A codex. The codex began to replace the scroll as soon as it was invented. In Egypt, by the fifth century, the codex outnumbered the scroll by ten to one based on surviving examples. By the sixth century, the scroll had vanished as a medium for literature; the change from rolls to codices coincides with the transition from papyrus to parchment as the preferred writing material, but the two developments are unconnected. In fact, any combination of codices and scrolls with papyrus and parchment is technically feasible and common in the historical record. Technically modern paperbacks are codices, but publishers and scholars reserve the term for manuscript books produced from Late antiquity until the Middle Ages; the scholarly study of these manuscripts from the point of view of the bookbinding craft is called codicology. The study of ancient documents in general is called paleography; the codex provided considerable advantages over other book formats its compactness, economic use of materials by using both sides, ease of reference The Romans used precursors made of reusable wax-covered tablets of wood for taking notes and other informal writings.

Two ancient polyptychs, a pentaptych and octoptych, excavated at Herculaneum used a unique connecting system that presages sewing on of thongs or cords. Julius Caesar may have been the first Roman to reduce scrolls to bound pages in the form of a note-book even as a papyrus codex. At the turn of the 1st century AD, a kind of folded parchment notebook called pugillares membranei in Latin became used for writing in the Roman Empire. Theodore Cressy Skeat theorized that this form of notebook was invented in Rome and spread to the Near East. Codices are described in certain works by Martial, he wrote a series of five couplets meant to accompany gifts of literature that Romans exchanged during the festival of Saturnalia. Three of these books are described by Martial as being in the form of a codex. In another poem by Martial, the poet advertises a new edition of his works noting that it is produced as a codex, taking less space than a scroll and more comfortable to hold in one hand. According to Theodore Cressy Skeat, this might be the first recorded known case of an entire edition of a literary work being published in codex form, though it was an isolated case and was not a common practice until a much time.

In his discussion of one of the earliest parchment codices to survive from Oxyrhynchus in Egypt, Eric Turner seems to challenge Skeat's notion when stating, “…its mere existence is evidence that this book form had a prehistory”, that “early experiments with this book form may well have taken place outside of Egypt.” Early codices of parchment or papyrus appear to have been used as personal notebooks, for instance in recording copies of letters sent. The parchment notebook pages were washed or scraped for re-use and writings in a codex were considered informal and impermanent; as early as the early 2nd century, there is evidence that a codex—usually of papyrus—was the preferred format among Christians. In the library of the Villa of the Papyri, all the texts are scrolls. However, in the Nag Hammadi library, hidden about AD 390, all texts are codices. Despite this comparison, a fragment of a non-Christian parchment codex of Demosthenes' De Falsa Legatione from Oxyrhynchus in Egypt demonstrates that the surviving evidence is insufficient to conclude whether Christians played a major or central role in the devel

Stephen McNeil

Stephen McNeil is a Canadian politician, the 28th and current premier of Nova Scotia, having assumed office on October 22, 2013. He has represented the riding of Annapolis in the Nova Scotia House of Assembly since 2003 and has been the leader of the Nova Scotia Liberal Party since 2007. McNeil was born in Annapolis County, Nova Scotia, the 12th of 17 children, his mother, Theresa McNeil, was the first female high sheriff in Canada and is a recipient of the Order of Nova Scotia. McNeil attended the Nova Scotia Community College, owned a small business for 15 years between 1988 and 2003. McNeil first was defeated. During that election McNeil indicated in a questionnaire provided by the campaign life coalition that he was pro-life. In 2013 a spokesperson for McNeil said his views had evolved since 1999 and he was no longer pro-life, he was elected to the Nova Scotia House of Assembly. On January 30, 2007, McNeil announced, he was endorsed by Leo Glavine, Harold Theriault, Wayne Gaudet, Robert Thibault, Rodger Cuzner, Jim Cowan, Don Downe and Dr. Jim Smith.

On April 28, 2007 at the Liberal Leadership Convention in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, McNeil was elected leader on the second ballot over runner-up Diana Whalen. In the 2009 election, McNeil led the Liberals to Official Opposition status. In the 2013 election, his party won a majority government, defeating the NDP government of Darrell Dexter. In the 2017 election, his party retained a reduced majority of 27 seats in the legislature. McNeil was sworn in as Premier of Nova Scotia, along with his cabinet by Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia John James Grant on October 22, 2013 in Annapolis Royal; this was the first time since 1954 that the swearing in ceremony has been held outside the provincial capital of Halifax. McNeil is leading the first Liberal government in Nova Scotia in 14 years after a majority win to take 33 of Nova Scotia's 51 provincial seats; the McNeil government faced difficulty in the first year of its government with two controversial stories about patronage and nepotism. Just days after being sworn in, Liberal candidate Glennie Langille was offered the job of Chief Protocol Officer.

Critics said this was a return to days of political patronage and the job should have gone to the most qualified candidate in an open competition, while advocates said the Premier had done nothing against the rules. A government contract given to the premier's brother was questioned. Critics had a problem with the fact that McNeil's brother's company was not registered with the Registry of Joint Stocks until the day after the tender closed, while advocates said being the premier's brother should not preclude him from receiving government contracts. Nova Scotia's Conflict of Interest Commissioner found no conflict with McNeil's brother's contract; the McNeil government's first session of the legislature lasted only 11 sitting days, the shortest fall sitting since fall sittings were made mandatory in 1994. The McNeil government was not required to hold a fall session of the legislature, as legislative sessions are not required for six months after an election. Campaign commitments by McNeil's Liberal government were met during the first session of the Nova Scotia House of Assembly, passing three significant pieces of legislation during this session.

The first was a law meant to open the electricity market to more producers. Critics said this law would neither reduce power rates, nor break Nova Scotia Power's monopoly, while advocates said it would soon allow for renewable electricity companies to sell directly to consumers. Another piece of notable legislation was for a statutory holiday in February. Critics said this would hurt the small business community, while advocates said it would help families spend more time together. Another commitment met included legislation to make economic investments more transparent and accountable. Another piece of notable legislation was the Liberal government's commitment to ban the importation of fracking wastewater from other jurisdictions; the McNeil government's first spring of the legislature saw three significant controversies. The Liberals passed essential services legislation that ending a strike by nurses in Halifax who were protesting working conditions. Opponents of Bill 37 said it took away the right to fair collective bargaining and would set back labour relations in the province, while the government said it was necessary to protect health care.

Public sector workers from various unions protested the bill. The second controversial legislation was the Financial Measures Act, which eliminated the Graduate Retention Rebate – a tax rebate given to graduates who stayed in the province to work; the government said that student groups wanted it cut. The third controversy stemmed from the McNeil government's April 2015 budget; the budget provided for the elimination of the crown agency Film and Creative Industries Nova Scotia, as well as an overhaul of the long-standing Nova Scotia Film Tax Credit. This move appeared to break a pre-election promise made by McNeil in October 2013, resulted in an outpouring of protest from the creative community. Under political pressure, McNeil was forced to abandon the changes tabled in the budget; the Liberal government instead come up with a new incentive program for the film and television industry: the Nova Scotia Film Production Incentive Fund. The Liberals' first budget forecast a $279 million deficit, included money to cap class sizes and recruit doctors.

Two significant pieces of legislation were introduced. The government took the interest off Nova S

Angus burger

An Angus burger is a hamburger made using beef from Angus cattle. The name Angus burger is used by several fast-food hamburger chains for one or more "premium" burgers. Pre-made frozen Angus burgers are available from retailers. McDonald's is believed to have been the first major fast-food burger chain to introduce an Angus burger. Since 2006, McDonald's has test-marketed its own version of the sandwich in several markets, including Chicago and upstate New York; the test sandwich was offered in three varieties that had similar makeup of the standard Burger King version, the mushroom Swiss and the bacon cheese. In Canada, the hamburger chain Harvey's sells an Angus burger on its menu, while McDonald's Canada introduced an Angus burger in May 2008. In mid-2009, two varieties of the Angus burger were added to McDonald's Australia and New Zealand menus; the first is the "Grand Angus", which consists of Angus beef, mustard, McChicken-sauce mayonnaise, processed cheese, red onion and tomato. The second is the "Mighty Angus", which consists of Angus beef, processed cheese, McChicken sauce, onion relish, red onion and bacon.

In December 2015, the Grand Angus was re-released as the Classic Angus and the Mighty Angus was re-released as the Aussie BBQ Angus. In 2019, a Black version of Angus burger has been released. List of hamburgers