Languedoc-Roussillon is a former administrative region of France. Since 1 January 2016, it is part of the new region Occitanie and it is the southernmost region of mainland France. The region is made up of the historical provinces,68. The former province of Languedoc extends over what is now the Midi-Pyrénées region,17. 9% of Languedoc-Roussillon was formerly the province of Gévaudan, now the department of Lozère. A small part of the former Gévaudan lies inside the current Auvergne region, Gévaudan is often considered to be a sub-province inside the province of Languedoc, in which case Languedoc would account for 86. 6% of Languedoc-Roussillon. These pays were part of the Ancien Régime province of Roussillon, owning its name to the largest and most populous of the five pays, llívia is a town of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Spain, that forms a Spanish exclave surrounded by French territory. At the regional elections in March 2004, the socialist mayor of Montpellier Georges Frêche, since then, Georges Frêche has embarked on a complete overhaul of the region and its institutions.
Georges Frêche wanted to change the name of the region, wishing to erase its duality, thus, he wanted to rename the region Septimanie. This name, has not been in use since the 9th century, strong opposition of the population led to Georges Frêche giving up on his idea. He declared that he believed in it but could not go ahead without a mandate. This idea has minimal popular support, on the other hand, there are some who would like to merge the Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées regions, thus reunifying the old province of Languedoc, and creating a large region. Prior to the 20th century, Occitan was the language spoken in Languedoc, both have been under pressure from French. In 2004, research conducted by the Government of Catalonia showed that 65% of adults over the age of 15 in Roussilon could understand Catalan whereas 37% stated they were able to speak it. In recent years there have been attempts at reviving of both languages, including Catalan-medium schooling through the La Bressola schools, Occitan literature — still sometimes called Provençal literature — is a body of texts written in Occitan in what is nowadays the South of France.
It originated in the poetry of the eleventh- and twelfth- century troubadours, aimeric de Peguilhan, Giraut de Bornelh and Bertran de Born were major influences in troubadour composition, in the High Middle Ages. The troubadour tradition is considered to have originated in the region, the Romantic music composer Déodat de Séverac was born in the region, following his schooling in Paris, returned to the region to compose. He sought to incorporate the music indigenous to the area in his compositions, grapevines are said to have existed in the South of France since the Pliocene period - before the existence of Homo sapiens. The first vineyards of Gaul developed around two towns, Béziers and Narbonne, several entrepreneurs such as Robert Skalli and James Herrick drastically changed the face of the region, planting more commercially viable grape varieties and pushing for new AOC classifications
A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, living either alone or with any number of other monks. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions, in the Greek language the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is mainly in use for men. The word nun is typically used for female monastics, although the term monachos is of Christian origin, in the English language monk tends to be used loosely for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds. However, being generic, it is not interchangeable terms that denote particular kinds of monk, such as cenobite, anchorite, hesychast. In Eastern Orthodoxy monasticism holds a special and important place. Orthodox monastics separate themselves from the world in order to pray unceasingly for the world and they do not, in general, have as their primary purpose the running of social services, but instead are concerned with attaining theosis, or union with God. However, care for the poor and needy has always been an obligation of monasticism, the level of contact though will vary from community to community.
Hermits, on the hand, have little or no contact with the outside world. Orthodox monasticism does not have religious orders as are found in the West, basil the Great and the Philokalia, which was compiled by St. Nikodemos of the Holy Mountain and St. Makarios of Corinth. Hesychasm is of importance in the ascetical theology of the Orthodox Church. Meals are usually taken in common in a dining hall known as a trapeza. Food is usually simple and is eaten in silence while one of the brethren reads aloud from the writings of the Holy Fathers. The monastic lifestyle takes a deal of serious commitment. Within the cenobitic community, all monks conform to a way of living based on the traditions of that particular monastery. In struggling to attain this conformity, the comes to realize his own shortcomings and is guided by his spiritual father in how to deal honestly with them. For this same reason, bishops are almost always chosen from the ranks of monks, Eastern monasticism is found in three distinct forms, anchoritic and the middle way between the two, known as the skete.
One normally enters a community first, and only after testing and spiritual growth would one go on to the skete or, for the most advanced. However, one is not necessarily expected to join a skete or become a solitary, in general, Orthodox monastics have little or no contact with the outside world, including their own families
In Hellenistic Greek and Roman architecture a peristyle is a continuous porch formed by a row of columns surrounding the perimeter of building or a courtyard. Tetrastoon is a rarely used term for this feature. In the Christian ecclesiastical architecture that developed from Roman basilica, a courtyard peristyle, in rural settings a wealthy Roman could surround a villa with terraced gardens, within the city Romans created their gardens inside the domus. Sometimes the lararium, a shrine for the Lares, the gods of the household, was located in this portico, the courtyard might contain flowers and shrubs, benches and even fish ponds. No new peristyle houses were built after A. D.550
Enclosed religious orders
Enclosed religious orders of the Christian churches have solemn vows with a strict separation from the affairs of the external world. The term cloistered is synonymous with enclosed, in the Catholic Church enclosure is regulated by the Code of Canon Law, either the Latin code or the Oriental code, and by subsidiary legislation. The stated purpose for such enclosure is to prevent distraction from prayer, depending upon the reason and the length of time, the proper authority can allow enclosed men or women to leave the enclosure. More commonly, cloistered individuals are temporarily released from the obligation of enclosure to participate in a religious event - a papal visit or a bishops visit. Some men and women who are cloistered may have knowledge of fields like education or health care, depending on their training during formation or the cloistered life. They can provide for the needs of their community, rarely, there are procedures in place for the cloistered to receive the needed utilities, communication needs, and medical needs while keeping leaving the cloister to a minimum.
Benedictine monks, for instance, have often staffed parishes and been allowed to leave monastery confines. In the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church, once a man or woman has made solemn, perpetual religious vows, the release from these monastic vows has to be approved by the ecclesiastical authorities. Normally there is a period, called exclaustration, in which the person looks to establish a new life. This usually lasts up to six years under the current Code of Canon Law, after this period the appropriate authority, generally the Holy See, determines that the wish to leave this life is valid and grants the former monk or nun release from their vows. Anglican religious orders have different procedures for the release from perpetual vows, contemplative orders prioritise worship and prayer over economic or outreach activity. They exist in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions as well as in Buddhist settings, cenobite Convent Monasticism Religious order New Advent Encyclopaedia III ff
A nun is a member of a religious community of women, typically one living under vows of poverty and obedience. The term nun is applicable to Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Lutherans, Buddhists, Hindus, Mother Teresas Missionaries of Charity, lives an active vocation of both prayer and service, often to the needy, ill and uneducated. All Buddhist traditions have nuns, although their status is different among Buddhist countries, fully ordained Buddhist nuns have more Patimokkha rules than the monks. The important vows are the same, however, as with monks, there is quite a lot of variation in nuns dress and social conventions between Buddhist cultures in Asia. Chinese nuns possess the full ordination, Tibetan nuns do not. In Thailand, a country never had a tradition of fully ordained nuns. However, some of them have played an important role in dhamma-practitioners community. There are in Thai Forest Tradition foremost nuns such as Mae Ji Kaew Sianglam, the founder of the Nunnery of Baan Huai Saai, who is believed by some to be enlightened as well as Upāsikā Kee Nanayon.
At the beginning of the 21st century, some Buddhist women in Thailand have started to introduce the bhikkhuni sangha in their country as well, dhammananda Bhikkhuni, formerly the successful academic scholar Dr. Chatsumarn Kabilsingh, established a controversial monastery for the training of Buddhist nuns in Thailand. The relatively active roles of Taiwanese nuns were noted by some studies, researcher Charles Brewer Jones estimates that from 1952 to 1999, when the Buddhist Association of the ROC organized public ordination, female applicants have outnumbered males by about three to one. He adds, All my informants in the areas of Taipei and Sanhsia considered nuns at least as respectable as monks, in contrast, Shiu-kuen Tsung found in Taipei county that female clergy were viewed with some suspicion by society. She reports that while outsiders did not necessarily regard their vocation as unworthy of respect, wei-yi Cheng studied Luminary order in southern Taiwan. Based on studies of Luminary order, Cheng concluded that the order in Taiwan was still young and gave nuns more rooms of development.
Gelongma ordination requires the presence of ten fully ordained people keeping exactly the same vows, because ten nuns are required to ordain a new one, the effort to establish the Dharmaguptaka bhikkhu tradition has taken a long time. It is permissible for a Tibetan nun to receive ordination from another living tradition. Based on this, Western nuns ordained in Tibetan tradition, like Thubten Chodron, the ordination of monks and nuns in Tibetan Buddhism distinguishes three stages, rabjung-ma, getshül-ma and gelong-ma. The clothes of the nuns in Tibet are basically the same as those of monks, hokke-ji in 747 was established by the consort of the Emperor. It took charge of provincial convents, performed ceremonies for the protection of the state, aristocratic Japanese women often became Buddhist nuns in the premodern period
Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774 and Emperor of the Romans from 800. He united much of Europe during the early Middle Ages and he was the first recognised emperor in western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state which Charlemagne founded was called the Carolingian Empire, Charlemagne was the oldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon. He became king in 768 following his fathers death, initially as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I, carlomans sudden death in 771 in unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the undisputed ruler of the Frankish Kingdom. He continued his fathers policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and he campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianising them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden. Charlemagne reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Old St.
Peters Basilica. Charlemagne has been called the Father of Europe, as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Roman Empire and his rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church. All Holy Roman Emperors considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagnes empire, up to the last Emperor Francis II and these and other machinations led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. Charlemagne died in 814, having ruled as emperor for thirteen years and he was laid to rest in his imperial capital of Aachen in what is today Germany. He married at least four times and had three sons, but only his son Louis the Pious survived to succeed him. By the 6th century, the western Germanic Franks had been Christianised, ruled by the Merovingians, was the most powerful of the kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire. Following the Battle of Tertry the Merovingians declined into powerlessness, for which they have dubbed the rois fainéants.
Almost all government powers were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace, in 687, Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry. He became the governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pepin was the grandson of two important figures of the Austrasian Kingdom, Saint Arnulf of Metz and Pepin of Landen, Pepin of Herstal was eventually succeeded by his illegitimate son Charles, known as Charles Martel. After 737, Charles governed the Franks in lieu of a king, Charles was succeeded in 741 by his sons Carloman and Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. In 743, the brothers placed Childeric III on the throne to curb separatism in the periphery and he was the last Merovingian king. Carloman resigned office in 746, preferring to enter the church as a monk, Pepin brought the question of the kingship before Pope Zachary, asking whether it was logical for a king to have no royal power
Sergius and Bacchus
Sergius and Bacchus were fourth-century Roman Christian soldiers revered as martyrs and military saints by the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches. Their feast day is 7 October, according to their hagiography and Bacchus were officers in Galerius army, and were held high in his favor until they were exposed as secret Christians. They were severely punished, with Bacchus dying during torture, due to its historical anachronisms, the hagiography is considered ahistorical. Sergius and Bacchus were very popular throughout Late Antiquity, and churches in their honor were built in cities, including Constantinople. The close friendship between the two is strongly emphasized in their hagiographies and traditions, making one of the most famous examples of paired saints. The saints story is told in the Greek text known as The Passion of Sergius and Bacchus, the story is ostensibly set during the reign of Roman Emperor Galerius, though it contains a number of contradictions and anachronisms that make dating difficult.
The work itself may date to the mid-5th century, after they persisted in refusing to sacrifice to Jupiter in Galerius company, they were publicly humiliated by being chained, dressed in female attire and paraded around town. Galerius sent them to Barbalissos in Mesopotamia to be tried by Antiochus, the commander there. Antiochus could not convince them to give up their faith, the next day Bacchus spirit appeared to Sergius and encouraged him to remain strong so they could be together forever. Over the next days, Sergius was tortured and finally executed at Resafa. The Passion, replete with supernatural occurrences and historical anachronisms, has dismissed as an unreliable historical source. The work has dated to mid-5th century, and there is no other evidence for the cult of Sergius and Bacchus before about 425. As such there is doubt about their historicity. Finally, there is no evidence to support the existence of monks, such as the ones said in the Passion to have recovered Bacchus body and he noted especially that the punishment of being paraded around in womens clothes reflected the treatment of Christian soldiers by Julian.
He concludes that the martyrs Sergius and Bacchus did not exist as such, veneration of the two saints dates to the 5th century. A shrine to Sergius was built in Resafa, but there is no evidence for his or Bacchus cult much older than that. Their cult grew rapidly during the early 5th century, in accordance with the growth of the cult of martyrs, especially military martyrs, the Resafa shrine was constructed of mudbrick, evidently at the behest of bishop Alexander of Hierapolis. The Passion has been dated to the century on the grounds that it describes the construction of such a shrine as if it were a relatively recent occurrence
A cathedral is a Christian church which contains the seat of a bishop, thus serving as the central church of a diocese, conference, or episcopate. The counterpart term for such a church in German is Dom from Latin domus ecclesiae or domus episcopalis, Italian Duomo, Dutch Domkerk, when the church at which an archbishop or metropolitan presides is specifically intended, the term kathedrikos naos is used. In addition, both the Catholic Church and Orthodox churches have formed new dioceses within formerly Protestant lands for converts, consequently, it is not uncommon to find Christians in a single city being served by three or more cathedrals of differing denominations. In the Catholic tradition, the term cathedral correctly applies only to a church houses the seat of the bishop of a diocese. The abbey church of a territorial abbacy serves the same function, the Catholic Church uses the following terms. A pro-cathedral is a parish or other church used temporarily as a cathedral, usually while the cathedral of a diocese is under construction and this designation applies only as long as the temporary use continues. A co-cathedral is a cathedral in a diocese that has two sees. A proto-cathedral is the cathedral of a transferred see.
The cathedral church of a bishop is called the metropolitan cathedral. The term cathedral actually carries no implication as to the size or ornateness of the building, most cathedrals are particularly impressive edifices. The building is now under renovation and restoration for solemn dedication under the title Christ Cathedral in 2018, in the ancient world the chair, on a raised dais, was the distinctive mark of a teacher or rhetor and thus symbolises the bishops role as teacher. A raised throne within a hall was definitive for a Late Antique presiding magistrate. The history of cathedrals starts in the year 313, when the emperor Constantine the Great personally adopted Christianity, in the third century, the phrase ascending the platform, ad pulpitum venire, becomes the standard term for Christian ordination. During the siege of Dura Europos in 256, a complete Christian house church, or domus ecclesiae was entombed in a bank, surviving when excavated. Otherwise the large room had no decoration or distinctive features at all, in 269, soon after Dura fell to the Persian army, a body of clerics assembled a charge sheet against the bishop of Antioch, Paul of Samosata, in the form of an open letter.
Characteristically a Roman magistrate presided from a throne in a large, richly decorated and aisled rectangular hall called a basilica. The earliest of these new basilican cathedrals of which remains are still visible is below the Cathedral of Aquileia on the northern tip of the Adriatic sea. The three halls create a courtyard, in which was originally located a separate baptistery
Saint-Michel de Grandmont Priory
Saint-Michel de Grandmont Priory is a former monastery of Grandmontine in the commune of Saint-Privat, in Hérault, France. The priory is located in an area in heart of an oak forest. The Priory is now maintained by “Les Amis du Prieure Saint Michel de Grandmont” and this 12th-century priory is one of the best-preserved of the 160 Grandmontine monasteries, a religious order, founded by Étienne of Thiers, son of Viscount of Thiers from the Auvergne). When he was 12, Etienne was taken by his father to Italy, where he studied under Milo, here the young Etienne met with the Calabrian monks who practised Byzantine rites, and thus discovered his vocation. Upon his return to France in 1076, Etienne searched for somewhere to practise the Gospel in prayer and he chose an isolated location in the forest of Muret. A hut dwelling community of hermits began to gather around him, and they built a church. His death prompted the movement of his flock to the Grandmont plateau, near Limoges and this became the hub to more than 160 smaller monasteries, inhabited by more than 1500 hermits, of which, the Priory of St Michel de Grandmont at Lodève was one.
By 1772 the Grandmontaine Order had dwindled in popularity, and was dissolved. Two monks remained in the Priory until their deaths in 1785 and it was known to be one of the strictest, and austere orders of the Middle Ages. There was no hierarchy, with no archives, and no heating, the monks walked with bare feet, in perpetual silence. They ate no meat, and fasted regularly, as they worked, they engaged in silent prayer. Theirs was the first order to be permitted to beg for food, after the French revolution, the priory passed into the hands of a local merchant family, who developed it as a home, and agricultural estate. From 1849 to 1936 it was owned by the Vitalis family, Etienne Vitalis restored the buildings, making them fit for habitation, and wine production. In 1957 it was bought by the Bec family, who owned an engineering firm. In 1980 the Priory was classed as a monument. The Priory of St Michel de Grandmont is the surviving building from the order of Grandmont. The group of buildings includes a church, a Romanesque cloister surmounted by a pinnacle, and a chapter house and cellar
A monastery is a building or complex of buildings comprising the domestic quarters and workplaces of monastics, monks or nuns, whether living in communities or alone. A monastery generally includes a place reserved for prayer which may be a chapel, church or temple, a monastery complex typically comprises a number of buildings which include a church, cloister, library and infirmary. These may include a hospice, a school and a range of agricultural and manufacturing such as a barn. In English usage, the monastery is generally used to denote the buildings of a community of monks. In modern usage, convent tends to be applied only to institutions of female monastics, historically, a convent denoted a house of friars, now more commonly called a friary. Various religions may apply these terms in specific ways. The earliest extant use of the term monastērion is by the 1st century AD Jewish philosopher Philo in On The Contemplative Life, in England the word monastery was applied to the habitation of a bishop and the cathedral clergy who lived apart from the lay community.
Most cathedrals were not monasteries, and were served by canons secular, some were run by monasteries orders, such as York Minster. Westminster Abbey was for a time a cathedral, and was a Benedictine monastery until the Reformation. They are to be distinguished from collegiate churches, such as St Georges Chapel, in most of this article, the term monastery is used generically to refer to any of a number of types of religious community. In the Roman Catholic religion and to some extent in certain branches of Buddhism, there is a more specific definition of the term. Buddhist monasteries are generally called vihara, viharas may be occupied by males or females, and in keeping with common English usage, a vihara populated by females may often be called a nunnery or a convent. However, vihara can refer to a temple, in Tibetan Buddhism, monasteries are often called gompa. In Thailand and Cambodia, a monastery is called a wat, in Burma, a monastery is called a kyaung. A Christian monastery may be an abbey, or a priory and it may be a community of men or of women.
A charterhouse is any monastery belonging to the Carthusian order, in Eastern Christianity, a very small monastic community can be called a skete, and a very large or important monastery can be given the dignity of a lavra. The great communal life of a Christian monastery is called cenobitic, as opposed to the life of an anchorite. In Hinduism monasteries are called matha, koil, or most commonly an ashram, jains use the Buddhist term vihara
Romanesque Architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the date of the Romanesque style, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the late 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style, marked by pointed arches, examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent, making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman Architecture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture, each building has clearly defined forms, frequently of very regular, symmetrical plan, the overall appearance is one of simplicity when compared with the Gothic buildings that were to follow. The style can be identified right across Europe, despite regional characteristics, Many castles were built during this period, but they are greatly outnumbered by churches. The most significant are the great churches, many of which are still standing, more or less complete.
The largest groups of Romanesque survivors are in areas that were less prosperous in subsequent periods, including parts of southern France, northern Spain and rural Italy. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word Romanesque means descended from Roman and was first used in English to designate what are now called Romance languages, Romance language is not degenerated Latin language. Latin language is degenerated Romance language, Romanesque architecture is not debased Roman architecture. Roman architecture is debased Romanesque architecture, the first use in a published work is in William Gunns An Inquiry into the Origin and Influence of Gothic Architecture. The term is now used for the more restricted period from the late 10th to 12th centuries, Many castles exist, the foundations of which date from the Romanesque period. Most have been altered, and many are in ruins. By far the greatest number of surviving Romanesque buildings are churches, the scope of Romanesque architecture Romanesque architecture was the first distinctive style to spread across Europe since the Roman Empire.
In the more northern countries Roman building styles and techniques had never been adopted except for official buildings, although the round arch continued in use, the engineering skills required to vault large spaces and build large domes were lost. There was a loss of continuity, particularly apparent in the decline of the formal vocabulary of the Classical Orders. In Rome several great Constantinian basilicas continued in use as an inspiration to builders, the largest building is the church, the plan of which is distinctly Germanic, having an apse at both ends, an arrangement not generally seen elsewhere. Another feature of the church is its regular proportion, the plan of the crossing tower providing a module for the rest of the plan. These features can both be seen at the Proto-Romanesque St. Michaels Church, Hildesheim, 1001–1030, the style, sometimes called First Romanesque or Lombard Romanesque, is characterised by thick walls, lack of sculpture and the presence of rhythmic ornamental arches known as a Lombard band
Catholic religious order
Catholic religious orders are, historically, a category of Catholic religious institutes. Subcategories are canons regular, monastics and clerks regular, original Catholic religious orders of the Middle Ages include the Order of Saint Benedict, the Carmelites, the Order of Friars Minor, the Dominican Order, and the Order of Saint Augustine. As such, the Teutonic Order may qualify, today mainly monastic, in the past, what distinguished religious orders from other institutes was the classification of the vows that the members took in religious profession as solemn vows. According to this criterion, the last religious order founded was that of the Bethlehem Brothers in 1673. Nevertheless, in the course of the 20th century some religious institutes outside the category of orders obtained permission to make solemn vows, at least of poverty, solemn vows were originally considered indissoluble. As noted below, dispensations began to be granted in times, the members of a religious order for men were called regulars, those belonging to a religious congregation were simply religious, a term that applied to regulars.
However, it abolished the distinction according to which solemn vows, thus members of orders were barred absolutely from marriage, and any marriage they attempted was invalid. Those who made simple vows were obliged not to marry, but if they did break their vow, after publication of the 1917 Code, many institutes with simple vows appealed to the Holy See for permission to make solemn vows. The Apostolic Constitution Sponsa Christi of 21 November 1950 made access to that permission easier for nuns, many of these latter institutes of women petitioned for the solemn vow of poverty alone. It has accordingly dropped the language of the 1917 code and uses the term religious institute to designate all such institutes of consecrated life alike. Thus the Church no longer draws the distinction between religious orders and congregations. It applies to all such institutes the single name religious institute, a religious order is characterized by an authority structure where a superior general has jurisdiction over the orders dependent communities.
An exception is the Order of St Benedict which is not an order in this technical sense, because it has a system of independent houses. However, the Constitutions governing the global independent houses and its distinct congregations were approved by the pope. The Canons Regular of Saint Augustine are in a similar to that of the Benedictines. They are organized in eight congregations, each headed by an abbot general, and the Cistercians are in thirteen congregations, each headed by an abbot general or an abbot president, but do not use the title of abbot primate. The Annuario Pontificio lists for both men and women the institutes of consecrated life and the like that are of pontifical right, for the men, it gives what it now calls the Historical-Juridical List of Precedence. The arrangement in this list dates back many decades and it is found, for instance, in the 1964 edition of the Annuario Pontificio, pp. 807–870, where the heading is States of Perfection