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Closed-circuit television

Closed-circuit television known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not transmitted, though it may employ point-to-point, point-to-multipoint, or mesh wired or wireless links. Though all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks and other areas where security is needed. Though videotelephony is called'CCTV' one exception is the use of video in distance education, where it is an important tool. Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world. In recent years, the use of body worn video cameras has been introduced as a new form of surveillance used in law enforcement, with cameras located on a police officer's chest or head. Video surveillance has generated significant debate about balancing its use with individuals' right to privacy when in public.

In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders, provides recording for many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features. More decentralized IP cameras equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for stand-alone operation. There are about 350 million surveillance cameras worldwide as of 2016. About 65% of these cameras are installed in Asia; the growth of CCTV has been slowing in recent years. The deployment of this technology has facilitated a significant growth in state surveillance, a substantial rise in the methods of advanced social monitoring and control, a host of crime prevention measures throughout the world. An early mechanical CCTV system was developed in June 1927 by Russian physicist Léon Theremin.

Requested by the Soviet of Labor and Defense, the system consisted of a manually-operated scanning-transmitting camera and wireless shortwave transmitter and receiver, with a resolution of a hundred lines. Having commandeered by Kliment Voroshilov, Theremin's CCTV system was demonstrated to Joseph Stalin, Semyon Budyonny, Sergo Ordzhonikidze, subsequently installed in the courtyard of the Moscow Kremlin to monitor approaching visitors as a means of state surveillance. Another early CCTV system was installed by Siemens AG at Test Stand VII in Peenemünde, Nazi Germany in 1942, for observing the launch of V-2 rockets. In the U. S. the first commercial closed-circuit television system became available in 1949, called Vericon. Little is known about Vericon except it was advertised as not requiring a government permit; the earliest video surveillance systems involved constant monitoring because there was no way to record and store information. The development of reel-to-reel media enabled the recording of surveillance footage.

These systems required magnetic tapes to be changed manually, a time consuming and unreliable process, with the operator having to manually thread the tape from the tape reel through the recorder onto an empty take-up reel. Due to these shortcomings, video surveillance was not widespread. VCR technology became available in the 1970s, making it easier to record and erase information, the use of video surveillance became more common. During the 1990s, digital multiplexing was developed, allowing several cameras to record at once, as well as time lapse and motion-only recording; this saved time and money which led to an increase in the use of CCTV. CCTV technology has been enhanced with a shift toward Internet-based products and systems, other technological developments. Closed-circuit television was used as a form of pay-per-view theatre television for sports such as professional boxing and professional wrestling, from 1964 through 1970, the Indianapolis 500 automobile race. Boxing telecasts were broadcast live to a select number of venues theaters, where viewers paid for tickets to watch the fight live.

The first fight with a closed-circuit telecast was Joe Louis vs. Joe Walcott in 1948. Closed-circuit telecasts peaked in popularity with Muhammad Ali in the 1960s and 1970s, with "The Rumble in the Jungle" fight drawing 50 million CCTV viewers worldwide in 1974, the "Thrilla in Manila" drawing 100 million CCTV viewers worldwide in 1975. In 1985, the WrestleMania I professional wrestling show was seen by over one million viewers with this scheme; as late as 1996, the Julio César Chávez vs. Oscar De La Hoya boxing fight had 750,000 viewers. Closed-circuit television was replaced by pay-per-view home cable television in the 1980s and 1990s. In September 1968, New York was the first city in the United States to install video cameras along its main business street in an effort to fight crime. Another early appearance was in 1973 in Times Square in New York City; the NYPD installed it in order to deter crime, occurring in the area. During the 1980s video surveillance began to spread across the country targeting public areas.

It was seen as a cheaper way to deter crime compared to increasing the size of the police departments. Some businesses as well those that were prone to theft, began to use video surveillance. From the mid-1990s on, police departments across the country installe

Purbi Joshi

Purbi Joshi is an Indian television actress and voice-dubbing actress who speaks Hindi, comedian and anchor of television shows. Purbi Joshi is a daughter of actors Pravin Sarita Joshi, she is a sister of Ketki Dave. In 1995, Purbi got her first break in the television show Faasle. Purbi started her career as a model in commercials for brands like Happy Dent chewing gum, Nirma Washing Powder and Thompson Television, she did lead role in Doordarshan TV series Dishayein. She did double role of twin sisters; the show was a hit initially. In 2008, she participated in Mr. & Miss TV, a celebrity talent competition which she won and was declared "Miss TV". She is most well known for her association with the award-winning Comedy Circus. Purbi hosted several seasons of Comedy Circus and performed as an integral member of the principal cast. Purbi was a part of MTV India's first spoof film of the popular Bollywood franchise Dhoom in the television movie, Ghoom, she was part of an ensemble cast in the critically acclaimed independent film Dasvidaniya released in 2008.

She made her major movie debut role in 2011 as the lead actress in Damadamm! on the big screen opposite Himesh Reshammiya,also lending her voice to the song, "Umrao Jaan" in the movie. Purbi Joshi on IMDb India Today The first web-site of the Indian serial Dishayen Purbi Joshi - Bio Purbi Joshi - Bio

Robert Day (director)

Robert Frederick Day was an English film director. He directed more than 40 films between 1956 and 1991. Day was born in England. Day worked his way up from clapper boy to camera operator cinematographer, in his native England, began directing in the mid-1950s, his first film as director, the black comedy The Green Man for the writer-producer team of Frank Launder and Sidney Gilliat, gained good reviews. Using this as a starting point, Day went on to become one of the industry's busiest directors including directing several Tarzan films, he directed many TV episodes and made-for-TV movies. He had small parts in his own productions, including The Haunted Strangler, Two-Way Stretch, the TV mini-series Peter and Paul. In the 1970s and 1980s, Day would direct episodes of numerous American television shows, including Barnaby Jones, The F. B. I. Dallas, Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color, Matlock. Day was married to Eileen Day and following their divorce, to actress Dorothy Provine until her death in 2010.

He was the brother of cinematographer Ernest Day. Barnes, Mike. "Robert Day, Director of Peter Sellers"Two-Way Stretch' and Four Tarzan Movies, Dies at 94". The Hollywood Reporter. Robert Day on IMDb Robert Day at AllMovie