SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of: shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. Heraldic designs came into general use among European nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade. Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century.

In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies. The arts of vexillology and heraldry are related; the term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combatants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer. The sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions.

In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder. In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms.

In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry. In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry.

It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arms was Sir Nevile Rodwell Wilkinson, who held it until his death in 1940. At the Irish government's request, no new King of Arms was appoi

Melchior Bwakira

Melchior Bwakira was a diplomat and dean of Burundian Diplomats. Bwakira served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and co-operation Minister of Transport, Telecommunications and Aeronautics. From 1978 to 1981 and from 1997 to 2001, Bwakira served as the Ambassador of Burundi to Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia, he was the Burundian Permanent Representative to the Organization of African Unity and to the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. From 1981 to 1986, Bwakira was the Burundian Ambassador to the United Nations in New York, to Cuba and Mexico. Bwakira, at the age of 24, was the first African Director of Radio Burundi in the early 1960s

Imperial College Union

Imperial College Union is the students' union of Imperial College London. It is host to many and varied societies, has student bars situated around Albertopolis; the Union is based in the north wing of the Beit Quadrangle on Prince Consort Road. The establishment of a students' union was recognised with the construction of the north building of Beit Quad in 1910-11 designed by Sir Aston Webb; the original idea for the building came from Sir Arthur Acland, a member of the governing body, who saw the need for a place for students to congregate and develop a collegiate social life. 1907 Formation of Imperial College of Science and Technology incorporating the Royal School of Mines, the Royal College of Science and City and Guilds College 1907 Imperial College Union formed as a federation of the 3 College Unions 1911 The Union building in South Kensington is constructed 1922 Founder member of NUS 1949 Felix is founded 1969 First directly elected sabbatical President 1984 The Union starts catering operation 1985 The Union Starts running own bars 1987 First professional welfare advisor at the Union 1988 Imperial College School of Medicine is established at St. Mary’s 1996 Union Council is made the supreme governing body 1997 Union stops running bookshop on campus.

1997 First medical student to be elected President 1998 First Deputy President Sabbatical 1998 Imperial College School of Medicine merges with Charing Cross and Royal Postgraduate Medical schools 2000 Merger with Wye College and Kennedy Institute 2001 Sir Richard Sykes appointed Rector of Imperial College 2003 College adopts Faculty structure in place of constituent Colleges. 2004 College rebrands as "Imperial College, London" 2005 Union Building Redevelopment - Project starts 2005 First Deputy President at the Union. 2006 Union Building Redevelopment - Construction work starts 2007 Imperial College Centenary 2007 The Union rejoins the NUS 2007 Imperial College leaves the University of London 2008 The Union leaves the NUS 2009 First Deputy President and Deputy President Imperial College Union is most noted for the history of its relationship with the National Union of Students. Despite being involved in the founding of the NUS in 1922, Imperial College Union withdrew its membership of the NUS a year later.

Since Imperial College Union has spent long periods outside the NUS, interspersed with brief periods of membership. A referendum for NUS affiliation held in 2002 was overwhelmingly rejected by members of the Imperial College Union. In November 2006, after a petition proposed a debate to affiliate with NUS at Freshers' Fair 2006 collected 617 valid signatures, from just above the 5% minimum of Imperial College Union members necessary to call a referendum, a referendum was held between Tuesday 14th and Thursday 16 November 2006; the result of this referendum, which had a record turnout of over 30%, was a yes to NUS affiliation by 53.26% for to 46.74% against. After the failure of governance reform measures supported by Imperial College Union at the NUS conference in 2008, the union council voted in favour of holding a referendum on disaffiliation from the NUS; the resulting referendum showed that the Members of Imperial College Union decided that their Union should no longer affiliate to the National Union of Students.

The Union is controlled by a variety of democratically elected representatives who sit on Union committees, control Union resources and represent the views of students to the College and external bodies. The Union is led by officers; the most senior officers are the five sabbatical officers who work full-time for the Union on a variety of areas ranging from commercial services to campaigns and representation. These officers are supported by 35 full-time and up to 250 part-time staff, the 2,600 elected officers of the Union's 320+ clubs and societies. In 2013, the Union registered as a charity. There are six constituent unions; these are historical in origin and retain many traditions, such as their names when most of the actual faculties now have different names. Some represent the students in their respective faculties: the City and Guilds College Union, the Royal College of Science Union and the Imperial College School of Medicine Students' Union, they are all run by part-time officers elected from the student body, with the exception of the Medical Union President, an elected full-time sabbatical officer with a one-year tenure.

In 2002 the Royal School of Mines Union was absorbed into the City and Guilds College Union and became a clubs & societies committee. However, in 2012 after running autonomously from City and Guilds Union for many years, The Royal School of Mines regained its constituent union status looking after the social aspects of its students. In the same governance review of 2012, Silwood Park Students' Union and the Graduate Students' Association became a constituent union; the Silwood Park Union operates independently from the overall Union but has no part or full-time sabbatical leadership. Imperial College Union has a large number of student-led clubs, volunteering projects and societies, with over 400 in total. Funding for CSPs at Imperial College Union is significant, taking up a sizeable portion of the Union's annual subvention provided by Imperial College London, though many clubs supplement this with sponsorship from outside of the Union. CSPs at Imperial College Union are administered by the Clubs, Societies' and Project Board, who deal with the majority of procedural issues and w