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Clyde Tombaugh

Clyde William Tombaugh was an American astronomer. He discovered Pluto in 1930, the first object to be discovered in what would be identified as the Kuiper belt. At the time of discovery, Pluto was considered a planet but was reclassified as a dwarf planet in 2006. Tombaugh discovered many asteroids, he called for the serious scientific research of UFOs. Tombaugh was born in Streator, son of Muron Dealvo Tombaugh, a farmer, his wife Adella Pearl Chritton. After his family moved to Burdett, Kansas, in 1922, Tombaugh's plans for attending college were frustrated when a hailstorm ruined his family's farm crops. Starting in 1926, he built several telescopes with mirrors by himself. To better test his telescope mirrors, with just a pick and shovel, dug a pit 24 feet long, 8 feet deep, 7 feet wide; this provided a constant air temperature, free of air currents, was used by the family as a root cellar and emergency shelter. He sent drawings of Jupiter and Mars to the Lowell Observatory, at Flagstaff, which offered him a job.

Tombaugh worked there from 1929 to 1945. Following his discovery of Pluto, Tombaugh earned bachelor's and master's degrees in astronomy from the University of Kansas in 1936 and 1938. During World War II he taught naval personnel navigation at Northern Arizona University, he worked at White Sands Missile Range in the early 1950s, taught astronomy at New Mexico State University from 1955 until his retirement in 1973. In 1980 he was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame; the asteroid 1604 Tombaugh, discovered in 1931, is named after him. He discovered hundreds of asteroids, beginning with 2839 Annette in 1929 as a by-product of his search for Pluto and his searches for other celestial objects. Tombaugh named some of them after his wife and grandchildren; the Royal Astronomical Society awarded him the Jackson-Gwilt Medal in 1931. Direct visual observation became rare in astronomy. By 1965 Robert S. Richardson called Tombaugh one of two great living experienced visual observers as talented as Percival Lowell or Giovanni Schiaparelli.

In 1980, Tombaugh and Patrick Moore wrote a book Out of the Darkness: The Planet Pluto. In August 1992, JPL scientist Robert Staehle called Tombaugh, requesting permission to visit his planet. "I told him he was welcome to it," Tombaugh remembered, "though he's got to go one long, cold trip." The call led to the launch of the New Horizons space probe to Pluto in 2006. Following the passage on July 14, 2015, of Pluto by the New Horizons spacecraft the "Cold Heart of Pluto" was named Tombaugh Regio. Tombaugh died on January 17, 1997, when he was in Las Cruces, New Mexico, at the age of 90, he was cremated. A small portion of his ashes was placed aboard the New Horizons spacecraft; the container includes the inscription: "Interred herein are remains of American Clyde W. Tombaugh, discoverer of Pluto and the Solar System's'third zone'. Adelle and Muron's boy, Patricia's husband and Alden's father, teacher and friend: Clyde W. Tombaugh". Tombaugh was survived by his wife and their children and Alden.

Tombaugh was an active Unitarian Universalist, he and his wife helped found the Unitarian Universalist Church of Las Cruces, New Mexico. Clyde Tombaugh had five siblings. Through the daughter of his youngest brother Robert, he is the great-uncle of Los Angeles Dodgers pitcher Clayton Kershaw. While a young researcher working for the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Tombaugh was given the job to perform a systematic search for a trans-Neptunian planet, predicted by Percival Lowell based on calculations performed by his student mathematician Elizabeth Williams and William Pickering. Tombaugh used the observatory's 13-inch astrograph to take photographs of the same section of sky several nights apart, he used a blink comparator to compare the different images. When he shifted between the two images, a moving object, such as a planet, would appear to jump from one position to another, while the more distant objects such as stars would appear stationary. Tombaugh noticed such a moving object in his search, near the place predicted by Lowell, subsequent observations showed it to have an orbit beyond that of Neptune.

This ruled out classification as an asteroid, they decided this was the ninth planet that Lowell had predicted. The discovery was made on February 18, 1930, using images taken the previous month; the name "Pluto" was suggested by Venetia Burney. It won out over numerous other suggestions because it was the name of the Roman god of the underworld, able to render himself invisible, because Percival Lowell's initials PL formed the first 2 letters; the name Pluto was adopted on May 1, 1930. Following the discovery, starting in the 1990s, of other Kuiper belt objects, Pluto began to be seen not as a planet orbiting alone at 40 AU, but as the largest of a group of icy bodies in that region of space. After it was shown that at least one such body was more massive than Pluto, on August 24, 2006 the International Astronomical Union reclassified Pluto, grouping it with two sized "dwarf planets" rather than with the eight "classical planets". Tombaugh's widow Patricia stated after the IAU's decision that while he might have been disappointed with the change since he had resisted attempts to remove Pluto's planetary status in his lifetime, he would have accepted the decision now if he were alive.

She noted. He would understand they had a real problem when they start finding several of these things flying around the place." Hal

Rational point

In number theory and algebraic geometry, a rational point of an algebraic variety is a point whose coordinates belong to a given field. If the field is not mentioned, the field of rational numbers is understood. If the field is the field of real numbers, a rational point is more called a real point. Understanding rational points is a central goal of Diophantine geometry. For example, Fermat's Last theorem may be restated as: for n > 2, the Fermat curve of equation x n + y n = 1 has no other rational point than, and, if n is and. Given a field k, an algebraically closed extension K of k, an affine variety X over k is the set of common zeros in K n of a collection of polynomials with coefficients in k: f 1 = 0, …, f r = 0; these common zeros are called the points of X. A k-rational point of X is a point of X that belongs to kn, that is, a sequence of n elements of k such that fj = 0 for all j; the set of k-rational points of X is denoted X. Sometimes, when the field k is understood, or when k is the field Q of rational numbers, one says "rational point" instead of "k-rational point".

For example, the rational points of the unit circle of equation x 2 + y 2 = 1 are the pairs of rational numbers, where is a Pythagorean triple. The concept makes sense in more general settings. A projective variety X in projective space Pn over a field k can be defined by a collection of homogeneous polynomial equations in variables x0...xn. A k-point of Pn, written, is given by a sequence of n+1 elements of k, not all zero, with the understanding that multiplying all of by the same nonzero element of k gives the same point in projective space. A k-point of X means a k-point of Pn at which the given polynomials vanish. More let X be a scheme over a field k; this means. A k-point of X means a section of this morphism, that is, a morphism a: Spec → X such that the composition fa is the identity on Spec; this agrees with the previous definitions when X is an projective variety. When X is a variety over an algebraically closed field k, much of the structure of X is determined by its set X of k-rational points.

For a general field k, however, X gives only partial information about X. In particular, for a variety X over a field k and any field extension E of k, X determines the set X of E-rational points of X, meaning the set of solutions of the equations defining X with values in E. Example: Let X be the conic curve x2 + y2 = −1 in the affine plane A2 over the real numbers R; the set of real points X is empty, because the square of any real number is nonnegative. On the other hand, in the terminology of algebraic geometry, the algebraic variety X over R is not empty, because the set of complex points X is not empty. More for a scheme X over a commutative ring R and any commutative R-algebra S, the set X of S-points of X means the set of morphisms Spec → X over Spec; the scheme X is determined up to isomorphism by the functor S ↦ X. Another formulation is that the scheme X over R determines a scheme XS over S by base change, the S-points of X can be identified with the S-points of XS; the theory of Diophantine equations traditionally meant the study of integral points, meaning solutions of polynomial equations in the integers Z rather than the rationals Q.

For homogeneous polynomial equations such as x3 + y3 = z3, the two problems are equivalent, since every rational point can be scaled to become an integral point. Much of number theory can be viewed as the study of rational points of algebraic varieties, a convenient setting being smooth projective varieties. For smooth projective curves, the behavior of rational points depends on the genus of the curve; every smooth projective curve X of genus zero over a field k is isomorphic to a conic curve in P2. If X has a k-rational point it is isomorphic to P1 over k, so its k-rational points are understood. If k is the field Q of rational numbers, there is an algorithm to determine whether a given conic has a rational point, based on the Hasse principle: a conic over Q has a rational point if and only if it has a point over all completions of Q, that is, over R and all p-adic fields Qp, it is harder to determine. The Hasse principle fails in this case: for example, by Ernst Selmer, the cubic curve 3x3 + 4y3 + 5z3 = 0 in P2 has a point over all completions of Q, but no rational point.

The failure of the Hasse principle for curves of genus 1 is measured by the Tate–Shafarevich group. If X is a curve of genus

Federico Lanzillota

Federico Vicente Lanzillota is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Palestino, on loan from Argentinos Juniors. Lanzillota started his career in 2013 with Nueva Chicago of Primera B Nacional, making his debut on 2 June 2013 versus Douglas Haig, he made two more appearances in 2012–13, prior to seven in the 2015 Argentine Primera División which turned out to be his last games for the club. In January 2016, Lanzillota completed a move to Argentinos Juniors, his first match for Argentinos came in the Primera División in a 0–3 home defeat to Atlético Tucumán in March. The club won promotion in 2016–17, but prior to the start of the 2017–18 season he suffered a cruciate ligament injury which took him out of action for the next six months. On 29 July 2019, Lanzillota was loaned for five months to Chilean Primera División side Palestino; as of 29 July 2019. Argentinos JuniorsPrimera B Nacional: 2016–17 Federico Lanzillota at Soccerway

Philippine pygmy roundleaf bat

The Philippine pygmy roundleaf bat called the Philippine pygmy leaf-nosed bat, is a species of bat in the family Hipposideridae. It is endemic to the Philippines, where it has been recorded on Bohol, Marinduque, Negros and Mindanao, it was described as a new species in 1843 by English naturalist George Robert Waterhouse. Waterhouse placed it in the genus Rhinolophus with a scientific name of Rhinolophus pygmaeus; the holotype had been collected by Hugh Cuming. The species name "pygmaeus" is Latin for "small." Waterhouse described it as "a small species." The Philippine pygmy roundleaf bat is found in several islands along the Philippines. It is found in caves and non-aquatic subterranean locations, along with general forests. Specimens have been found in lowland forests. Though forestation and mining is harmful, it is now thought that the bats are more tolerant to disturbance than once believed. Locally in the area, it is hunted and trapped for food, though those actions do not harm the species


Xihai'an known as Qingdao West Coast is a district of Qingdao, China, located southwest and west of the main urban area of the city on the western shore of Jiaozhou Bay. It was identical to Qingdao Economic and Technological Development Zone, launched in 1985 after the zone was merged with Huangdao District and set up the Free Trade Zone in 1992. In December 2012, neighbouring Jiaonan City was merged into Huangdao; the pillar industries engaged in the zone include electronics, household electric appliances, building materials, petrochemicals and pharmaceuticals. It is connected via the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge. In mid-2018 the Ministry of Civil Affairs approve the consolidation of Huangdao District Government and Xihai'an New Area Government into a single governing body becoming the third administrative state-level new areas after Pudong and Binhai; the number of living people is 1.71 million in 2014. Xihai'an is divided into 10 more rural towns. Qingdao Economic and Technological Development Zone

Savers (UK retailer)

Savers Health & Beauty is a discount chain of over four hundred stores based in the United Kingdom, retailing a variety of health, household goods and fragrances. The company expanded throughout the 1990s, before acquiring the one hundred strong Supersave chain of drugstores from GHEA; the company grew to 176 stores before being sold to A. S. Watson, the retail and manufacturing arm of CK Hutchison Holdings, the Hong Kong based conglomerate in July 2000. Subsequently, A. S. Watson acquired the owner of the Superdrug chain. Following this, many Savers stores were converted to the Superdrug format; some of those Superdrug stores were re converted back into Savers stores, including a branch at Holywell, Flintshire. The company is based in Dunstable near Luton. S. Watson large distribution centres in the United Kingdom, serving Savers and The Perfume Shop. Customer service operations are based at Superdrug's head office in Croydon and the company's registered office is Hutchinson House, London; as of 2019, Savers operates over four hundred stores.

Savers website A. S. Watson site Media related to Savers at Wikimedia Commons