September 11 attacks
The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks. Four passenger airliners operated by two major U. S. passenger air carriers —all of which departed from airports in the northeastern United States bound for California—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures.
A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon in Arlington County, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was flown toward Washington, D. C. but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively. Suspicion fell on al-Qaeda; the United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invaded Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U. S. demands to extradite Osama bin expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks.
Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U. S. support of Israel, the presence of U. S. troops in Saudi Arabia, sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U. S. Navy in May 2011; the destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U. S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site; the building was opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.
Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001 conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence; these 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government. The origins of al-Qaeda can be traced to 1979. Osama bin Laden helped organize Arab mujahideen to resist the Soviets. Under the guidance of Ayman al-Zawahiri, bin Laden became more radical. In 1996, bin Laden issued his first fatwā. In a second fatwā in 1998, bin Laden outlined his objections to American foreign policy with respect to Israel, as well as the continued presence of American troops in Saudi Arabia after the Gulf War.
Bin Laden used Islamic texts to exhort Muslims to attack Americans until the stated grievances are reversed. Muslim legal scholars "have throughout Islamic history unanimously agreed that the jihad is an individual duty if the enemy destroys the Muslim countries", according to bin Laden. Bin Laden orchestrated the attacks and denied involvement but recanted his false statements. Al Jazeera broadcast a statement by bin Laden on September 16, 2001, stating, "I stress that I have not carried out this act, which appears to have been carried out by individuals with their own motivation." In November 2001, U. S. forces recovered a videotape from a destroyed house in Afghanistan. In the video, bin Laden admits foreknowledge of the attacks. On December 27, 2001, a second bin Laden video was released. In the video, he said: It has become clear that the West in general and America in particular have an unspeakable hatred for Islam.... It is the hatred of crusaders. Terrorism against America deserves to be praised because it was a response to injustice, aimed at forcing America to stop its support for Israel, which kills our people....
The Lockheed Vega is an American six-passenger high-wing monoplane airliner built by the Lockheed Corporation starting in 1927. It became famous for its use by a number of record-breaking pilots who were attracted to the rugged and long-range design. Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly the Atlantic solo in one, Wiley Post used his to prove the existence of the jet stream after having flown around the world twice. Designed by John Knudsen Northrop and Gerald Vultee, both of whom would form their own companies, the aircraft was intended to serve with Lockheed's own airline routes, they set out to build a four-seat aircraft, not only rugged but one of the fastest aircraft of its era. Using a wooden monocoque fuselage, plywood-covered cantilever wings and the best engine available, the Vega delivered on the promise of speed; the fuselage was built from sheets of plywood, skinned over wooden ribs. Using a large concrete mold, a single half of the fuselage shell was laminated in sections with glue between each layer and a rubber bladder was lowered into the mold and inflated with air to compress the lamination into shape against the inside of the mold.
The two fuselage halves were nailed and glued over a separately constructed rib framework. With the fuselage constructed in this fashion, the wing spar couldn't cut through the fuselage, so the single spar cantilever wing was mounted atop the aircraft. Only the engine and landing gear remained unstreamlined, on the production versions the undercarriage had teardrop shaped fairings covering the wheels, while only the earliest versions lacked NACA cowlings and had the engine cylinders exposed to the airstream, it was powered by the Wright Whirlwind air-cooled radial engine. The first Vega 1, named the Golden Eagle, flew from Lockheed's Los Angeles plant on July 4, 1927, it could cruise at a then-fast 120 mph, had a top speed of 135 mph. The four-passenger load was considered too small for airline use. A number of private owners placed orders for the design, by the end of 1928, 68 of this original design had been produced. In the 1929 National Air Races in Cleveland, Vegas won every speed award. In 1928, Vega Yankee Doodle was used to break transcontinental speed records.
On August 19–20, Hollywood stunt flier Arthur C. Goebel broke the coast-to-coast record of Russell Maughan by flying from Los Angeles, California, to Garden City, New York, in 18 hours and 58 minutes, in what was the first nonstop flight from west to east. On October 25, barnstormer and former mail pilot Charles B. D. Collyer broke the nonstop east to west record set in 1923 by the U. S. Army Air Service in 24 hours and 51 minutes. Trying to break the new West-to-East record on November 3, Collyer crashed near Prescott, killing him and the aircraft owner, Harry J. Tucker. Looking to improve the design, Lockheed delivered the Vega 5 in 1929. Adding the Pratt & Whitney R-1340 Wasp engine of 450 hp and a new NACA cowling improved performance enough to allow the addition of two more seats, increased cruising speed to 155 mph and top speed to 165 mph; the new six-seat configuration proved to be too small, the 5 was purchased for private aviation and executive transport. A total of 64 Vega 5s were built.
In 1931, the United States Army Air Corps bought two Vega 5s. The C-17 had additional fuel tanks in the wings; the Vega could be difficult to land. In her memoir, Elinor Smith wrote that it had "all the glide potential of a boulder falling off a mountain." In addition and side visibility from the cockpit was limited. On takeoff or landing, there'd be no forward visibility whatsoever." A one-off special, based on the metal-fuselaged DL-1, was built by the Detroit Aircraft Corporation, exported to the United Kingdom for Lt. Cmdr. Glen Kidston, it was registered in the UK as G-ABFE was re-registered as G-ABGK to incorporate Kidston's initials. He used this Vega to set a record-breaking time from the UK to South Africa in April 1931. Following Kidston's death the following month, the aircraft was sold to Australian airline owner Horrie Miller for entry by him into the MacRobertson Air Race. Piloted in the race by Miller's Chief Pilot, Capt. Jimmy Woods, it overturned on landing at Aleppo en route, whereupon Woods withdrew from the race and the DL-1A was shipped to Australia.
Following repairs and re-registration to VH-UVK, the aircraft was used for charter and leisure flying by Miller, before being impressed by the Royal Australian Air Force in 1941. In 1944, the aircraft was transferred to the Dept. Civil Aviation. Via information from RAAF pilots, DCA declared the Vega to have serious pitch control problems and it would be scrapped. Attempts by James Woods to reclaim the aircraft were ignored, it was destroyed in October 1945, it was the only Vega to operate in Australia. Vega 1 Five-seat cabin monoplane, accommodation for one pilot and four passengers, powered by a 225 hp Wright J-5, J-5A, J-5AB or J-5C Whirlwind radial piston engine. Vega 2 Five-seat cabin monoplane, powered by a 300 hp Wright J-6 Whirlwind radial piston engine. Vega 2A Redesignation of one Vega 2 aircraft, modified for higher gross weights operators. Vega 2D Redesignation of two Vega 1s and one Vega 2, each fitted with a 300 hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial piston engine. Vega 5 Improved version, powered by a 410 hp (3
Cessna 182 Skylane
The Cessna 182 Skylane is an American four-seat, single-engined light airplane, built by Cessna of Wichita, Kansas. It has the option of adding two child seats, installed in the baggage area. Introduced in 1956, the 182 has been produced in a number of variants, including a version with retractable landing gear, is the second most popular Cessna model, after the 172; the Cessna 182 was introduced in 1956 as a tricycle gear variant of the 180. In 1957, the 182A variant was introduced along with the name Skylane; as production continued models were improved with features such as a wider fuselage, swept tailfin with rear "omni-vision" window, enlarged baggage compartment, higher gross weights, landing gear changes, etc. The "restart" aircraft built after 1996 were different in many other details including a different engine, new seating design, etc. By mid-2013 Cessna planned to introduce the next model of the 182T, the JT-A, using the 227 hp SMA SR305-230 diesel engine running on Jet-A with a burn rate of 11 U.
S. gallons per hour and cruise at 155 kn. Cessna has no timeline for the JT-A and the diesel 172; the aspirated, avgas fueled 182 went out of production in 2012, but came back in 2015. Cessna 182s were built in Argentina by DINFIA, by Reims Aviation, France, as the F182; the Cessna 182 is an all-metal aircraft, although some parts – such as engine cowling nosebowl and wingtips – are made of fiberglass or thermoplastic material. Its wing has the same planform as the larger 205/206 series; the retractable gear R182 and TR182 were offered from 1978 to 1986, without and with engine turbocharging respectively. The model designation nomenclature differs from some other Cessna models with optional retractable gear. For instance the retractable version of the Cessna 172 was designated as the 172RG, whereas the retractable gear version of the Cessna 182 is the R182. Cessna gave the R182 the marketing name of "Skylane RG"; the R182 and TR182 offer 10-15% improvement in climb and cruise speeds over their fixed gear counterparts or, alternatively, 10-15% better fuel economy at the same speeds at the expense of increased maintenance costs and decreased gear robustness.
The 1978 R182 has a sea level climb rate of 1140 fpm and cruising speed at 7,500 feet of 156 KTAS at standard temperature. The landing gear retraction system in the Skylane RG uses hydraulic actuators powered by an electrically driven pump; the system includes a gear position warning that emits an intermittent tone through the cabin speaker when the gear is in the retracted position and either the throttle is reduced below 12" MAP or the flaps are extended beyond 20 degrees. In the event of a hydraulic pump failure, the landing gear may be lowered using a hand pump to pressurize the hydraulic system; the system does not, allow the landing gear to be manually retracted. 182 Initial production version with fixed landing gear, four-seat light aircraft, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,550 lb and certified on 2 March 1956. 182A Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 7 December 1956.
182B Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 22 August 1958. 182C Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 8 July 1959. 182D Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L piston engine, gross weight 2,650 lb and certified on 14 June 1960. 182E Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 27 June 1961. 182F Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 1 August 1962. 182G Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-L or O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 19 July 1963.
182H Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 17 September 1964. 182J Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 20 October 1965. 182K Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 3 August 1966. 182L Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 28 July 1967. 182M Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R piston engine, gross weight 2,800 lb and certified on 19 September 1968. There was an experimental version of this model with a full cantilever wing. 182N Skylane Four-seat light aircraft with fixed landing gear, powered by a 230 hp Continental O-470-R or O-470-S piston engine, gross weight 2,950 l
A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic flight instrument displays large LCD screens, rather than the traditional style of analog dials and gauges. While a traditional cockpit relies on numerous mechanical gauges to display information, a glass cockpit uses several displays driven by flight management systems, that can be adjusted to display flight information as needed; this simplifies aircraft operation and navigation and allows pilots to focus only on the most pertinent information. They are popular with airline companies as they eliminate the need for a flight engineer, saving costs. In recent years the technology has become available in small aircraft; as aircraft displays have modernized, the sensors that feed them have modernized as well. Traditional gyroscopic flight instruments have been replaced by electronic attitude and heading reference systems and air data computers, improving reliability and reducing cost and maintenance. GPS receivers are integrated into glass cockpits.
Early glass cockpits, found in the McDonnell Douglas MD-80/90, Boeing 737 Classic, 757 and 767-200/-300, ATR 42, ATR 72 and in the Airbus A300-600 and A310, used Electronic Flight Instrument Systems to display attitude and navigational information only, with traditional mechanical gauges retained for airspeed, vertical speed, engine performance. Glass cockpits, found in the Boeing 737NG, 747-400, 767-400, 777, A320 and Airbuses, Ilyushin Il-96 and Tupolev Tu-204 have replaced the mechanical gauges and warning lights in previous generations of aircraft. While glass cockpit-equipped aircraft throughout the late 20th century still retained analog altimeters and airspeed indicators as standby instruments in case the EFIS displays failed, more modern aircraft have been been using digital standby instruments as well, such as the integrated standby instrument system. Glass cockpits originated in military early 1970s. Prior to the 1970s, air transport operations were not considered sufficiently demanding to require advanced equipment like electronic flight displays.
Computer technology was not at a level where sufficiently light and powerful circuits were available. The increasing complexity of transport aircraft, the advent of digital systems and the growing air traffic congestion around airports began to change that; the Boeing 2707 was one of the earliest commercial aircraft designed with a glass cockpit. Most cockpit instruments were still analog, but CRT displays were to be used for the Attitude indicator and HSI. However, the 2707 was cancelled in 1971 after insurmountable technical difficulties and the end of project funding by the US government; the average transport aircraft in the mid-1970s had more than one hundred cockpit instruments and controls, the primary flight instruments were crowded with indicators and symbols, the growing number of cockpit elements were competing for cockpit space and pilot attention. As a result, NASA conducted research on displays that could process the raw aircraft system and flight data into an integrated understood picture of the flight situation, culminating in a series of flights demonstrating a full glass cockpit system.
The success of the NASA-led glass cockpit work is reflected in the total acceptance of electronic flight displays beginning with the introduction of the MD-80 in 1979. Airlines and their passengers alike have benefited; the safety and efficiency of flights have been increased with improved pilot understanding of the aircraft's situation relative to its environment. By the end of the 1990s, liquid-crystal display panels were favored among aircraft manufacturers because of their efficiency and legibility. Earlier LCD panels suffered from poor legibility at some viewing angles and poor response times, making them unsuitable for aviation. Modern aircraft such as the Boeing 737 Next Generation, 777, 717, 747-400ER, 747-8F 767-400ER, 747-8, 787, Airbus A320 family, A330, A340-500/600, A340-300, A380 and A350 are fitted with glass cockpits consisting of LCD units; the glass cockpit has become standard equipment in airliners, business jets, military aircraft. It was fitted into NASA's Space Shuttle orbiters Atlantis, Columbia and Endeavour, the current Russian Soyuz TMA model spacecraft, launched in 2002.
By the end of the century glass cockpits began appearing in general aviation aircraft as well. In 2003, Cirrus Design's SR20 and SR22 became the first light aircraft equipped with glass cockpits, which they made standard on all Cirrus aircraft. By 2005 basic trainers like the Piper Cherokee and Cessna 172 were shipping with glass cockpits as options, as well as many modern aircraft such as the Diamond DA42 twin-engine travel and training aircraft; the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II features a "panoramic cockpit display" touchscreen that replaces most of the switches and toggles found in an aircraft cockpit. The civilian Cirrus Vision SF50 now has the same, which they call a "Perspective Touch" glass cockpit. Unlike the previous era of glass cockpits—where designers copied the look and feel of conventional electromechanical instruments onto cathode ray tubes—the new displays represent a true departure, they look and behave similarly to other computers, with windows and data that can be manipulated with poi
Pilot in command
The pilot in command of an aircraft is the person aboard the aircraft, responsible for its operation and safety during flight. This would be the captain in a typical two- or three-pilot aircrew, or "pilot" if there is only one certificated and qualified pilot at the controls of an aircraft; the PIC must be certificated to operate the aircraft for the specific flight and flight conditions, but need not be manipulating the controls at any given moment. The PIC is the person in charge of the aircraft and its flight safety and operation, would be the primary person liable for an infraction of any flight rule; the strict legal definition of PIC may vary from country to country. The International Civil Aviation Organization, a United Nations agency, definition is: "The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight time." Flight time for airplanes is defined by the U. S. FAA as "Pilot time that commences when an aircraft moves under its own power for the purpose of flight and ends when the aircraft comes to rest after landing."
This would include taxiing, which involves the ground operation to and from the runway, as long as the taxiing is carried out with the intention of flying the aircraft. The U. S. CFR Title 14, Part 1, Section 1.1 defines "pilot in command" as:...the person who: Has final authority and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight. Under U. S. FAA FAR 91.3, "Responsibility and authority of the pilot in command", the FAA declares: U. S. FAA FAR 121.533 gives broad and complete final authority to airline captains: "Each pilot in command has full control and authority in the operation of the aircraft, without limitation, over other crewmembers and their duties during flight time, whether or not he holds valid certificates authorizing him to perform the duties of those crewmembers."ICAO and other countries equivalent rules are similar. In Annex 2, "Rules of the Air", under par. "2.3.1 Responsibility of pilot-in-command", ICAO declares: The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall, whether manipulating the controls or not, be responsible for the operation of the aircraft in accordance with the rules of the air, except that the pilot-in-command may depart from these rules in circumstances that render such departure necessary in the interests of safety.
In Annex 2, par. "2.4 Authority of pilot-in-command of an aircraft", ICAO adds:The pilot-in-command of an aircraft shall have final authority as to the disposition of the aircraft while in command. Both FAR ICAO Annex 2, par. 2.3.1 empower the PIC to override any other regulation in an emergency, to take the safest course of action at his/her sole discretion. This provision mirrors the authority given to the captains of ships at sea, with similar justifications, it gives the PIC the final authority in any situation involving the safety of a flight, irrespective of any other law or regulation. Under U. S. FAA FAR 14 CFR 61.51, logging flight time as a PIC is different and distinct from acting as the legal PIC for a flight. In general, the PIC of a given flight may always log his or her flying time as such, while other crew members may or may not be authorized to log their time on that flight as PIC time, depending on the specific circumstances and the controlling jurisdiction. Aircrew Pilot flying Craig, Paul A..
Pilot in Command. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-134844-1
De Havilland Hornet Moth
The de Havilland DH.87 Hornet Moth is a single-engined cabin biplane designed by the de Havilland Aircraft Company in 1934 as a potential replacement for its successful de Havilland Tiger Moth trainer. Although its side-by-side two-seat cabin made it closer in configuration to the modern aircraft that military trainee pilots would fly, there was no interest from the RAF and the aircraft was put into production for private buyers; the prototype first flew at Hatfield on 9 May 1934 and, with two other pre-production aircraft, embarked on an extensive test program that resulted in the first production aircraft completed in August 1935 having wings of greater outboard taper. These were found to cause problems when landing in three-point attitude: there was a tendency for the tips to stall, causing embarrassment to the pilot and damage to the aeroplane. From early 1936, de Havilland offered owners of the DH.87A replacement wings of the new squarer shape at a reduced price in exchange for the original wings.
Designated DH.87B, new aircraft from about manufacture Number 68 were built with the new square wings. This wing reduced the overall span by 8 inches; the alterations increased overall weight at some penalty to performance. Production was 164 aircraft. Many were impressed for military service during World War II being used by the RAF as liaison aircraft. Small numbers survived the war and with time became prized by vintage aircraft enthusiasts. A small number are still flying, over seventy years after production ceased. DH.87 Hornet Moth: prototypes DH.87A Hornet Moth: production model DH.87B Hornet Moth: production model with wing modification United Kingdom Australia Austria Belgium Canada Denmark France India South Africa Spain Switzerland Turkey - TC-101 PortugalPortuguese Air Force South AfricaSouth African Air Force United KingdomRoyal Air Force No. 24 Squadron RAF No. 49 Squadron RAF No. 116 Squadron RAF No. 510 Squadron RAF No. 526 Squadron RAF No. 527 Squadron RAF No. 528 Squadron RAF No. 529 Squadron RAF Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm One aircraft impressed and four from Canada Data from De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 General characteristics Crew: one, pilot Capacity: one, passenger or trainee Length: 24 ft 11½ in Wingspan: 31 ft 11 in Height: 6 ft 7 in Wing area: 244.5 ft² Empty weight: 1,241 lb Loaded weight: 1,950 lb Powerplant: 1 × de Havilland Gipsy Major I 4-cylinder air-cooled inverted straight engine, 130 hp Performance Maximum speed: 124 mph Cruise speed: 105 mph Range: 620 mi Service ceiling: 14,800 ft Rate of climb: 690 ft/min Wing loading: 7.97 lb/ft² Power/mass: 0.067 hp/lb Jackson, A.
J. De Havilland Aircraft since 1909. London: Putnam, Third edition, 1987. ISBN 0-85177-802-X. Follett, K. "Hornet flight", It's a fictitious novel, first printed in 2002, in which a hornet moth plays a key role in the story. The de Havilland Moth Club