A cooperative is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise". Cooperatives may include: businesses owned and managed by the people who use their services organizations managed by the people who work there multi-stakeholder or hybrid cooperatives that share ownership between different stakeholder groups. For example, care cooperatives where ownership is shared between both care-givers and receivers. Stakeholders might include non-profits or investors. Second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperatives platform cooperatives that use a cooperatively owned and governed website, mobile app or a protocol to facilitate the sale of goods and services. Research published by the Worldwatch Institute found that in 2012 one billion people in 96 countries had become members of at least one cooperative; the turnover of the largest three hundred cooperatives in the world reached $2.2 trillion.
Cooperative businesses are more economically resilient than many other forms of enterprise, with twice the number of co-operatives surviving their first five years compared with other business ownership models. Cooperatives have social goals which they aim to accomplish by investing a proportion of trading profits back into their communities; as an example of this, in 2013, retail co-operatives in the UK invested 6.9% of their pre-tax profits in the communities in which they trade as compared with 2.4% for other rival supermarkets. Since 2002 cooperatives and credit unions could be distinguished on the Internet by use of a.coop domain. Since 2014, following International Cooperative Alliance's introduction of the Cooperative Marque, ICA cooperatives and WOCCU credit unions can be identified by a coop ethical consumerism label. Cooperation dates back as far. Tribes were organized as cooperative structures, allocating jobs and resources among each other, only trading with the external communities.
In alpine environments, trade could only be maintained in organized cooperatives to achieve a useful condition of artificial roads such as Viamala in 1472. Pre-industrial Europe is home to the first cooperatives from an industrial context; the roots of the cooperative movement can extend worldwide. In the English-speaking world, post-feudal forms of cooperation between workers and owners that are expressed today as "profit-sharing" and "surplus sharing" arrangements, existed as far back as 1795; the key ideological influence on the Anglosphere branch of the cooperative movement, was a rejection of the charity principles that underpinned welfare reforms when the British government radically revised its Poor Laws in 1834. As both state and church institutions began to distinguish between the'deserving' and'undeserving' poor, a movement of friendly societies grew throughout the British Empire based on the principle of mutuality, committed to self-help in the welfare of working people. In 1761, the Fenwick Weavers' Society was formed in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, Scotland to sell discounted oatmeal to local workers.
Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans and education. In 1810, Welsh social reformer Robert Owen, from Newtown in mid-Wales, his partners purchased New Lanark mill from Owen's father-in-law David Dale and proceeded to introduce better labour standards including discounted retail shops where profits were passed on to his employees. Owen left New Lanark to pursue other forms of cooperative organization and develop coop ideas through writing and lecture. Cooperative communities were set up in Glasgow and Hampshire, although unsuccessful. In 1828, William King set up a newspaper, The Cooperator, to promote Owen's thinking, having set up a cooperative store in Brighton; the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is considered the first successful cooperative enterprise, used as a model for modern coops, following the'Rochdale Principles'. A group of 28 weavers and other artisans in Rochdale, England set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford.
Within ten years there were over a thousand cooperative societies in the United Kingdom. Other events such as the founding of a friendly society by the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1832 were key occasions in the creation of organized labor and consumer movements. Friendly Societies established forums through which one member, one vote was practiced in organisation decision-making; the principles challenged the idea that a person should be an owner of property before being granted a political voice. Throughout the second half of the nineteenth century there was a surge in the number of cooperative organisations, both in commercial practice and civil society, operating to advance democracy and universal suffrage as a political principle. Friendly Societies and consumer cooperatives became the dominant form of organization amongst working people in Anglosphere industrial societies prior to the rise of trade unions and industrial factories. Weinbren reports that by the end of the 19th century, over 80% of British working age men and 90% of Australian working age men were members of one or more Friendly Society.
From the mid-nineteenth century, mutual organisations embraced these ideas in economic enterprises, firstly amongst tradespeople, in cooperative stores, educational institutes, financial institutions and industrial enterprises. The common thread (enacte
A Dalecarlian horse or Dala horse is a traditional carved, painted wooden statue of a horse originating in the Swedish province of Dalarna. In the old days the Dalecarlian horse was used as a toy for children. Several different types of Dalecarlian horses are made, with distinguishing features common to the locality of the site where they are produced. One particular style has, become much more common and widespread than others, it is stoutly carved and painted bright red with details and a harness in white, green and blue. It was in the small log cabins deep in the forests during the long winter nights in front of a log fire that the forerunner of the Dala horse was born. Using simple tools only a knife, woodcarvers made toys for their children, it was only natural that many of these toys were horses, because the horse was invaluable in those days, as a trusty friend and worker who could pull great loads of timber from the forests during the winter months, in the summer could be of just as much use on the farm.
The art of carving and painting the small horses flourished in the 19th century, as economic hardship in the region inspired greater production of the small horses, they became an important item of barter. Horse-making may have started as something to do during the long dark winter months, but soon the Dala horses were traded in exchange for household goods and their carving and painting blossomed into a full-fledged cottage industry; the rural families depended on horse production to help keep food on the table, as the skills of horse carving and painting were passed on from generation to generation. The carving of Dala horses as a livelihood is thought to have started in the village of Bergkarlås in central Sweden, though the nearby "horse" villages of Risa, Vattnäs, Nusnäs were centres of horse-making; the villages were involved in the art of furniture and clock-making, it is the leftover scraps of wood were put to use in the production of Dala horses. Many early Dala horses were not painted at all, but in the beginning of the 19th century painting them in a single color, white or red, became common practice.
The decoration of the Dala horse has its roots in furniture painting and was perfected over the years. According to a local tale, a wandering painter in the style of kurbits came across one of these Dala horses in a farm he was decorating; when asked by one of the children why that horse was not as beautifully painted as the ones in the decorations, he painted the Dala horse in the same style. This tradition was carried on in order to raise the market value of the Dala horses; the earliest references to wooden horses for sale are from 1623. In the 19th century, Stikå-Erik Hansson from the village Risa in the parish of Mora introduced the technique of painting with two colours on the same brush, still used today. In the book "The Wooden Horses of Sweden," the author mentions that this famous Dala painter is buried in a small churchyard in Nebraska after having immigrated to the Midwest in 1887 at the age of 64.) He changed his name to Erik Erikson upon coming to America and is buried at Bega Cemetery in Stanton County Nebraska, outside of Norfolk.
While there were many horse whittlers in the early production of Dala horses, there were comparatively few horse painters. The large number of whittlers and a lack of distinguishing features makes it difficult to distinguish between different whittlers. Early painters rarely signed their work, but they did have their own distinct pattern from which it is possible to identify who painted a particular horse. In the 1930s mass production of Dala horses started; this marks the beginning of a new era for the Dala horse, transitioning from toy to a national symbol and popular souvenir. The Dalecarlian horse of today is still a handcrafted article, made of pine, its pattern is about 150 years old. At least nine different people contribute their skills to create each horse; the distinctive shape of the horse is due to the usage of flat-plane style carving. An apocryphal legend of the Dalecarlian horse is that they became the national toy in 1716. According to the legend, soldiers loyal to King Charles XII were quartered in the Dalecarlian region and carved the toys as gifts for their hosts.
In the 2003 Norwegian film Kitchen Stories, a small dala horse is part of a joke when a character expected a real horse as a reward. Early production of Dala horses was concentrated to four villages: Bergkarlås, Vattnäs, Nusnäs, all in the parish of Mora. Production is believed to have started in Bergkarlås and spread to nearby villages Risa and Vattnäs through kindred. At about the same time production started independently in Nusnäs, being farther away their style was less influenced by those of the other villages; the individual painters each had their particular style, the few who are old enough to remember first- or second-hand the history can tell which village, in some cases which carver or painter, turned out a particular horse. The distinguishing features of many early painters from these villages have now been documented. Many of the works by the earliest horse makers are no longer in existence but those that remain are cherished by their owners and have been passed down through generations.
These are coveted by collectors, their value has risen markedly over the years. Today, many of the villages in Dalarna county make Dala horses with individual styles representing the district of origin; these horses have distinctive shapes and come in different sizes. Some hor
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Saint Louis River
The Saint Louis River is a river in the U. S. states of Minnesota and Wisconsin that flows into Lake Superior. The largest U. S. river to flow into the lake, it is 192 miles in length and starts 13 miles east of Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota. The river's watershed covers 3,634 square miles. Near the Twin Ports of Duluth and Superior, the river becomes a freshwater estuary; the lower St. Louis is the only river in the state with whitewater rafting opportunities. According to Warren Upham, the Ojibwe name of the river is Gichigami-ziibi, he notes: "The river was so named by Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, sieur de La Vérendrye, a active explorer, in the years 1731 and onward. Shortly before his death the king of France in 1749 conferred on him the cross of Saint Louis as a recognition of the importance of his discoveries, thence the name of the Saint Louis River appears to have come. On Jean-Baptiste-Louis Franquelin's map and Philippe Buache's map, it is called the Rivière du Fond du Lac, the map by Gilles Robert de Vaugondy and Jonathan Carver's map are the earliest to give the present name."
The river was a vital link connecting the Mississippi River waterways to the west with the Great Lakes to the east. Jay Cooke State Park is located near the mouth of the river and is the site of a canoe portage used by Native Americans, European explorers, fur traders, coureurs des bois, missionaries of the 18th and 19th centuries, it was a rough trail of steep hills and swamps that began at the foot of the rapids above the neighborhood of Fond du Lac and climbed some 450 feet to the present day city of Carlton. Above Carlton travelers continued on to Lake Vermillion and the Rainy River. Or they may have traveled southwest up the East Savanna River, portaged the grueling 6 mile long Savanna Portage, paddled on to the Mississippi River. By the mid 20th century, the lower Saint Louis River became one of the most polluted waterways in the state. Holling Clancy Holling, in his 1941 book Paddle-to-the-Sea, illustrated the polluted state of the Saint Louis River. By 1975, the river became an Environmental Protection Agency Area of Concern.
The Western Lake Superior Sanitary District was established in 1971 to address serious pollution problems in the lower Saint Louis River Basin. WLSSD's regional wastewater treatment plant began operating in 1978. Within two years, fish populations rebounded and anglers began returning to the river. Through the 1980s and 1990s, additional cleanups took place. In 2013 the State of Minnesota abruptly pulled out of a project intended to research the mercury problem in the river; the cooperating agencies including Wisconsin DNR and the Fond du Lac Tribe were not in agreement with the ending of the study. The level of mercury is so high that strong limitations on consumption of the fish are in effect by the Minnesota Department of Health which for example limit consumption of walleye for a 50-pound child to 1/6 of a pound per month or no more than one pound every six months; the Saint Louis River was listed in 1987 as an "Area of Concern" by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement 1987 Amendment. Nine of 14 Beneficial Use Impairments were identified in the Saint Louis River AOC.
The AOC designation has led to the Remedial Action Plan process outlined in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The most recent update is the 2013 RAP Update: A Roadmap to Delisting and can be found on the WI Department of Natural Resources and Minnesota Pollution Control Agency webpages listed below; this document outlines the BUI removal strategies and list of actions to delist the Saint Louis River as an AOC by 2025. "Rationale for Listing: Fish samples taken from the St. Louis River and Lake Superior exceed standards established by Minnesota and Wisconsin for the unrestricted consumption of sport fish; each of the two states issues consumption advisories for various population groups, based on fish species and size classes. Advisories are collectively issued for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls. Fish tissue residues of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls exceed the 0.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg standards established in the 1978 GLWQA for the protection of aquatic life and fish consuming birds."
The river is fished for walleye, northern pike, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, black crappie, channel catfish populations. Other species of rough fish include White Sucker; the river is frequented by those traveling the Minnesota DNR Saint Louis River Water Trail, which has campsites and angling. Attempts to introduce sturgeon are under way. While native to the river at one time and pollution wiped them out many years ago. In 1983 the DNR, the Fond du Lac Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, others began rebuilding spawning habitat and introducing baby sturgeon into the river. In 2016 MPR reported, "Slowly numbers increased as the stocked fish took hold in the river. Five years ago, tribal biologists found their first fry from reproducing sturgeon, a sign that a healthy fish population could grow on its own. Minnesota began allowing catch-and-release fishing last year."The Saint Louis River Trail Association is planning construction of a long-distance hiking trail along more than half the length of the river.
Construction of the first 36-mile segment began in early 2012, with cooperation from the Minnesota DNR. List of rivers of M
Slate is a fine-grained, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism. It is the finest grained foliated metamorphic rock. Foliation may not correspond to the original sedimentary layering, but instead is in planes perpendicular to the direction of metamorphic compression; the foliation in slate is called "slaty cleavage". It is caused by strong compression causing fine grained clay flakes to regrow in planes perpendicular to the compression; when expertly "cut" by striking parallel to the foliation, with a specialized tool in the quarry, many slates will display a property called fissility, forming smooth flat sheets of stone which have long been used for roofing, floor tiles, other purposes. Slate is grey in color when seen, en masse, covering roofs. However, slate occurs in a variety of colors from a single locality. Slate is not to schist; the word "slate" is used for certain types of object made from slate rock.
It may mean a writing slate. They were traditionally a small, smooth piece of the rock framed in wood, used with chalk as a notepad or noticeboard, for recording charges in pubs and inns; the phrases "clean slate" and "blank slate" come from this usage. Before the mid-19th century, the terms slate and schist were not distinguished. In the context of underground coal mining in the United States, the term slate was used to refer to shale well into the 20th century. For example, roof slate referred to shale above a coal seam, draw slate referred to shale that fell from the mine roof as the coal was removed. Slate is composed of the minerals quartz and muscovite or illite along with biotite, chlorite and pyrite and, less apatite, kaolinite, tourmaline, or zircon as well as feldspar; as in the purple slates of North Wales, ferrous reduction spheres form around iron nuclei, leaving a light green spotted texture. These spheres are sometimes deformed by a subsequent applied stress field to ovoids, which appear as ellipses when viewed on a cleavage plane of the specimen.
Slate can be made into roofing slates, a type of roof shingle, or more a type of roof tile, which are installed by a slater. Slate has two lines of breakability – cleavage and grain – which make it possible to split the stone into thin sheets; when broken, slate retains a natural appearance while remaining flat and easy to stack. A "slate boom" occurred in Europe from the 1870s until the first world war, allowed by the use of the steam engine in manufacturing slate tiles and improvements in road and waterway transportation systems. Slate is suitable as a roofing material as it has an low water absorption index of less than 0.4%, making the material waterproof. In fact, this natural slate, which requires only minimal processing, has the lowest embodied energy of all roofing materials. Natural slate is used by building professionals as a result of its durability. Slate is durable and can last several hundred years with little or no maintenance, its low water absorption makes it resistant to frost damage and breakage due to freezing.
Natural slate is fire resistant and energy efficient. Slate roof tiles are fixed either with nails, or with hooks as is common with Spanish slate. In the UK, fixing is with double nails onto timber battens or nailed directly onto timber sarking boards. Nails were traditionally of copper, although there are modern alloy and stainless steel alternatives. Both these methods, if used properly, provide a long-lasting weathertight roof with a lifespan of around 80–100 years; some mainland European slate suppliers suggest that using hook fixing means that: Areas of weakness on the tile are fewer since no holes have to be drilled Roofing features such as valleys and domes are easier to create since narrow tiles can be used Hook fixing is suitable in regions subject to severe weather conditions, since there is greater resistance to wind uplift, as the lower edge of the slate is secured. The metal hooks are, however and may be unsuitable for historic properties. Slate tiles are used for interior and exterior flooring, stairs and wall cladding.
Tiles are grouted along the edges. Chemical sealants are used on tiles to improve durability and appearance, increase stain resistance, reduce efflorescence, increase or reduce surface smoothness. Tiles are sold gauged, meaning that the back surface is ground for ease of installation. Slate flooring can be slippery. Slate tiles were used in 19th century UK building construction and in slate quarrying areas such as Blaenau Ffestiniog and Bethesda, Wales there are still many buildings wholly constructed of slate. Slates can be set into walls to provide a rudimentary damp-proof membrane. Small offcuts are used as shims to level floor joists. In areas where slate is plentiful it is used in pieces of various sizes for building walls and hedges, sometimes combined with other kinds of stone. In modern homes slate is used as table coasters; because it is a good electrical insulator and fireproof, it was used to construct early-20th-century electric switchboards and relay controls for large electric motors.
Fine slate can be used as a whe
The Cloquet fire was a large forest fire in northern Minnesota, United States in October, 1918, caused by sparks on the local railroads and dry conditions. The fire left much of western Carlton County devastated affecting Moose Lake and Kettle River. Cloquet was hit the hardest by the fires, it was the worst natural disaster in Minnesota history in terms of the number of casualties in a single day. In total, 453 people died and 52,000 people were injured or displaced, 38 communities were destroyed, 250,000 acres were burned, $73 million in property damage was suffered. Thirteen million dollars in federal aid were disbursed. Carlton County was known for its logging industry during the early 1900s. Similar to other forest fires, the disaster took place over dry, harvested land, vulnerable to potential fire destruction; the main workforce employing the majority of the area was the logging industry. The railroad, which came to the area in 1870, was a great boost for the logging industry. In 1874, a large lumber mill was built alongside the lake shore.
The mill along the river gathered and floated logs down river, where they would be assembled and sawed for retail. When the logging industry was at its peak, one could walk across the lake due to the amount of logs covering the lake area. With a new century approaching, open lands in Carlton County were overrun by farmers purchasing land from the mill; the mill's incentives for sales to farmers were the government grants on the land. With more farmers coming over, the population and activity in Carlton County grew substantially. Stores and livestock businesses were established and the economy flourished. On October 10, 1918, two men working near a railroad siding northwest of Cloquet saw a passenger train pass by the siding, soon thereafter discovered a fire burning through grass and piles of wood; the fire could not be contained, by October 12, fires had spread through northern Minnesota. When asked about the scene at Cloquet after the fact, Albert Michaud, a special Police Officer in Cloquet was quoted by The New York Times: Early reports of the fire circulated rumors that the fires were intentionally started by "enemy agents", but Cloquet fire Chief F. J. Longren confirmed that such rumors were false.
One cause of the fire is believed to be from sparks from the railroad tracks that lit the dry timber, but the rapid progression of the fire through northern Minnesota was caused by factors such as drought conditions, high winds, a lack of firefighting equipment. Many instances of mass deaths were reported. For example, in Moose Lake, an Associated Press Correspondent reported seeing seventy-five bodies piled in a burned building. On a road leading out of Moose Lake, "100 bodies were strewn here and there", according to The New York Times. A relief worker reported that there were thirty bodies piled in a heap in a cellar between Moose Lake and Kettle River. Among other structures, the Duluth Country Club and the Children's Home were both a complete loss. Within Carlton and southern Saint Louis counties the towns of Brookston and Moose Lake were destroyed. Cloquet and its surrounding cities were known for the great deforestation caused by the fire; the fires left thousands of people homeless. 4,700 residents of Cloquet sought refuge in Duluth and Superior, Wisconsin.
In total, close to 12,000 people were left homeless from neighboring towns. The victims of the inferno were sheltered temporarily in such buildings as hospitals, churches and private homes. Doctors were brought in from surrounding areas to help the thousands of injured people. Several organizations and volunteers risked their lives to help save people and property; the Minnesota Infantry National Guard was called in to help in the relief process. At about 3:00 p.m. on October 12, Lieutenant Karl A. Franklin and Captain Henry Tourtelotte of the Fourth Regiment of the National Guard were contacted to aid the Rice Lake Road area. After speaking with the Mayor of Cloquet and the Chief of Police Robert McKercher, Tourtelotte headed for Duluth with nine other people to assemble his troops and offer immediate assistance. A couple of companies were assigned to extinguishing the fire, which they were unable to do, despite their best efforts. After torrents of flame battered them down, they instead began to focus on the survivors.
Commanding Officer Roger M. Weaver of the 3rd Battalion realized the worsening severity of the situation. By 5:40 p.m. the fire chief had called on his men who prepared for action. Scores of men were assembled in less than an hour and were distributed to several hazard sites to aid in extinguishing the fire; these efforts of the firefighters resulted in several important structures being saved. Among these structures were the Nopeming Sanatorium; the sanatorium, valued at $350,000 at the time, held close to 200 tuberculosis patients. A party of automobiles broke through walls of flames to save these victims; the recovery of the region was area-specific due to the nature of the damage inflicted. The damage that Duluth sustained had little threat of impacting the economy, although the fire did destroy several small suburbs, as well as farming communities, but most of Duluth's economy at the time centered on the transportation and mining sectors, which were left untouched; the farming industry suffered a great loss.
A large amount of livestock was killed and many acres of farmland were torched. Charles Mahnke, the Moose Lake member of the relief commission, told the farmers, "We are going to put you back as well off as you were before." Relief assistance aided the farming community, with their help the f
Consumers' co-operatives are enterprises owned by consumers and managed democratically which aim at fulfilling the needs and aspirations of their members. They operate within the market system, independently of the state, as a form of mutual aid, oriented toward service rather than pecuniary profit. Consumers' cooperatives take the form of retail outlets owned and operated by their consumers, such as food co-ops. However, there are many types of consumers' cooperatives, operating in areas such as health care, housing and personal finance. In some countries, consumers' cooperatives are known as cooperative retail societies or retail co-ops, though they should not be confused with retailers' cooperatives, whose members are retailers rather than consumers. Consumers' cooperatives may, in turn, form cooperative federations; these may come in the form of cooperative wholesale societies, through which consumers' cooperatives collectively purchase goods at wholesale prices and, in some cases, own factories.
Alternatively, they may be members of cooperative unions. Consumer cooperation has been a focus of study in the field of cooperative economics. Consumer cooperatives rose to prominence during the industrial revolution as part of the labour movement; as employment moved to industrial areas and job sectors declined, workers began organizing and controlling businesses for themselves. Workers cooperative were sparked by "critical reaction to industrial capitalism and the excesses of the industrial revolution." The formation of some workers cooperatives were designed to "cope with the evils of unbridled capitalism and the insecurities of wage labor". The first documented consumer cooperative was founded in 1769, in a furnished cottage in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, when local weavers manhandled a sack of oatmeal into John Walker's whitewashed front room and began selling the contents at a discount, forming the Fenwick Weavers' Society. In the decades that followed, several cooperatives or cooperative societies formed including Lennoxtown Friendly Victualling Society, founded in 1812.
The philosophy that underpinned the cooperative movement stemmed from the socialist writings of thinkers including Robert Owen and Charles Fourier. Robert Owen, considered by many as the father of the cooperative movement, made his fortune in the cotton trade, but believed in putting his workers in a good environment with access to education for themselves and their children; these ideas were put into effect in the cotton mills of New Lanark, Scotland. It was here. Spurred on by the success of this, he had the idea of forming "villages of co-operation" where workers would drag themselves out of poverty by growing their own food, making their own clothes and becoming self-governing, he tried to form such communities in Orbiston in Scotland and in New Harmony, Indiana in the United States of America, but both communities failed. Similar early experiments were made in the early 19th century and by 1830 there were several hundred co-operatives. Dr William King made Owen's ideas more practical, he believed in starting small, realized that the working classes would need to set up co-operatives for themselves, so he saw his role as one of instruction.
He founded a monthly periodical called The Co-operator, the first edition of which appeared on 1 May 1828. This gave a mixture of co-operative philosophy and practical advice about running a shop using cooperative principles; the first successful organization was the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, established in England in 1844. The Rochdale Pioneers established the ` Rochdale Principles'; this became the basis for the growth of the modern cooperative movement. As the mechanization of the Industrial Revolution was forcing more and more skilled workers into poverty, these tradesmen decided to band together to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford. With lessons from prior failed attempts at co-operation in mind, they designed the now famous Rochdale Principles, over a period of four months they struggled to pool one pound sterling per person for a total of 28 pounds of capital. On December 21, 1844, they opened their store with a meagre selection of butter, flour, oatmeal and a few candles.
Within three months, they expanded their selection to include tea and tobacco, they were soon known for providing high quality, unadulterated goods. The Co-operative Group formed over 140 years from the merger of many independent retail societies, their wholesale societies and federations. In 1863, twenty years after the Rochdale Pioneers opened their co-operative, the North of England Co-operative Society was launched by 300 individual co-ops across Yorkshire and Lancashire. By 1872, it had become known as the Co-operative Wholesale Society. Through the 20th century, smaller societies merged with CWS, such as the Scottish Co-operative Wholesale Society and the South Suburban Co-operative Society. Consumer cooperatives utilize the cooperative principle of democratic member control, or one member/one vote. Most consumer cooperatives have a board of directors elected from the membership; the board is responsible for hiring management and ensuring that the cooperative meets its goals, both financial and otherwise.
Democratic functions, such as petitioning or recall of board members, may be codified in the bylaws or organizing document of the cooperative. Most consumer cooperatives hold regular membership meetings; as mutually owned businesses, each member of a society has a shareholding equal to the sum they paid in when they joined. Large consumers' co-ops are r