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The Cluemaster is a fictional supervillain appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics as an adversary of the superhero Batman. Cluemaster first appeared in Detective Comics #351 and was created by Gardner Fox and Carmine Infantino. A failed game show host, the character became a criminal who leaves clues to his crimes, but unlike the Riddler's clues, they are not in the form of riddles. Cluemaster first appeared in Detective Comics #351 and was created by Gardner Fox and Carmine Infantino; the Cluemaster starts his criminal campaign by a daring but unsuccessful attempt to learn the secret identity of the Batman, in order to gain a fighting edge. He returns to Gotham for a rematch with Batman appears in several supervillain crowd scenes over the years. With several other villains, Cluemaster becomes a member of the Injustice League, a team of out-of-luck supervillains who, when banding together, become less successful than they have been in their individual careers; the Injustice League have been defeated time and again by the Justice League International, at least when they are not making laughingstocks of themselves.

Trying to reform, the members become the core of the laughable hero team Justice League Antarctica. They help out the Justice League when JLI liaison Maxwell Lord lies in a coma, but again reform as the Injustice League as henchmen of Sonar. Cluemaster reappears in Detective Comics # 647 by Tom Lyle. In this three-issue story, Cluemaster has been released from Blackgate Prison. Cured of his compulsion to leave clues, Cluemaster joins a gang and plans their heists in exchange for 10 percent of their winnings, he kills the leader by suffocating him with a strong polymer over his mouth and nose, begins to plan a master heist. During this time it is revealed Arthur Brown has a daughter named Stephanie, but spends any time with her due to long periods of incarceration. Stephanie is furious when she discovers that he has returned to crime without his need to leave clues behind. Making a costume for herself, she calls herself The Spoiler, finds out her father's plans, leaves clues so that the police and Batman can stop him.

Robin spots Spoiler on the rooftops during a police bust of Cluemaster's apartment and unmasks her, though she incapacitates Robin by hitting him in the face with a brick. Robin tracks her down and Batman and Spoiler set a plan in motion to take down Cluemaster. Spoiler was forbidden from going to the bust. Catching Cluemaster at his mall heist whilst he hauls a giant glass canister of money away by air, Stephanie is held hostage by Cluemaster atop the canister, holding a vial of acid to her face as Batman tries to stop him. Batman tells Cluemaster to stop and Cluemaster, thinking Batman will only lecture him about how it is morally wrong to disfigure a child, is taken aback when Batman reveals Spoiler is his daughter. Spoiler uses the shock of the revelation to gain the upper hand and uses one of the chains attached to the Gunship lifting the canister to strangle Cluemaster, but Batman prevents this. Cluemaster is taken back to Blackgate; each time the Cluemaster escapes or start some new plan, Stephanie dons her costume again in order to foil him.

She realizes she enjoys being a hero, begins regular patrols as Spoiler. For a brief period of time she replaces her boyfriend, Tim Drake, as Robin. Cluemaster and his teammates in the Injustice League volunteer to join the second Suicide Squad, a group sanctioned by the US government, in return for a full pardon of his crimes; the Cluemaster hopes to make Stephanie proud of him. During the mission, which involves dealing with terrorists and a lovesick genetic experiment, Cluemaster sees his friends, Big Sir, Clock King and Multi-Man die. In the resulting chaotic battle, Cluemaster saves Major Disaster's life twice, though the Major admits the situation was confusing. Cluemaster is seen shot many times through the chest, he survives this incident, with a year's recuperation in many, many scars. He is encouraged by thoughts of his daughter; when he gets out and discovers that his daughter has been killed, he takes on the secret identity Aaron Black and creates the "Campaign for Culpability", blaming Batman for his involvement in Stephanie's death, saying that she was not the first child working with Batman to die, that Batman should be brought to justice.

It is revealed that Stephanie survived the incident that everyone believed had killed her, spent some time recuperating overseas. Robin #177 was planned by Chuck Dixon intended to feature Cluemaster, but Dixon's abrupt exodus from DC meant the issue was scrapped. Cluemaster reappears after Stephanie Brown has become the new Batgirl, he is revealed to be the man, funding the Reapers, a group of young supervillains who have been battling Batgirl. In September 2011, The New 52 rebooted DC's continuity. In this new timeline, as part of the Forever Evil storyline, Cluemaster is among the villains that the Crime Syndicate of America recruited to join the Secret Society of Super Villains. Cluemaster appears as a villain in the Batman: Eternal series, plotting with several other minor villains when interrupted by his daughter, Stephanie Brown, who overhears part of the plotting by her father and his associates; this is Cluemaster's first appearance in the New 52 continuity. He is revealed to be the final mastermind behind the systematic attack on Batman by various villains.

'Prosperous' British India

'Prosperous' British India, more titled Prosperous' British India: A Revelation from Official Records, was a book published in 1901 by British author William Digby that described the economic conditions prevailing in British India in the latter half of the nineteenth century under British rule. It used official government statistics to illuminate the falling incomes and increasing impoverishment in India under British administration during that period; the book was influential and, at the time, attracted attention due to the imprinting of the actual falling per-capita income statistics in gold on the spine of the book itself. The book used government statistics to demonstrate that the death-toll and frequency of catastrophic economic disasters in India, such as famines, was growing systematically under British rule. William Digby The Poverty Problem in India Poverty in India British Raj

Elsa G. Vilmundardóttir

Elsa Guðbjörg Vilmundardóttir was the first Icelandic woman to complete a degree in geology and was the country's first female geologist. Elsa was born in the Vestmannaeyjar, her parents were Vilmundur Guðmundsson, an engineer from Hafnarnes, Reyðarfjörður and Gudrun Björnsdóttir, a seamstress. At the age of three, Elsa moved with her parents from the islands to Siglufjörður, she moved in with her maternal grandparents and at the age of 12, she moved to her mother's home in Reykjavík. Elsa graduated from Menntaskólinn í Reykjavík in 1953. In 1958, she enrolled at Stockholm University, she studied geology from 1958 to 1963. During her university years, she did geological fieldwork in the summers on behalf of Electricity Department though geological research of the proposed Búrfellsvirkjun hydropower plant, her interest focused on the geology of Tungnáröræfa. After completing her studies in 1963, she returned home and began working at jobs at the Electricity Department, followed by the National Energy Authority of Iceland, when it was formed in 1967, working there until she retired in 2004.

In 1980, an agreement was made between the NEA and Landsvirkjun on uniform geological mapping and she was the supervisor of the project. Elsa's research included mapping tuff and lava north of Vatnajökull, as well as pyroclastic flows associated with prehistoric Hekla eruptions, she was the co-author of 100 Geosites in South-Iceland. Timeline of women in science

Beach Rotana

The Beach Rotana is a large hotel in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. The hotel is one of the oldest hotels in Abu Dhabi, it a member of The Leading Hotels of the World and part of Rotana Hotels. It is a hotel complex made up of two wings in Al Zahiyah; the Beach Wing which stands with seven floors includes 286 rooms and suites whilst the Tower wing is 20 floors high and includes 128 rooms and suites. The Beach wing was opened in 1993 and the Tower wing in 2002; the hotel was established as the Beach Hotel by Nasser Al Nowais and Selim El Zyr, with backing by the hotel owner, Sheikh Suroor bin Mohammed. The hotel houses ten restaurants and bars, Zen the spa at Rotana and the Beach Club with a 120-metre beach, two swimming pools, a gymnasium; the Beach Rotana is directly linked by an internal entrance. Opposite on Al Maryah Island is the Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi hospital building, dominating the view. Companies involved in constructionHotel Tower and Beach Club: Consult Limited / Arabian Construction Company / Ghazi Awad/MAPCO Beach Wing: Arabian Construction Company / Al Zubair Hotel website Beach Rotana on Facebook

European Communities (Finance) Act 2001

The European Communities Act 2001 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It was given Royal Assent and became law on 4 December 2001, but was repealed on 19 February 2008 by the European Communities Act 2008; the legislation was introduced to the House of Commons as the European Communities Bill by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, on 21 June 2001. The Bill was read for the third time in the House of Commons on 18 October 2001 and passed to the House of Lords without a need for a vote, it was given Royal Assent and became law on 4 December 2001. The Act passed into UK law the decisions on the European Union budget taken at the Council of Ministers meeting of 29 September 2000, it did this by amending the introductory paragraph of the European Communities Act 1972 to include reference to the 29 September 2000 decision. The Act superseded and repealed the European Communities Act 1995, but was in turn repealed by the European Communities Act 2008. List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom relating to the European Communities / European Union - Hansard records of Parliamentary debate relating to the Act

Imperial and US customary measurement systems

The Imperial and US customary measurement systems are both derived from an earlier English system of measurement which in turn can be traced back to Ancient Roman units of measurement, Carolingian and Saxon units of measure. The US Customary system of units was developed and used in the United States after the American Revolution, based on a subset of the English units used in the Thirteen Colonies; the Imperial system of units was developed and used in the United Kingdom and its empire beginning in 1826. US Customary units are the predominant system of units in the United States and the metric system has, to varying degrees, replaced the imperial system in the countries that used it. Most of the units of measure have been adapted in another since the Norman Conquest; the units of linear measure have changed the least – the yard and the chain were measures derived in England. The foot used by craftsman supplanted the longer foot used in agriculture; the agricultural foot was reduced to ​10⁄11 of its former size, causing the rod, pole or perch to become ​16 1⁄2 agricultural feet.

The furlong and the acre, once it became a measure of the size of a piece of land rather than its value, remained unchanged. In the last thousand years, three principal pounds were used in England; the troy pound was used for precious metals, the apothecaries' pound, was used by pharmacists and the avoirdupois pound was used for general purposes. The apothecaries and troy pounds are divided into 12 ounces while the avoirdupois pound has 16 ounces; the unit of volume, the gallon, has different values in the United States and in the United Kingdom – the US fluid gallon being about 0.83 imperial gallons and the US dry gallon being about 0.97 imperial gallons. Both systems of measure were used in mechanical engineering, though not in electrical engineering; some units of measure such as the horsepower or the British thermal unit have special names but by and large unit names are generated from their constituent components – for example, pounds per square inch. In contrast, the metric system has a special name for pressure—the pascal.

After the United States Declaration of Independence the units of measurement in the United States developed into what is now known as customary units. The United Kingdom overhauled its system of measurement in 1826, when it introduced the imperial system of units; this resulted in the two countries having different gallons. In the century, efforts were made to align the definition of the pound and the yard in the two countries by using copies of the standards adopted by the British Parliament in 1855. However, these standards were of poor quality compared with those produced for the Convention of the Metre. In 1960 the two countries agreed to common definitions of the yard and the pound based on definitions of the metre and the kilogram; this change, which amounted to a few parts per million, had little effect in the United Kingdom, but resulted in the United States having two different systems of linear measure – the international system, the surveyors system. English units of measure, were derived from a combination of Roman and Saxon units of measure.

They were a precursor to both the Imperial system of units and United States customary units which evolved from English Units from 1776 onwards. The earliest records of English units of measure involve the weight of Saxon coins; the penny introduced by Offa was about 20 grains. Edward the Elder increased the weight of the English penny to 26 grains, thereby aligning it with the penny of Charlemagne. By the time of the Norman Conquest, it had decreased to 24 grains; this value was subsequently called the pennyweight and formed the basis of the Troy units of weight—the troy ounce used to this day for weighting precious metals. Edward I broke the link between a coin's value and its weight when he debased the English coinage by introducing a groat which weighed of 89 grains rather than the expected 96 grains; the groat was further devalued in the 1350s. During Saxon times land was measured both in terms of its size; the Domesday Book used an economic unit of measure. In other references the furlong and the rood appear to be units related to ploughing procedures.

Of particular interest was the rood, 15 North German feet in length, the North German foot being equivalent to 335 mm. Craftsmen, on the other hand used a shorter Roman foot. Standardization of weights and measures was a recurring issue for monarchs. In 965 AD, King Edgar decreed "that only one weight and one measure should pass throughout the King's dominion". In 1197 Richard I decreed that the measures of corn and pulse, of wine and ale should be the same throughout all England; the Magna Carta, signed by King John in 1215 extended this to include cloth. Some time between 1266 and 1303 the weights and measures of England were radically revised by a law known as the Composition of Yards and Perches known as the Compositio for short; this law, attributed to either Henry III or his successor Edward I, instituted a new foot, ​10⁄11 the length of the old foot, with corresponding reductions in the size of the yard, ell and barleycorn. In 1324 Edward II systematized units of length by defining the inch as 3 barleycorns, the foot as 12 inches, the yard as 3 feet, the perch as 5​1⁄2