A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Pennsylvania Route 144
Pennsylvania Route 144 is a state highway located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, covering a distance of about 109 miles. The southern terminus is located at U. S. Route 322 in Potter Township while the northern terminus is located at U. S. Route 6 in Galeton. Between Snow Shoe and Renovo, PA 144 is known as the High Plateau Scenic Byway, a Pennsylvania Scenic Byway. PA 144 begins at an intersection with US 322 in the community of Potters Mills in Potter Township, Centre County, heading north on two-lane undivided Old Fort Road; the road passes residences in the community before curving northwest and heading through farmland with some woods and homes. The route passes through the community of Centre Hill before it comes to a junction with PA 45 in the community of Old Fort. PA 144 becomes South Pennsylvania Avenue and enters the borough of Centre Hall, where it is lined with homes and a few businesses; the road becomes North Pennsylvania Avenue and runs through the downtown area before it reaches an intersection with the western terminus of PA 192 in the northern part of town.
Past this intersection, the route turns west and passes residences, with a southbound runaway truck ramp, before it leaves Centre Hall for Potter Township again. PA 144 heads into forested areas and ascends Nittany Mountain, curving southwest before turning to the west and crossing into Spring Township; the road gains a center left-turn lane passes some homes and businesses before it becomes a three-lane road with one northbound lane and two southbound lanes and turns north into forests, descending the mountain. The route curves becomes South Main Street, passing through Pleasant Gap. PA 144 heads into the community of Pleasant Gap and runs past homes and a few commercial establishments, coming to a northbound runaway truck ramp; the road curves to the west-northwest and runs through more residential areas, crossing an abandoned railroad line before reaching an intersection with PA 26. Past this junction, the route becomes North Main Street through more developed areas, passing under a Nittany and Bald Eagle Railroad line.
PA 144 becomes Axemann Road and runs through a mix of farm fields and development, curving north and running to the east of Logan Branch and a Nittany and Bald Eagle Railroad line. The road passes under Interstate 99 and US 220 and winds north through wooded areas with some homes, heading through the community of Axemann; the route curves northwest and continues parallel to the creek and railroad line, passing to the northeast of a factory before heading into the borough of Bellefonte. Here, PA 144 turns northeast into residential areas; the route bends north onto South Spring Street and heads into the commercial downtown, turning east onto West Bishop Street. A block PA 144 intersects PA 550 and turns north for a concurrency with that route on South Allegheny Street. PA 550 splits from PA 144 west of the Centre County Courthouse by turning west onto West High Street, with PA 144 continuing north along North Allegheny Street; the route runs past homes, turning west onto West Linn Street. PA 144 curves northwest and comes to an intersection with PA 150, where it turns north to join PA 150, with the road heading north into areas of homes and businesses.
PA 144/PA 150 enters Spring Township again and becomes Pleasantview Boulevard, heading into wooded areas with some commercial development, curving to the northeast before heading to the northwest. The road passes through a gap in forested Bald Eagle Mountain and crosses into Boggs Township, turning to the north again. PA becomes Turnpike Street, passing homes; the two route turn northwest onto pass businesses, crossing Bald Eagle Creek. Past this, the road becomes a divided highway, soon widening to four lanes as it crosses over a Nittany and Bald Eagle Railroad line and comes to an interchange with US 220 Alternate. At this point, PA 144 turns southwest to join US 220 Alt. and PA 150 turns northeast to join US 220 Alt. on Appalachian Thruway, a four-lane divided highway. The road runs along the border between Boggs Township to the north and Milesburg to the south, passing near homes and businesses; the two routes enter Boggs Township and become a two-lane undivided road, heading near homes and businesses and passing to the south of Bald Eagle High School.
In the community of Wingate, PA 144 splits from US 220 Bus. which continues southwest concurrent with PA 504, by heading northwest onto Runville Road, passing through farmland before heading between industrial areas to the southwest and woodland to the northeast. The road heads north-northwest through forested areas with some fields and homes, passing through the communities of Runville and Gum Stump; the route continues through dense forests and becomes Snow Shoe Mountain Road, heading into rugged terrain and turning west and northwest. PA 144 heads northwest and curves north before it enters Snow Shoe Township and passes over I-80; the road becomes East Sycamore Road and turns to the west-northwest, running to the north of the interstate through forests. The route bends west and passes homes before running near businesses and coming to an intersection with Beechcreek Road, which heads south to an interchange with I-80. From here, PA 144 passes commercial development before crossing into the borough of Snow Shoe, where it becomes East Sycamore Street and heads through residential areas.
The road curves northwest and becomes West Sycamore Street before it heads back into Snow Shoe Township. The route runs west through wooded areas with some fields and development as West Sycamore Road, passing through the community of Gillintown. In the community of Moshannon, PA 144 intersects the northern t
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Henry Clinton (British Army officer, born 1730)
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB was a British army officer and politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1772 and 1795. He is best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America. In addition to his military service, due to the influence of his cousin Henry Pelham-Clinton, 2nd Duke of Newcastle, he was a Member of Parliament for many years. Late in life he died before assuming the post. Henry Clinton was born on April 16 in 1730, to Admiral George Clinton and Anne Carle, the daughter of a general. Early histories claimed his birth year as 1738, a date propagated in modern biographic summaries. Willcox notes that none of these records give indication of the place of Clinton's birth. Historian John Fredriksen claims. Little is known of the earliest years of Clinton's life, or of his mother and the two sisters that survived to adulthood. Given his father's naval career, where the family was domiciled is uncertain.
They were well-connected to the seat of the Earls of Lincoln, from whom his father was descended, or the estate of the Dukes of Newcastle, to whom they were related by marriage. In 1739 his father stationed at Gibraltar, applied for the governorship of the Province of New York, he won the post in 1741 with the assistance of the Duke of Newcastle. He did not go to New York until 1743, he took young Henry with him, having failed to acquire a lieutenant's commission for the 12-year-old. Henry's career would benefit from the family connection to the Newcastles. Records of the family's life in New York are sparse, he is reported to have studied under Samuel Seabury on Long Island, suggesting the family may have lived in the country outside New York City. Clinton's first military commission was to an independent company in New York in 1745; the next year his father procured for him a captain's commission, he was assigned to garrison duty at the captured Fortress Louisbourg. In 1749, Clinton went to Britain to pursue his military career.
It was two years. His father, after he returned to London when his term as New York governor was over, procured for Clinton a position as aide to Sir John Ligonier in 1756. By 1758 Clinton had risen to be a lieutenant colonel in the 1st Foot Guards, renamed the Grenadier Guards, was a line company commander in the 2nd Battalion and was based in London; the 2nd Battalion, 1st Foot Guards, was deployed to Germany to participate in the Seven Years' War, arriving at Bremen on 30 July 1760 joining the main Army, operating under Conway's Corps near Warberg. George II died on 25 October 1760 and Clinton, along with all Officers of the Regiment, was amongst those listed in the renewal of commissions to George III, in London, on 27 October 1760. Clinton was back with the 2nd Battalion coming out of winter quarters, at Paderborn in February 1761 and with the unit at the Battle of Villinghausen on 16 July 1761 under Prince Ferdinand, the Hereditary Crown Prince, at the crossing of the Diemel, near Warburg, in August, before wintering near Bielefeld.
His father died this year necessitating a return to England to resolve family affairs. In 1762 the unit, part of the force led by Prince Ferdinand, was in action at the Battle of Wilhelmsthal on 24 June 1762. After this action they participated in cutting the French supply lines at the heights of Homberg on 24 July 1762 and secured artillery into position, it was after this engagement that the unit lost its commanding officer, General Julius Caesar who died at Elfershausen and is buried there. Clinton, now a colonel, was appointed as aide-de-camp to Prince Ferdinand by the start of 1762 and was with him when he attacked Louis Joseph, Prince of Condé at the Battle of Nauheim on 30 August 1762. Prince Ferdinand was wounded during this engagement and Clinton wounded forcing him to quit the field; this and the consequent siege of Cassel, were the last actions of the 1st Foot Guards in the Seven Years' War and Clinton returned to England. Clinton had distinguished himself as an aide-de-camp to Brunswick, with whom he established an enduring friendship.
During these early years, he formed a number of friendships and acquaintances with other officers serving in Brunswick's camp. These included Charles Lee and William Alexander, who styled himself "Lord Stirling", he formed long-lasting and deep friendships with John Jervis, William Phillips. He made the acquaintance of Charles Cornwallis, who would famously serve under him as well. While Clinton was campaigning with the army in 1761, his father died; as the new head of the family, he had to unwind his father's affairs, which included sizable debts as well as arrears in pay. Battles he had with the Board of Trade over his father's unpaid salary lasted for years, attempts to sell the land in the colonies went nowhere, his mother, who had a history of mental instability and
Clearfield County, Pennsylvania
Clearfield County is a sixth-class county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 81,642; the county seat is Clearfield, the largest city is DuBois. The county was created in 1804 and organized in 1822. Clearfield County comprises the DuBois, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the State College-DuBois, PA Combined Statistical Area. Clearfield County was formed by the Act of Assembly by the second Governor of Pennsylvania at the time, Thomas McKean on March 26, 1804; the county was created from parts of the created counties of Huntingdon and Lycoming. The name for the county was most derived from the many cleared fields of the valleys surrounding Clearfield Creek and West Branch of the Susquehanna River, formed by the bison herds and by old corn fields of prior Native Americans tribes; the first board of county commissioners to the county were Roland Curtin, James Fleming and James Smith, all appointed by Governor McKean in 1805. The first act the commissioners did was to create a local government or seat of the newly created county.
They came upon land owned at the time by Abraham Witmer at a village known as Chincleclamousche, named after the Native American chief of the Cornplanter's tribe of Senecas. Clearfield became the new name of the old village; the two major industries of the county in the mid-1800s until the early 1900s was coal. Lumber was still being floated down the West Branch of the Susquehanna up until 1917. Coal remains the main industry of the county to this day. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,154 square miles, of which 1,145 square miles is land and 9.2 square miles is water. It is the third-largest county in fourth-largest by total area; the West Branch Susquehanna River flows through the county bisecting the county seat along the way. The mountainous terrain of the county made traffic difficult for early settlers. Various Native American paths and trails crossing the area were used intermittently by settlers, invading armies, escaped slaves travelling north along the Underground Railroad.
A major feature located in Bloom Township, Pennsylvania within the county is known as Bilger's rocks and exhibits fine examples of exposed sandstone bedrock, created during the formation of the Appalachian Mountains. The shape of Clearfield County bears an amazing resemblance to that of the state of Arkansas; as of the census of 2000, there were 83,382 people, 32,785 households, 22,916 families residing in the county. The population density was 73 people per square mile. There were 37,855 housing units at an average density of 33 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.40% White, 1.49% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. 0.56% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 22.9% were of German, 13.6% American, 10.2% English, 9.9% Irish, 9.1% Italian and 6.0% Polish ancestry. There were 32,785 households out of which 29.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.60% were married couples living together, 9.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.10% were non-families.
26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.70% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.80% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 16.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 99.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.50 males. The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Clearfield County as the DuBois, PA Micropolitan Statistical Area; as of the 2010 census the micropolitan area ranked 6th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 65th most populous in the United States with a population of 81,642. Clearfield County is a part of the State College-DuBois, PA Combined Statistical Area, which combines the populations of both Clearfield and Centre County areas, as well as the State College area.
The Combined Statistical Area ranked 9th in the State of Pennsylvania and 125th most populous in the United States with a population of 235,632. As of October 2014, there were 50,846 registered voters in Clearfield County. Democratic: 21,565 Republican: 23,497 Libertarian: 272 No Party Affiliation: 2,492 Other parties: 3,020 While the county registration tends to be evenly matched between Democrats and Republicans, the county trends Republican in statewide and federal elections; the last Democrat to win a majority in the county was Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964, while Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton winning pluralities in the county, with the former by 88 votes. In 2006, Democrat Bob Casey Jr. received 55% of its vote when he unseated incumbent Republican US Senator Rick Santorum and Ed Rendell received 50.2% of the vote against Lynn Swann. Each of the three row-office statewide winners carried Clearfield in 2008. Clearfield County Jail Quehanna Bootcamp SCI Houtzdale Moshannon Valley Correctional Center Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania at Clearfield, Pennsylvania Pennsylvania State University at DuBois Clearfield County Career and Technology Center Triangle Tech Clearfield Area School District Curwensville Area School District DuBois Area School District Glendale School District Harmony Area School District Moshannon Valley School District Philipsburg-Osceo
Governor of New York
The Governor of New York is the chief executive of the U. S. state of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces; the current governor is Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat, who took office on January 1, 2011. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the New York State Legislature, to convene the legislature, to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment. Unlike the other government departments that compose the executive branch of government, the governor is the head of the state Executive Department; the officeholder is afforded the courtesy style of His/Her Excellency while in office. The governor of New York is considered a potential candidate for President. Ten governors have been major-party candidates for president, four, Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt have won. Six New York governors have gone on to serve as vice president.
Additionally two Governors of New York, John Jay and Charles Evans Hughes, have served as Chief Justice of the United States. Under the New York State Constitution, a person must be at least 30 years of age, a United States citizen, a resident of the state of New York for at least five years prior to being elected to serve as governor; the office of Governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777 to coincide with the calendar year. An 1874 amendment extended the term of office to three years, but the 1894 constitution reduced it to two years; the most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years. The Constitution of New York has provided since 1777 for the election of a Lieutenant Governor of New York, who acts as President of the State Senate, to the same term. In the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, or absence from the state, the lieutenant governor would take on the governor's duties and powers. Since the 1938 constitution, the lieutenant governor explicitly becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office.
Should the office of lieutenant governor become vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate performs the duties of a lieutenant governor until the governor can take back the duties of the office, or the next election. Although no provision exists in the constitution for it, precedent set in 2009 allows the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor should a vacancy occur. Should the president pro tempore be unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession; the lieutenant governor nominated separately. Line of succession in full Lieutenant Governor Temporary President of the Senate Speaker of the Assembly Attorney General Comptroller Commissioner of Transportation Commissioner of Health Commissioner of Commerce Industrial Commissioner Chairman of the Public Service Commission Secretary of State Politics of New York Official website Governor's Office in the New York Codes and Regulations
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti