Power forward (basketball)
The power forward, known as the four, is one of the five positions in a regulation basketball game. It has referred to as the post position. Power forwards play a similar to that of center in what is called the post or low blocks. They typically play offensively with their backs towards the basket and position themselves defensively under the basket in a defense or against the opposing power forward in man-to-man defense. The power forward position entails a variety of responsibilities, one of which is rebounding, many power forwards are noted for their mid-range jump-shot, and several players have become very accurate from 12 to 18 feet. Earlier, these skills were more typically exhibited in the European style of play, some power forwards, known as stretch fours, have since extended their shooting range to three-point field goals. In the NBA, power forwards usually range from 68 to 611, despite the averages, a variety of players fit tweener roles which finds them in the small forward and/or center position depending upon matchups and coaching decisions.
Some natural power forwards often play the position and have the skills
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
National Collegiate Athletic Association
The National Collegiate Athletic Association is a non-profit association which regulates athletes of 1,281 institutions, conferences and individuals. It organizes the programs of many colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. The organization is headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana, in 2014, the NCAA generated almost a billion dollars in revenue. 80 to 90% of this revenue was due to the Division I Mens Basketball Tournament and this revenue is distributed back into various organizations and institutions across the United States. In August 1973, the current three-division setup of Division I, Division II, under NCAA rules, Division I and Division II schools can offer scholarships to athletes for playing a sport. Division III schools may not offer any athletic scholarships, larger schools compete in Division I and smaller schools in II and III. Division I football was divided into I-A and I-AA in 1978. Subsequently, the term Division I-AAA was briefly added to delineate Division I schools which do not field a football program at all, in 2006, Divisions I-A and I-AA were respectively renamed the Football Bowl Subdivision and Football Championship Subdivision.
Inter-collegiate sports began in the US in 1852 when crews from Harvard University, as other sports emerged, notably football and basketball, many of these same concepts and standards were adopted. Football, in particular, began to emerge as a marquee sport, the IAAUS was officially established on March 31,1906, and took its present name, the NCAA, in 1910. For several years, the NCAA was a group and rules-making body, but in 1921, the first NCAA national championship was conducted. Gradually, more rules committees were formed and more championships were created, a series of crises brought the NCAA to a crossroads after World War II. The Sanity Code – adopted to establish guidelines for recruiting and financial aid – failed to curb abuses, postseason football games were multiplying with little control, and member schools were increasingly concerned about how the new medium of television would affect football attendance. The complexity of problems and the growth in membership and championships demonstrated the need for full-time professional leadership.
Walter Byers, previously an executive assistant, was named executive director in 1951. Byers wasted no time placing his stamp on the Association, as college athletics grew, the scope of the nations athletics programs diverged, forcing the NCAA to create a structure that recognized varying levels of emphasis. In 1973, the Associations membership was divided into three legislative and competitive divisions – I, II, and III, five years in 1978, Division I members voted to create subdivisions I-A and I-AA in football. Until the 1980s, the association did not offer womens athletics, the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women, with nearly 1000 member schools, governed womens collegiate sports in the United States
University of Kansas
The University of Kansas, often referred to as KU or Kansas, is a public research university in the U. S. state of Kansas. The main campus in Lawrence, one of the largest college towns in Kansas, is on Mount Oread, two branch campuses are in the Kansas City metropolitan area, the Edwards Campus in Overland Park, and the universitys medical school and hospital in Kansas City. There are educational and research sites in Parsons, Garden City and Leavenworth, the university is one of the 62 members of the Association of American Universities. The university overall employed 2,814 faculty members in fall 2015, on February 20,1863, Kansas Governor Thomas Carney signed into law a bill creating the state university in Lawrence. The law was conditioned upon a gift from Lawrence of a $15,000 endowment fund, if Lawrence failed to meet these conditions, Emporia instead of Lawrence would get the university. The site selected for the university was a known as Mount Oread. Robinson and his wife Sara bestowed the 40-acre site to the State of Kansas in exchange for land elsewhere, the philanthropist Amos Adams Lawrence donated $10,000 of the necessary endowment fund, and the citizens of Lawrence raised the remaining cash by issuing notes backed by Governor Carney.
On November 2,1863, Governor Carney announced that Lawrence had met the conditions to get the university. The schools Board of Regents held its first meeting in March 1865, work on the first college building began that year. The university opened for classes on September 12,1866, during World War II, Kansas was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. KU is home to the Robert J. Dole Institute of Politics, the Beach Center on Disability, Lied Center of Kansas and radio stations KJHK,90.7 FM, and KANU,91.5 FM. The university is host to several including the University of Kansas Natural History Museum. The University of Kansas is a large, state-sponsored university, with five campuses, the university offers more than 345 degree programs. In its 2017 list, U. S. News & World Report ranked KU as tied for 118th place among National Universities and 56th place among public universities.
The city management and urban policy program was ranked first in the nation, uSN&WR ranked several programs in the top 25 among U. S. universities. The Bachelor of Architecture degree was added in 1920, in 1969, the School of Architecture and Urban Design was formed with three programs, architectural engineering, and urban planning. In 2001 architectural engineering merged with civil and environmental engineering, the design programs from the discontinued School of Fine Arts were merged into the school in 2009 forming the current School of Architecture and Planning. S in 2012. The University of Kansas School of Business is a business school on the main campus of the University of Kansas in Lawrence
1952 Summer Olympics
The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland, in 1952. Helsinki had been selected to host the 1940 Summer Olympics. It is the northernmost city at which a summer Olympic Games have been held and it was the Olympic Games at which the most number of world records were broken until surpassed by the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. The Soviet Union, the Peoples Republic of China, Israel, Helsinki was chosen as the host city over bids from Amsterdam and five American cities at the 40th IOC Session on June 21,1947, in Stockholm, Sweden. Minneapolis and Los Angeles finished tied for second in the final voting, the voting results in chart below, These were the final Olympic Games organised under the IOC presidency of Sigfrid Edström. For the first time, a team from the Soviet Union participated in the Olympics, the first gold medal for the USSR was won by Nina Romashkova in the womens discus throwing event.
The Soviet womens gymnastics won the first of its eight consecutive gold medals. The Jewish state had been unable to participate in the 1948 Games because of its War of Independence, a previous Palestine Mandate team had boycotted the 1936 Games in protest of the Nazi regime. Indonesia made its Olympic debut with three athletes, the PRC would not return to the Summer Olympics until Los Angeles 1984. The Republic of China withdrew from the Games on July 20, the Olympic Flame was lit by two Finnish heroes, runners Paavo Nurmi and Hannes Kolehmainen. Nurmi first lit the cauldron inside the stadium, and the flame was relayed to the tower where Kolehmainen lit it. Only the flame in the tower was burning throughout the Olympics, hungary, a country of 9 million inhabitants, won 42 medals at these games, coming in third place behind the much more populous United States and Soviet Union. Hungarys Golden Team won the tournament, beating Yugoslavia 2–0 in the final. Germany and Japan were invited after being barred in 1948, following the post-war occupation and partition, three German states had been established.
Teams from the Federal Republic of Germany and the Saarland participated, though they won 24 medals, the fifth-highest total at the Games, German competitors failed to win a gold medal for the only time. Rules in equestrianism now allowed non-military officers to compete, including women, lis Hartel of Denmark became the first woman in the sport to win a medal. Emil Zátopek of Czechoslovakia won three medals in the 5000 m,10,000 m and the Marathon. The India national field hockey team won its fifth consecutive gold, bob Mathias of the United States became the first Olympian to successfully defend his decathlon title with a total score of 7,887 points
The center, known as the five or the big man, is one of the five positions in a regular basketball game. The center is normally the tallest player on the team, and often has a deal of strength. The tallest player to ever be drafted in the NBA was the 78 Yasutaka Okayama from Japan, the tallest players to ever play in the NBA, at 77, are centers Gheorghe Mureșan and Manute Bol. Standing at 72, Margo Dydek is the tallest player to have played in the WNBA. The center is considered a component for a successful team. But recently, the NBA has turned into a point guard league, great centers have been the foundation for most of the dynasties in both the NBA and NCAA. In the 1960s, Bill Russell and Wilt Chamberlain further transformed basketball by combining height with a level of athleticism than previous centers. Following the retirement of George Mikan, the rivalry of the two big men came to dominate the NBA, many of the records set by these two players have endured today. Most notably and Russell hold the top eighteen season averages for rebounds, Bill Russell led the University of San Francisco to two consecutive NCAA Championships.
He joined the Boston Celtics and helped make them one of the greatest dynasties in NBA history, Russell revolutionized defensive strategy with his shot-blocking and physical man-to-man defense. His principal rival, Wilt Chamberlain, listed at 71,275 pounds, Chamberlain played college ball for the Kansas Jayhawks, leading them to the 1957 title game against the North Carolina Tar Heels. Although the Jayhawks lost by one point in overtime, Chamberlain was named the tournaments Most Outstanding Player. He won seven scoring titles, eleven rebounding titles, and four regular season Most Valuable Player awards, including the distinction, in 1960, stronger than any player of his era, he was usually capable of scoring and rebounding at will. Most notably, Chamberlain is the player in NBA history to average more than 50 points in a season. He holds the NBAs all-time records for rebounding average, rebounds in a single game, in contrast to the Celtics dynasty of the 1960s, the 1970s were a decade of parity in the NBA, with eight different champions and no back-to-back winners.
At the college level, the UCLA Bruins, under Coach John Wooden, built the greatest dynasty in NCAA basketball history, UCLA had already won two consecutive titles in 1964 and 1965 with teams that pressed and emphasized guard play. After not winning in 1966, Woodens teams changed their style when Lew Alcindor became eligible and he led UCLA to three championships-in 1967,68 and 69-while winning the first Naismith College Player of the Year Award. During his college career, the NCAA enacted a ban on dunking primarily because of Alcindors dominant use of the shot
The Boston Celtics are an American professional basketball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. The Celtics compete in the National Basketball Association as a club of the leagues Eastern Conference Atlantic Division. Founded in 1946 and one of eight NBA teams to survive the leagues first decade, the Celtics play their home games at the TD Garden, which they share with the National Hockey League s Boston Bruins. The franchises 17 championships are the most of any NBA franchise, as a percentage of championships won, the Celtics are the most successful franchise to date in the major four traditional North American professional sports leagues. The Celtics have played the Lakers a record 12 times in the Finals, including their most recent appearances in 2008 and 2010, four Celtics players have won the NBA Most Valuable Player Award for an NBA record total of 10 MVP awards. Their mascot Lucky the Leprechaun is a nod to the teams Irish heritage, in 1950, the Celtics signed Chuck Cooper, becoming the first NBA franchise to draft a black player.
The Celtics struggled during their years, until the hiring of coach Red Auerbach. In the franchises early days, Auerbach had no assistants, ran all the practices, did all the scouting—both of opposing teams and college draft prospects—and scheduled all the road trips. One of the first great players to join the Celtics was Bob Cousy, Cousy eventually became the property of the Chicago Stags, but when that franchise went bankrupt, Cousy went to the Celtics in a dispersal draft. After the 1955–56 season, Auerbach made a stunning trade and he sent perennial All-Star Ed Macauley to the St. Louis Hawks along with the draft rights to Cliff Hagan in exchange for the second overall pick in the draft. Auerbach acquired Holy Cross standout, and 1957 NBA Rookie of the Year and Heinsohn worked extraordinarily well with Cousy, and they were the players around whom Auerbach would build the champion Celtics for more than a decade. With Bill Russell, the Celtics advanced to the NBA Finals and defeated the St.
Louis Hawks in seven games, Russell went on to win 11 championships, making him the most decorated player in NBA history. In 1958, the Celtics again advanced to the NBA Finals, with the acquisition of K. C. Jones that year, the Celtics began a dynasty that would last for more than a decade. In 1959, the Celtics won the NBA Championship after sweeping the Minneapolis Lakers, during that time, the Celtics met the Lakers in the Finals five times, starting an intense and often bitter rivalry that has spanned generations. In 1964, the Celtics became the first NBA team to have an all African-American starting lineup. On December 26,1964, Willie Naulls replaced an injured Tommy Heinsohn, joining Tom Satch Sanders, K. C. Jones, Sam Jones, the Celtics defeated St. Louis 97–84. Boston won its next 11 games with Naulls starting in place of Heinsohn, the Celtics of the late-1950s–60s are widely considered as one of the most dominant teams of all time. Auerbach retired as coach after the 1965–66 season and Russell took over as player-coach, with his appointment, Russell became the first African-American coach in any U. S. pro sport
The Atlanta Hawks are a professional basketball team based in Atlanta. The Hawks compete in the National Basketball Association as a team of the leagues Eastern Conference Southeast Division. The team plays its games at Philips Arena. The teams origins can be traced to the establishment of the Buffalo Bisons in 1946 in Buffalo, New York, after 38 days in Buffalo, the team moved to Moline, where they were renamed the Tri-Cities Blackhawks. In 1949, they joined the NBA as part of the merger between the NBL and the Basketball Association of America, and had Red Auerbach as coach briefly, in 1951, Kerner moved the team to Milwaukee, where they changed their name to the Hawks. Kerner and the team moved again in 1955 to St. Louis, the Hawks played the Boston Celtics in all four of their trips to the NBA Finals. The St. Louis Hawks moved to Atlanta in 1968, when Kerner sold the franchise to Thomas Cousins, the Hawks currently own the second-longest drought of not winning an NBA championship at 57 seasons.
The franchises lone NBA championship, as well as all four NBA Finals appearances, they went 48 years without advancing past the second round of the playoffs in any format, until finally breaking through in 2015. Much of the failure theyve experienced in the postseason can be traced back to their history in the NBA draft. Since 1980, the Hawks have drafted four players who have been chosen to play in an NBA All-Star Game. Dominique Wilkins was actually selected by the Utah Jazz and traded to the Hawks a few months after the draft, the origins of the Atlanta Hawks can be traced to the Buffalo Bisons franchise, which was founded in 1946. The Bisons were a member of the National Basketball League, the club was organized by the Erie County American Legion and was coached by Nat Hickey. Their first game – a 50–39 victory over the Syracuse Nationals – was played on November 8,1946, on the team was William Pop Gates, along with William Dolly King, was one of the first two African-American players in the NBL.
The team, which needed to draw 3,600 fans per game to break even struggled to draw 1,000 fans per game to the Auditorium. Upon relocation to Moline, the team was renamed the Tri-Cities Blackhawks, and played their games at Wharton Field House. The team featured guard/forward and coach Deanglo King, and was owned by Leo Ferris, Pop Gates remained on the Blackhawks roster, and finished second on the team in scoring behind future 1948 NBL MVP Don Otten. A Naismith Basketball Hall of Fame member, Gates helped to integrate the league and become the first African-American coach in a sports league. In 1949 the Blackhawks became one of the National Basketball Associations 17 original teams after a merger of the 12-year-old NBL and they reached the playoffs in the NBAs inaugural year under the leadership of coach Red Auerbach
Terre Haute, Indiana
Terre Haute is a city in and the county seat of Vigo County, United States, near the states western border with Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 60,785. Located along the Wabash River, Terre Haute is the capital of the Wabash Valley. The city is home to higher education institutions, including Indiana State University, Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College. Terre Haute is notable for being the home of Socialist Party of America leader and five-time presidential nominee and the Federal Correctional Complex. Terre Haute is located alongside the bank of the Wabash River in western Indiana. The city lies about 75 miles west of Indianapolis, according to the 2010 census, Terre Haute has a total area of 35.272 square miles, of which 34.54 square miles is land and 0.732 square miles is water. The Wabash River dominates the geography of the city, forming its western border. Small bluffs on the east side of city mark the edge of the flood plain. Lost Creek and Honey Creek drain the northern and southern sections of the city, in the late 19th century, several oil and mineral wells were productive in and near the center of the city.
That well produced oil into the 1920s, Terre Haute is at the intersection of two major roadways, U. S.40 from California to Maryland and US41 from Copper Harbor, Michigan to Miami, Florida. Terre Haute is located 77 miles southwest of Indianapolis and within 185 miles of Chicago, St. Louis, Climate is characterized by relatively high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is Dfa, Terre Hautes name was derived from the French phrase terre haute, meaning Highland. It was likely named by French explorers in the area in the early 18th century to describe the unique location above the Wabash River, at the time the area was claimed by the French and British, these highlands were considered the border between Canada and Louisiana. The construction of Fort Harrison in 1811 marked the beginning of a permanent population of European-Americans. A Wea Indian village already existed near the fort, and the orchards, the village of Terre Haute, a part of Knox County, was platted in 1816.
Growth really began when the founders won the bid to make it the county seat when Vigo County was formed in March 1818. When the villages 1,000 residents voted to incorporate in 1832, Terre Haute became a town, early Terre Haute was a center of farming and pork processing
Shelbyville is a city in Addison Township, Shelby County, in the U. S. state of Indiana and is the county seat. The population was 19,191 as of the 2010 census, in 1818, the land that would become Shelbyville was ceded to the United States by the Miami tribe in the Treaty of St. Marys. Also in 1818, the backwoodsman Jacob Whetzel and a party cut a trail through this New Purchase from the Whitewater River at Laurel due west to the White River at Waverly. This trail became known as Whetzels Trace and was the first east-west road into the New Purchase of central Indiana, Whetzels Trace was cut just 4 miles north of site of Shelbyville and proved important in the settlement of Shelby County. Shelbyville was named in honor of Isaac Shelby, the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky and soldier in Lord Dunmores War, the Revolutionary War, the town incorporated January 21,1850. The Shelbyville post office has been in operation since 1823, the city charter received at that time was destroyed in the City Hall fire on January 1,1928.
A railroad was built connecting Shelbyville to Indianapolis in the late 1830s, the first railroad in the state, allegheny Airlines Flight 853 crashed on September 9,1969 near Fairland. Nearly thirty of the 82 people killed were never identified and were buried in a grave in Shelbyville. Shelbyville is located in Central Indiana and within the Indianapolis metropolitan area and it is 26 miles southeast of Indianapolis. The city is at the fork of the Little Blue and Big Blue Rivers, according to the 2010 census, Shelbyville has a total area of 11.845 square miles, of which 11.56 square miles is land and 0.285 square miles is water. Shelbyville has a continental climate experiencing four distinct seasons. The high school and middle schools mascot is Golden Bears, coulston is the Comets, Hendricks is the Hurricanes and Loper is the Bulldogs. St. Joseph Elementary School is a school, associated with St. Joseph Catholic Church. Prior to 1870, no education was provided for Shelbyvilles black residents.
In 1870, the state required communities to provide education, Shelbyville schools were integrated at the high school level, but segregated in the elementary grades until 1949. As of the census of 2010, there were 19,191 people,7,682 households, the population density was 1,660.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,658 housing units at a density of 749.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91. 9% White,1. 9% African American,0. 2% Native American,1. 0% Asian,3. 2% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 7. 1% of the population
Sigma Chi is a social fraternity in North America. The fraternity has 244 active chapters across the United States and Canada and has initiated more than 300,000 members, the fraternity was founded on June 28,1855 at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio by members who split from the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. Sigma Chi is divided into five entities, the Sigma Chi Fraternity, the Sigma Chi Foundation. Like all fraternities, Sigma Chi has its own colors, according to the fraternitys constitution, the purpose of this fraternity shall be to cultivate and maintain the high ideals of friendship and learning upon which Sigma Chi was founded. Sigma Chi was founded in 1855 by Benjamin Piatt Runkle, Thomas Cowan Bell, William Lewis Lockwood, several members of Miami Universitys Delta Kappa Epsilon chapter were members of the Erodelphian Literary Society. In the fall of 1854 the literary society was to elect its Poet and he was supported by five of his brothers, but four others supported another man who was not a member of the fraternity.
Although Thomas Bell and Daniel Cooper were not members of Erodelphian they had aligned themselves with the four dissenting members, the chapter had twelve members total and were evenly divided on the issue. Both sides saw this as a matter of principle and over the few months their friendships became distanced. In February 1855 Runkle and his companions planned a dinner for their brothers in an attempt to seal the rift, whitelaw Reid, one of the other brothers who supported the Delta Kappa Epsilon member as poet, was the only one to arrive. Reid brought a Delta Kappa Epsilon alumnus named Minor Millikin from a nearby town, Reid had told Millikin his side of the dispute and they had arrived to punish the group for not supporting their Delta Kappa Epsilon brother. The leaders of the rebellion and Scobey, were to be expelled from the fraternity, the other four would be allowed to stay in the fraternity. Runkle resigned, and after the parent chapter at Yale University was contacted, the six men decided to form their own fraternity along with William Lewis Lockwood, a student from New York who had not joined a fraternity.
On June 28,1855, the organization was founded under the name Sigma Phi Fraternity, Lockwood used his business training to help organize the fraternity in its early years. The eventual theft of Sigma Phis constitution, seals and it is possible this action could have been forced upon the group as there was already a Sigma Phi Society. Much of Sigma Chis heraldry was inspired by the story of the Emperor Constantine from the Battle of Milvian Bridge against Maxentius. The White Cross and the motto In Hoc Signo Vinces are examples of the Constantine link, although many of the symbols of Sigma Chi relate to Christianity, Sigma Chi is not a Christian fraternity. Benjamin Piatt Runkle was born in West Liberty, Runkle helped design the badge of Sigma Chi based on the story of Constantine and the vision of the Cross. Runkle was known for having a fierce pride and was suspended from Miami University when he fought a member of Beta Theta Pi for sneering at his badge, when the Civil War began Runkle joined the Union Army