Clovis I

Clovis was the first king of the Franks to unite all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, changing the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. He is considered to have been the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled the Frankish kingdom for the next two centuries. Clovis succeeding his father, Childeric I, as a king of Salian Franks within the Roman empire in 481, came to rule an area extending from what is now the southern Netherlands to northern France, corresponding in Roman terms to Gallia Belgica. At the Battle of Soissons he took full control of a rump state of the Western Roman Empire there, controlled by Syagrius. By the time of his death in either 511 or 513, he had conquered smaller Frankish kingdoms towards the northeast, the Alemanni to the east, Visigothic kingdom of Aquitania to the south. Clovis is important in the historiography of France as "the first king of what would become France".

Clovis is significant due to his conversion to Catholicism in 496 at the behest of his wife, who would be venerated as a saint for this act, celebrated today in both the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church. Clovis was baptized on Christmas Day in 508; the adoption by Clovis of Catholicism led to widespread conversion among the Frankish peoples, to religious unification across what is now modern-day France and Germany, three centuries to Charlemagne's alliance with the Bishop of Rome and in the middle of the 10th century under Otto I the Great to the consequent birth of the early Holy Roman Empire. His name is Germanic, composed of the elements hlod and wig, is the origin of the French given name Louis, borne by 18 kings of France. In Dutch, the most related modern language to Frankish, the name is rendered as Lodewijk, in Middle Dutch the form was Lodewijch. In modern German the name became Ludwig. Clovis was the son of Childeric I, a Merovingian king of the Salian Franks, Basina, a Thuringian princess.

It was his supposed ancestor, for which his Merovingian dynasty is named. Clovis succeeded his father to become king at the age of 15 in 481, as deduced from Gregory of Tours placing the Battle of Tolbiac in the fifteenth year of Clovis's reign. Numerous small Frankish petty kingdoms existed during the 5th century; the Salian Franks were the first known Frankish tribe that settled with official Roman permission within the empire, first in Batavia in the Rhine-Maas delta, in 375 in Toxandria the current province of North Brabant in the Netherlands and parts of neighbouring Belgian provinces of Antwerp and Limburg in current Belgium. This put them in the north part of the Roman civitas Tungrorum, with Romanized population still dominant south of the military highway Boulogne-Cologne. Chlodio seems to have attacked westwards from this area to take control of the Roman populations in Tournai southwards to Artois, Cambrai controlling an area stretching to the Somme river. Childeric I, Clovis's father, was reputed to be a relative of Chlodio, was known as the king of the Franks that fought as an army within northern Gaul.

In 463 he fought in conjunction with Aegidius, the magister militum of northern Gaul, to defeat the Visigoths in Orléans. Childeric was buried in Tournai. Historians believe that Childeric and Clovis were both commanders of the Roman military in the Province of Belgica Secunda and were subordinate to the magister militum; the Franks of Tournai came to dominate their neighbours aided by the association with Aegidius. The death of Flavius Aetius in 454 led to the decline of imperial power in the Gaul; the part of Gaul still under Roman control emerged as a kingdom under Aegidius' son. The ruler of Tournai was succeeded by his sixteen-year-old son, Clovis, his band of warriors numbered no more than half a thousand. In 486 he began his efforts to expand the realm by allying himself with his relative, regulus of Cambrai and another Frankish regulus, Chalaric. Together the triumvirate met the Gallo-Roman commander at Soissons. During the battle Chalaric betrayed his comrades by refusing to take part in the fighting.

Despite the betrayal, the Franks landed a decisive victory, forcing Syagrius to flee to the court of Alaric II. This battle is viewed as bringing about the end of the rump state of the Western Roman Empire outside of Italy. Following the battle, Clovis invaded the traitor Chararic's territory and was able to imprison him and his son. Prior to the battle, Clovis did not enjoy the support of the Gallo-Roman clergy, hence he proceeded to pillage the Roman territory, including the churches; the Bishop of Reims requested Clovis to return everything taken from the Church of Reims, the young king aspired to establish cordial relationships with the clergy and returned a valuable ewer taken from Reims. Despite his position, some Roman cities refused to yield to the Franks, namely Verdun‒which surrendered after a brief siege‒and Paris, which stubbornly resisted a few years as many as five, he made Paris his capital and established an abbey dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul on the south bank of the Seine.

Clovis came to the realisation that

Martin Ennals

Martin Ennals was a British human rights activist. Ennals served as the Secretary-General of Amnesty International from 1968 to 1980, he went on to help found the British human rights organisation ARTICLE 19 in 1987 and International Alert in 1985. During Ennals's tenure as Secretary General, Amnesty International was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, the Erasmus Prize, the UN Human Rights Award. Born in 1927 in Walsall, Staffordshire to Arthur Ford Ennals and his wife Jessie Edith Taylor. Ennals was educated at Queen Mary's Grammar School and the London School of Economics, where he received a degree in international relations. Ennals worked for the United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation from 1951 to 1959. In 1959, Ennals became a founding member of the Anti-Apartheid Movement, become Secretary General of the National Council for Civil Liberties, a position that he held until 1966, when he became Information and Publications Officer of the Commission for Racial Equality. Ennals became Secretary General of Amnesty International in 1968.

At the time, the organization had 7 staff and an annual budget of £17'000. Twelve years the staff had grown to 150 with an annual budget of £2 million. Ennals represented an era. Amnesty was awarded the Erasmus Prize in 1976, the Nobel Peace Prize in 1977, the UN Human Rights Award in 1978. Ennals had other people accept the prizes on behalf of Amnesty. In 1982 Ennals was its founding President. In 1986 Ennals became the first Secretary General of International Alert. Ennals had two elder brothers. David Ennals was a British politician; the Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders, created in 1993, is granted annually to someone who has demonstrated an exceptional record of combating human rights violations by courageous means and is in need of protection. The award gives international "protective publicity" to human rights defenders around the world in their country of origin, through too much mass media; the winner is selected in Geneva, the world center for human rights, by a jury made up of 10 leading international human rights organisations, such as Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch, International Commission of Jurists, HURIDOCS, etc.

The Martin Ennals Award is considered the award of the whole human rights movement. It is known as "the Nobel prize for human rights"; the Annual Ceremony organised with the City of Geneva is an event with world Internet and TV coverage. Human rights defender Martin Ennals Award for Human Rights Defenders Human rights defenders from Iran and Zimbabwe receive Martin Ennals Award 2006, presented by Louise Arbour, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights

Holy Cross College (Indiana)

Holy Cross College is a Roman Catholic, co-educational, residential institution of higher education in Notre Dame, Indiana. The college is administered by members of the Congregation of Holy Cross. Holy Cross College was established in 1966 by the Mid-West Province of the Brother of the Holy Cross as a two-year junior college to educate Holy Cross Brothers; the first president and dean was John Driscoll, C. S. C; the college’s baccalaureate program focuses on experiential learning, founded upon a program of Four Pillars: Service Learning, Global Perspectives, Professional Internship, Classroom Experience which culminates in a Capstone Presentation. Each student completes the same multidisciplinary core courses. Electives may be taken which allows each student to gain knowledge and experience preferred areas of interest. Students have academic advisors for each minor they are pursuing. Students may take courses at any of the local universities participating in the Northern Indiana Consortium for Education.

After amassing 30 credit hours, students may take classes at the University of Notre Dame at no extra cost, provided they maintain at least a 3.0 grade point average. Current accreditation at the Baccalaureate level includes ten Bachelor of Arts degrees and 17 minors; as of 2018, Business was the most popular major, although History and Liberal Arts have received favorable reviews. Campus ministry is described as "Distinctively Catholic, Open to All" Mass is offered on weekdays at 12:25 p.m. and Sundays at 7:30 p.m. Adoration takes place on Tuesday nights from 7:00 p.m. until midnight. Confession is offered during the first hour of adoration on Tuesdays, along with before and after mass on Fridays; the Mission Team is a faith development program. This team forms a critical mass of faith-filled students who contribute dynamic leadership and vitality to the school, they act as a catalyst for stirring up the interest and spiritual yearnings of the rest of the college. Holy Cross has six residence halls for students: four male residence halls and two female residence halls.

The six residence halls are: Anselm, James, North and South. Anselm Hall and Basil Hall are traditional male dorms, James Hall and North Hall are traditional female dorms, Pulte Hall and South hall are apartment-style male dorms. In addition to the residence halls on campus, upperclassmen are allowed to live off off campus in a co-ed apartment complex called University Edge, located one mile north of Holy Cross. Holy Cross offers students the opportunity to play intramural sports, including flag football, indoor volleyball, ultimate frisbee. Additionally, kickball and sand volleyball tournaments are held throughout the year. Holy Cross students are eligible to try out for Club Sports teams at the University of Notre Dame. A list of available sports can be found at Additionally, students and staff members at Holy Cross or Saint Mary's College may participate in Notre Dame's Bookstore Basketball Tournament, the largest 5-on-5 tournament in the country held every spring.

In 2012, a team from Holy Cross won the championship, a feat that had never before been accomplished. This same team defended their title, winning the championship in 2013 and 2014 as well. Holy Cross College teams are known as the Saints; the college is a member of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics competing in the Chicagoland Collegiate Athletic Conference. The HCC men's lacrosse team competes in the Great Lakes Lacrosse League. Men's sports include basketball, lacrosse and soccer. Basketball games are covered by the Regional Radio Sports Network. Holy Cross College requires all Bachelor of Arts students to go on a Global Immersion Experience and costs are covered by tuition. There are three primary locations Uganda Peru IndiaAlternative programs for psychology students are available in the form of an international psychology conference, while theology students may opt to travel to Rome, Italy as part of a course entitled "Rome Through The Ages". Additionally, the Campus Ministry department, in conjunction with the University of Notre Dame, offers a pilgrimage to Montreal, each fall break to visit the St. Joseph Oratory.

Many miracles have occurred at this famous shrine established through the efforts of Holy Cross Brother St. André Bessette, the first saint of the Congregation of Holy Cross and patron of Holy Cross College. Skip Holtz ’84 - Son of Lou Holtz. Coach of the Louisiana Tech Football Team. Jeff Smoke - 2004 U. S. Olympic Kayak racer and two-time Gold Medalist in the Pan American Games. Rudy Ruettiger - Football player for University of Notre Dame, his life story inspired the movie Rudy. Timothy J. DeGeeter Tim Fitzpatrick - Actor. Just Married, Just for Kicks, Big Fat Liar. Official website Official athletics website Official University Edge website