of 12.4 knots. The ships carried up to 150 metric tons of coal; the Buffel class was armed with two Armstrong 9-inch rifled muzzle-loading guns mounted in a single turret and four 30-pounder 4.7-inch smoothbore guns on the deck. In 1887 her armament was modernized; the 9-inch guns were replaced by a single 280-millimeter Krupp breech-loading gun and the 30-pounders were superseded by a pair of 75-millimeter, four quick-firing 37-millimeter Hotchkiss guns and two QF 37-millimeter Hotchkiss 5-barrel revolving guns.

The ship had a complete waterline armored belt that ranged in thickness from 152 millimeters amidships to 76 millimeters at the ends. The deck armor was 19 to 25 millimeters thick; the armor of the turret and its supporting structure was 203 millimeters thick, except around the gun ports where it increased to 280 millimeters. The conning tower was protected by 144 millimeters of armor. Unlike her sister ship, Guinea was built in the Netherlands, she was ordered in 1867 from the Rijkswerf in Amsterdam and was laid down that same year with the name of Matador. Renamed Guinea, after the African colony of Guinea, while under construction, she was launched on 5 May 1870 and completed on 16 October 1873. Guinea was broken up and scrapped at Bolnes in 1897. Gardiner, Robert, ed.. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. Greenwich: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-8317-0302-8. "Dutch Ironclad Rams". Warship International. IX: 302–04. 1972. Silverstone, Paul H.. Directory of the World's Capital Ships.

New York: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 978-0-88254-979-8

Louis Godart

Louis Godart is an Italian archaeologist of Belgian origins. He is a specialist in Mycenaean archaeology and philology and holds the chair of philology at the University of Naples Federico II, he is currently Director for the Conservation of Artistic Heritage of the Italian President. Godart was born in Bourseigne-Vieille. After attending middle and high school at the Collège de Bellevue in Dinant in Belgium until 1963, he graduated in classical philology in 1967 at the University of Louvain. In 1971 he got a PhD in literature and philosophy at the Free University of Brussels and, in 1977, another doctorate in arts and humanities at the Sorbonne in Paris. Godart researched on the Mycenaean Linear B tablets and, in general, on the Aegean writing. In 1982 he started the Mission site in Minoan Archaeology Apodoulou, Crete, a joint program of the University of Naples Federico II and the Greek Ministry of Culture, co-directed with Yannis Tzedakis, former Director General of Antiquities of Greece, he has organized several national and international conferences in archaeological and philological on protohistoric Mediterranean, including the Micenologia II International Congress in Naples in 1992.

He is the author of 29 books and 141 scientific articles, published in Italy and abroad on topics relating to the civilizations of the Mediterranean the Aegean civilization. Phaistos Disc Biography at the University of Naples

Lilian Faithfull

Lilian Mary Faithfull CBE was an English teacher, women's rights advocate, social worker, humanitarian. She was one of the "Steamboat ladies" who were part of the struggle for women to gain university education. From 1889 until 1894 she was a lecturer at Royal Holloway College and joined King's College London, where she succeeded Cornelia Schmitz as vice-principal of the Ladies Department for the next 13 years, a position she regarded as the happiest of her career, she was principal of Cheltenham Ladies' College from 1907 until 1922. In 1920, she became Justice of the Peace for Cheltenham, becoming one of the first women magistrates in England. Faithfull started the organisation, now Lilian Faithfull Homes in Cheltenham, she spent the last few months of her life in the care of one of the homes, Faithfull House, until her death in 1952. Lilian Faithfull was born in Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, in 1865, her father, Francis Faithfull, was a clerk at the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors. Her mother, Edith Lloyd, stayed home with eight children while writing a History of England and magazine articles.

Lilian was the second youngest of two boys. She lived in an upper-middle class country house in Hertfordshire and was educated at The Grange in Hoddesdon, at home by her mother and governesses. Emily Faithfull, an early women's rights activist, was her cousin. Both of Faithfull's parents were opinionated about issues such as femininity and social class, but were not radicals. Faithfull entered Somerville College of Oxford University in 1883, just four years after it was established, she was the first captain of the women's hockey team and the college tennis champion, graduated with a first in English in 1887. She claimed an ad eundem degree from Trinity College, Dublin in 1905. Between 1887 and 1888, Faithfull taught at Oxford High School, was secretary to the principal of Somerville, Madeleine Shaw Lefevre. From 1889 until 1894 she was a lecturer at Royal Holloway College and joined King's College London, where she succeeded Cornelia Schmitz as vice-principal of the Ladies Department for the next 13 years.

It was here that Virginia Woolf met her, Faithfull described her position as "one of the happiest educational posts for women in England". In 1890, Faithfull suggested that women who had competed for Oxford or Cambridge in intercollegiate sports should be awarded special badges like their male counterparts; this marked the start of the Lady Blue. Along with Margaret Gilliland and Sara Burstall, Faithfull believed that the important household topics of cookery and hygiene should feature as scientific subjects on the school curriculum, she wanted to get rid of the distinction between the professional woman and the women studying "home science". "In recent years there has been a widespread movement to bring the education of our girls into relation with their work as home-makers. The old'blue-stocking type', who prided herself on not knowing how to sew or mend, who thought cooking menial and beneath her, no longer appeals to anyone... We want our girls to grow up into sensible methodical, practical women, able to direct intelligently and the manifold duties of home."

– Faithfull discussing her education policies in 1911. In 1895, Faithfull became the first president of the Ladies' Hockey Association, remained in that role until at least 1907. In 1907, Faithfull became the principal of Cheltenham Ladies' College, she remained in that position for 15 years. In 1920, she became Justice of the Peace for Cheltenham, becoming one of the first women magistrates in England. Faithfull was active as a social worker, improving social conditions for the poor in London, was chair of a committee to improve nutrition in children, she founded the Old People's Housing Society in Cheltenham renamed the Lilian Faithfull Homes. Faithfull was the model for the Helen Butterfield character in The Constant Nymph, a 1924 novel by Margaret Kennedy, she was a Fellow of King's College London and received a honorary MA from Oxford in 1925. In 1926 Faithfull was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire, she never married. Faithfull died on 2 May 1952 at Faithfull House, was buried in Cheltenham.

1903: Selections from the Poems of H. W. Longfellow. With an introduction by Lilian M. Faithfull 1908: School hymns for use in the Cheltenham Ladies' College 1923: Some Addresses 1924: In the House of My Pilgrimage, her memoirs of her time at Cheltenham Ladies' College 1927: You and I. Saturday talks at Cheltenham 1928: The Pilgrim and Other Poems 1940: The Evening Crowns the Day. Reminiscences. ODNB entry

MarĂ­a Dalmazzo

Maria Dalmazzo is a Colombian actress. Maria Dalmazzo was born in Valparaiso, daughter of a Chilean/Italian father and a Colombian mother, the last of two siblings; when she was five years old they moved to Pereira, where she lived for several years at a zoo where her father was the resident head veterinarian. She studied there; when she turned 11, she decided to start studying Dramatic Arts in the after-class schedule. She began working in advertising as a teen model, she began to study musical theory and took up various instruments, such as guitar and violin. At 14 she took an interest in producing and writing plays for the school drama class, three years she worked in El Valle de las Sombras, a theatrical piece that would take her on a national tour. Upon high school graduation she studied environmental engineering. Shortly before finishing her undergraduate program she decided to leave not only school but the city, she moved to Bogotá where, three days after her arrival, she started working in advertising and doing locutions.

She worked in several ad campaigns for Colgate, Johnson & Johnson, Lancôme, more. She made movie dubs, she worked with Disney Latin America doing Meet & Greets along all the southern continent, voiced over several documentaries and has been the voice for important products in Colombia. 2010: Apatía “Una Película de Carretera” 2010: Paulina 2009: Diástole 2008: A Solas 2012: Pobres Rico 2011: Kdabra2 2010: Kdabra 2010: La Magia de Sofía 2010: A Corazón Abierto 2008–2009: La Sub30 2006–2007: Historias de Hombres Sólo Para Mujeres 2004: La Mujer en el Espejo 2002: Juan Joyita 2000–2005: Así es la Vida 2000: Programa Coctel 2007: Lujuria 2003: El Sardinero 2000–2002: El Valle de las Sombras


In Norse mythology, Hliðskjálf is the high seat of the god Odin allowing him to see into all realms. In Grímnismál, Odin and Frigg are both sitting in Hliðskjálf when they see their foster sons Agnarr and Geirröðr, one living in a cave with a giantess and the other a king. Frigg made the accusation to her husband that Geirröðr was miserly and inhospitable toward guests, so after wagering with one another over the veracity of the statement, Odin set out to visit Geirröðr in order to settle the matter. In Skírnismál, Freyr sneaks into Hliðskjálf when he looks into Jötunheimr and sees the beautiful giant maiden Gerðr, with whom he falls in love. In Gylfaginning, Snorri mentions the high seat on four occasions. In the first instance he seems to refer to it rather as a dwelling place: "There is one abode called Hliðskjálf, when Allfather sat in the high seat there, he looked out over the whole world and saw every man's acts, knew all things which he saw." However he explicitly refers to it as the high seat itself: "Another great abode is there, named Valaskjálf.

Odin possesses that dwelling. The gods made it and thatched it with sheer silver, in this hall is the Hliðskjálf, the high seat so called. Whenever Allfather sits in that seat, he surveys all lands." The third mention made of Hliðskjálf is during Snorri's recounting of the wooing of Gerd, quoted by him from Skírnismál. Lastly, Snorri relates how Odin used the high seat to find Loki after he fled from the scene of his murder of Baldr. Öndvegissúlur Valaskjálf