Benedict of Nursia
Benedict of Nursia is a Christian saint, who is venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, the Catholic Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Anglican Communion and Old Catholic Churches. He is a saint of Europe. Benedict founded twelve communities for monks at Subiaco, Lazio in Italy, the Order of Saint Benedict is of origin and, not an order as commonly understood but merely a confederation of autonomous congregations. Benedicts main achievement is his Rule of Saint Benedict, containing precepts for his monks and it is heavily influenced by the writings of John Cassian, and shows strong affinity with the Rule of the Master. But it has a spirit of balance and reasonableness. As a result, his Rule became one of the most influential religious rules in Western Christendom, for this reason, Benedict is often called the founder of western monasticism. The authenticity of this work has been disputed, especially by Dr Francis Clarke in his two volume work The Pseudo-Gregorian Dialogues. Book Two consists of a prologue and thirty-eight succinct chapters, gregory’s account of this saint’s life is not, however, a biography in the modern sense of the word.
It provides instead a spiritual portrait of the gentle, disciplined abbot, in a letter to Bishop Maximilian of Syracuse, Gregory states his intention for his Dialogues, saying they are a kind of floretum of the most striking miracles of Italian holy men. Gregory did not set out to write a chronological, historically anchored story of Saint Benedict, but he did base his anecdotes on direct testimony. These followers, he says, are Constantinus, who succeeded Benedict as Abbot of Monte Cassino, Valentinianus and Honoratus, who was abbot of Subiaco when St Gregory wrote his Dialogues. Gregory’s Dialogues Book Two, then, a medieval hagiography cast as a conversation between the Pope and his deacon Peter, is designed to teach spiritual lessons. He was the son of a Roman noble of Nursia, the modern Norcia, a tradition which Bede accepts makes him a twin with his sister Scholastica. If 480 is accepted as the year of his birth, the year of his abandonment of his studies, Saint Gregorys narrative makes it impossible to suppose him younger than 19 or 20 at the time.
He was at the beginning of life, and he had at his disposal the means to a career as a Roman noble, clearly he was not a child. Benedict does not seem to have left Rome for the purpose of becoming a hermit and he took his old nurse with him as a servant and they settled down to live in Enfide. Enfide, which the tradition of Subiaco identifies with the modern Affile, is in the Simbruini mountains, about forty miles from Rome, a short distance from Enfide is the entrance to a narrow, gloomy valley, penetrating the mountains and leading directly to Subiaco. The cave has a large triangular-shaped opening and is ten feet deep
Uncial is a majuscule script commonly used from the 4th to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes. Uncial letters were used to write Greek and Gothic, early uncial script is likely to have developed from late Old Roman cursive. In the oldest examples of uncial, such as the De bellis macedonicis manuscript in the British Library, all of the letters are disconnected from one another, word separation, however, is characteristic of uncial usage. As the script evolved over the centuries, the became more complex. Specifically, around AD600, flourishes and exaggerations of the basic strokes began to appear in more manuscripts and descenders were the first major alterations, followed by twists of the tool in the basic stroke and overlapping. By the time the more compact minuscule scripts arose circa AD800, some of the evolved uncial styles formed the basis for these simplified, uncial was still used, particularly for copies of the Bible, tapering off until around the 10th century. There are over 500 surviving copies of uncial script, by far the largest number prior to the Carolingian Renaissance, in general, there are some common features of uncial script, ⟨f⟩, ⟨i⟩, ⟨p⟩, ⟨s⟩, ⟨t⟩ are relatively narrow. ⟨m⟩, ⟨n⟩ and ⟨u⟩ are relatively broad, ⟨m⟩ is formed with curved strokes ⟨⟩, ⟨e⟩ is formed with a curved stroke, and its arm does not connect with the top curve ⟨⟩, the height of the arm can indicate the age of the script. ⟨l⟩ has a base, not extending to the right to connect with the next letter. ⟨r⟩ has a long, curved shoulder ⟨ꞃ⟩, often connecting with the next letter, ⟨s⟩ resembles the long s ⟨ſ⟩, in uncial it ⟨ꞅ⟩ looks more like ⟨r⟩ than ⟨f⟩.
In particular, the bow of the letter ⟨a⟩ is particularly sharp, italian uncial has round letters with flatter tops, and a with a sharp bow, an almost horizontal rather than vertical stem in ⟨d⟩, and forked finials. Insular uncial generally has definite word separation, and accent marks over stressed syllables, probably because Irish scribes did not speak a language descended from Latin. French uncial uses thin descenders, an ⟨x⟩ with lines that cross higher than the middle, and a ⟨d⟩ with a stem, and there are many decorations of fish, trees. Cyrillic manuscript developed from Greek uncial in the ninth century. The earlier form was called ustav, and developed into semi-ustav script, there is some doubt about the original meaning of the word. Uncial itself probably comes from St. Habeant qui volunt veteres libros, vel in membranis purpureis auro argentoque descriptos, vel uncialibus ut vulgo aiunt litteris onera magis exarata quam codices. Let those who so desire have old books, or books written in gold and silver on purple parchment, or burdens written in uncial letters, the term uncial in the sense of describing this script was first used by Jean Mabillon in the early 18th century.
Thereafter his definition was refined by Scipione Maffei, who used to refer to this script as distinct from Roman square capitals, the word, uncial, is sometimes used to refer to manuscripts that have been scribed in uncial, especially when differentiating from those penned with minuscule
Pope Gregory II
Pope Gregory II was Pope from 19 May 715 to his death in 731. Born into a noble Roman family in the year 669, Gregory was the son of Marcellus, as a young man, he was placed into the papal court, and was made a subdeacon and sacellarius of the Roman See during the pontificate of Pope Sergius I. Later he was made a deacon and placed in charge of the Vatican Library, after Constantine’s death on 9 April 715, Gregory was elected pope, and was consecrated as Bishop of Rome on 19 May 715. Almost immediately, Gregory began the task of repairing the Walls of Rome, work on this task was delayed in October 716 when the Tiber river burst its banks and flooded Rome, causing immense damage and only receding after eight days. Gregory ordered a number of litanies to be said to stem the floods, which spread over the Campus Martius, Gregory responded by sending a letter outlining the traditional Roman position against Monothelitism. Then in 716, Gregory received a visit from Theodo. Gregory next turned his attention to Germany, in 718, he was approached by an Anglo-Saxon missionary, who proposed undertaking missionary work in Germany.
Gregory agreed, and after changing his name to Boniface, commissioned him in May 719 to preach in Germany, after hearing of the work that had been done so far, in 722 Gregory summoned Boniface back to Rome to answer rumours concerning Boniface’s doctrinal purity. After examining Boniface’s written profession of faith, Gregory was satisfied enough that he made Boniface a bishop in November 722, Gregory strengthened papal authority in the churches of Britain and Ireland. In 726 Gregory had a visit from Ine, the former King of Wessex. Gregory concerned himself with establishing or restoring monasteries, in 721, Gregory held a synod in Rome, for the purpose of fixing issues around illegitimate marriages. Then in 723, the dispute between the patriarchs of Aquileia and Grado flared up again. Upon the request of the Lombard king, Gregory had given the pallium to Bishop Serenus, at the same time, Gregory reprimanded Donatus for complaining about Gregory’s decision to grant the pallium to Serenus in the first place.
Then in 725, upon Donatus’ death, the Grado patriarchate was usurped by Peter, Gregory mandated a number of practices within the Church. He decreed that in Lent, on the Thursdays, people should fast, just as they were required to do during the days of the week. Apparently the practice had been frowned upon by popes of previous centuries and he prescribed the offices to be said during church services on Thursdays in Lent, as prior to this, the Mass of the preceding Sunday was said on those Thursdays. Gregory attempted to remain on good terms with the Lombards. In April 716 he managed to get Liutprand to agree not to retake the Cottian Alps, the semi-independent Lombard Duchy of Benevento, under the expansionist duke Romuald II, resumed hostilities by capturing Cumae in 717, cutting Rome off from Naples
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans. Many different authors contributed to the Bible, what is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups, a number of Bible canons have evolved, with overlapping and diverging contents. The Christian Old Testament overlaps with the Hebrew Bible and the Greek Septuagint, the New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be mostly Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. These early Christian Greek writings consist of narratives, among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about the contents of the canon, primarily the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ amongst Christian groups and this concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, and many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only source of Christian teaching.
With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, the Bible is widely considered to be the book of all time. It has estimated sales of 100 million copies, and has been a major influence on literature and history, especially in the West. The English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin. Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra holy book, while biblia in Greek and it gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, and so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe. Latin biblia sacra holy books translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια ta biblia ta hagia, the word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of paper or scroll and came to be used as the ordinary word for book. It is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, Egyptian papyrus, possibly so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece, the Greek ta biblia was an expression Hellenistic Jews used to describe their sacred books.
Christian use of the term can be traced to c.223 CE, bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus and he states that it is not a magical book, nor was it literally written by God and passed to mankind. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that, Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, the period of transmission is short, less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Marks Gospel.
This means that there was time for oral traditions to assume fixed form
Insular art, known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of Ireland and Britain. The term derives from insula, the Latin term for island, in this period Britain, most Insular art originates from the Irish monastic movement or metalwork for the secular elite, and the period begins around 600 with the combining Celtic and Anglo-Saxon styles. One major distinctive feature is interlace decoration, applied to decorating new types of objects mostly copied from the Mediterranean world, above all the codex or book. The finest period of the style was brought to an end by the disruption to monastic centres and these are presumed to have interrupted work on the Book of Kells, and no Gospel books are as heavily or finely illuminated as the masterpieces of the 8th century. In England the style merged into Anglo-Saxon art around 900, whilst in Ireland the style continued until the 12th century, the influence of insular art affected all subsequent European medieval art, especially in the decorative elements of Romanesque and Gothic manuscripts.
Surviving examples of Insular art are mainly illuminated manuscripts and carvings in stone, surfaces are highly decorated with intricate patterning, with no attempt to give an impression of depth, volume or recession. The best examples include the Book of Kells, Lindisfarne Gospels, Book of Durrow, brooches such as the Tara Brooch, carpet pages are a characteristic feature of Insular manuscripts, although historiated initials, canon tables and figurative miniatures, especially Evangelist portraits, are common. The term was derived from its use for Insular script, first cited by the OED in 1908, the Insular style is most famous for its highly dense and imaginative decoration, which takes elements from several earlier styles. From the Iron Age came the style called late Celtic art or Ultimate La Tène, there is no attempt to represent depth in manuscript painting, with all the emphasis on a brilliantly patterned surface. The origins of the format of the carpet page have often been related to Roman floor mosaics, Coptic carpets and manuscript paintings.
Across all the society was effectively entirely rural, buildings were rudimentary. Especially in Ireland and secular elites were very closely linked. Ireland was divided into numerous, generally small kingdoms, while in Britain there was a number of generally larger kingdoms. The elites of all the peoples had long traditions of metalwork of the finest quality. The Insular style arises from the meeting of their two styles and Anglo-Saxon animal style, in a Christian context, and with awareness of Late Antique style. This was especially so in their application to the book, which was a new type of object for both traditions, as well as to metalwork, the role of the Kingdom of Northumbria in the formation of the new style appears to have been pivotal. The Irish monastery at Iona was established by Saint Columba in 563, christianity discouraged the burial of grave goods so that, at least from the Anglo-Saxons, we have a larger number of pre-Christian survivals than those from periods. The majority of examples survive from the Christian period have been found in archaeological contexts that suggest they were rapidly hidden
Eusebian canons, Eusebian sections or Eusebian Apparatus, known as Ammonian Sections, are the system of dividing the four Gospels used between late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. The divisions into chapters and verses used in modern texts date only from the 13th and 16th centuries, the sections are indicated in the margin of nearly all Greek and Latin manuscripts of the Bible, and usually summarized in Canon Tables at the start of the Gospels. There are about 1165 sections,355 for Matthew,235 for Mark,343 for Luke, and 232 for John and it was traditionally believed that he divided the four Gospels into small numbered sections, which were similar in content where the narratives are parallel. In the first nine tables he placed in parallel columns the numbers of the common to the four. In the tenth he noted successively the sections special to each evangelist and these marginal notes are reproduced in several editions of Tischendorfs New Testament. Eusebiuss explanatory letter to Carpianus was very often reproduced before the tables and this form was derived from Late Antique book-painting frames like those in the Chronography of 354.
In many examples the tables are the decoration in the whole book. Chronicon This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Charles. British Library illuminated manuscripts - add canon tables to search box for many examples
The gospels of Matthew and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels, because they include many of the same stories, often in the same sequence. Also known to have written the book of Acts and to have been a friend of Paul of Tarsus, John – a disciple of Jesus. They are called evangelists, an meaning people who proclaim good news. Images normally, but not invariably, appear with wings like angels. e. Man, the king of creation as the image of the creator, the lion as the king of beasts of prey, the ox as the king of domesticated animals and the eagle as the king of the birds. Matthew the Evangelist, the author of the first gospel account, is symbolized by a winged man, matthews gospel starts with Josephs genealogy from Abraham, it represents Jesus Incarnation, and so Christs human nature. This signifies that Christians should use their reason for salvation, Mark the Evangelist, the author of the second gospel account, is symbolized by a winged lion – a figure of courage and monarchy. The lion represents Jesus resurrection, and Christ as king and this signifies that Christians should be courageous on the path of salvation.
Luke the Evangelist, the author of the gospel account, is symbolized by a winged ox or bull – a figure of sacrifice, service. Lukes account begins with the duties of Zacharias in the temple, it represents Jesus sacrifice in His Passion and Crucifixion, the ox signifies that Christians should be prepared to sacrifice themselves in following Christ. John the Evangelist, the author of the gospel account, is symbolized by an eagle – a figure of the sky. This symbolizes that Christians should look on eternity without flinching as they journey towards their goal of union with God, each of the symbols is depicted with wings, following the biblical sources first in Ezekiel 1–2, and in Revelation. They were presented as one of the most common found on church portals and apses. When surrounding Christ, the figure of the man appears at top left – above Christs right hand. Underneath the man is the ox and underneath the lion is the eagle and this both reflects the medieval idea of the order of nobility of nature of the beasts and the text of Ezekiel 1.10.
From the thirteenth century their use began to decline, as a new conception of Christ in Majesty, showing the wounds of the Passion, sometimes in Evangelist portraits they appear to dictate to the writing evangelist. Matthew is often cited as the first Gospel account, not only owing to its place in the canon, most biblical scholars however, see the gospel account of Mark as having been written first and Johns gospel account as having been written last. It has become customary to speak of the Gospel of Matthew
Books of Kings
In the Hebrew Bible, Kings is a single book called the Book of Kings. The fourth book of Neviim, the division of the Tanakh. In the Septuagint and Kings was divided into four books and Kings became III, the two Books of Kings presents a history of ancient Israel and Judah from the death of David to the release of Jehoiachin from imprisonment in Babylon, a period of some 400 years. Solomon comes to the throne after Davids death, at the beginning of his reign he assumes Gods promises to David and brings splendour to Israel and peace and prosperity to his people. The centrepiece of Solomons reign is the building of the First Temple, at the end, however, he follows other gods and oppresses Israel. The kings who follow Rehoboam in Jerusalem continue the line of David, in the north, dynasties follow each other in rapid succession. At length God brings the Assyrians to destroy the northern kingdom, Yahweh saves Jerusalem and the kingdom from an invasion by Assyria. But Manasseh, the king, reverses the reforms.
Manassehs righteous grandson Josiah reinstitutes the reforms of Hezekiah, but it is too late, speaking through the prophetess Huldah, affirms that Jerusalem is to be destroyed. God brings the Babylonians against Jerusalem, Yahweh deserts his people, Jerusalem is razed and the Temple destroyed, in the original Hebrew Bible First and Second Kings are a single book, as are First and Second Samuel. When this was translated into Greek in the last few centuries BCE, what it is now commonly known as 1 Samuel and 2 Samuel are called by the Vulgate, in imitation of the Septuagint,1 Kings and 2 Kings respectively. What it is now known as 1 Kings and 2 Kings would be 3 Kings and 4 Kings in old Bibles before the year 1516 such as the Vulgate. The division we know today, used by Protestant Bibles and adopted by Catholics, some Bibles still preserve the old denomination, for example, Douay Rheims bible. According to Jewish tradition the author of Kings was Jeremiah, who would have been alive during the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BCE.
The Deuteronomic perspective is particularly evident in prayers and speeches spoken by key figures at major transition points, a third source, or set of sources, were cycles of stories about various prophets, plus a few smaller miscellaneous traditions. The conclusion of the book was based on personal knowledge. A few sections were editorial additions not based on sources, judgement is not punishment, but simply the natural consequence of Israels failure to worship Yahweh alone. Another and related theme is that of prophecy, the main point of the prophetic stories is that Gods prophecies are always fulfilled, so that any not yet fulfilled will be so in the future
Scribal abbreviations or sigla are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and in Greek and Old Norse. Modern manuscript editing employs sigla as symbols indicating the location of a source manuscript, lapidaries and copyists made the most of the available writing space. Scribal abbreviations were infrequent when writing materials were plentiful, but by the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, writing materials were scarce and costly. During the Roman Republic, several abbreviations, known as sigla, were in use in inscriptions. Additionally, in this period shorthand entered general usage, the earliest Western shorthand system known to us is that employed by the Greek historian Xenophon in the memoir of Socrates, and called notae socratae. This notation was akin to modern stenographic writing systems and it employed symbols for whole words or word roots and grammatical modifier marks, and could be used to write either whole passages in shorthand or only certain words. However the alphabet notation had an existence as it was often associated with witchcraft and magic.
Sigla were mostly used in inscriptions, in some places. The identity and usage of abbreviations is not constant but changes from region to region, Scribal abbreviation increased in usage and reached its height in the Carolingian Renaissance. The most common abbreviations, called notae communes, are encountered across most of Europe, Scribal abbreviations can be found in epigraphy and legal manuscripts, written in Latin or in a vulgar tongue, either calligraphically or not. These two forms of abbreviation are called suspensions, according to Trabe, these abbreviations are not really meant to lighten the burden of the scribe but rather to shroud in reverent obscurity the holiest words of the Christian religion. Still, when occasion required referring to three or four persons, the doubling of the final consonant yielded to the simple plural siglum. To that effect, a vinculum above a letter or a letter-set was so used, likewise the tilde, an undulated, curved-end line, came into standard late-medieval usage.
These typographic abbreviations should not be confused with the abbreviations, i. e. loc. cit. viz. Moreover, besides scribal abbreviations, ancient texts contain variant typographic characters, including ligatures, the s. The u and v characters originated as scribal variants for their respective letters, some ancient and medieval sigla are still used in English and other European languages, the Latin ampersand, replaces the conjunction and in English, et in Latin and French, and y in Spanish. The Tironian sign ⁊, resembling the digit seven, represents the conjunction et, and is only to the x-height, in current Irish language usage. Typographically, the ampersand, representing the word et, is a ligature of the letters e and t
An illuminated manuscript is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials and miniature illustrations. Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted, islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works. This article covers the technical and economic history of the subject, for an art-historical account, the earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period 400 to 600, produced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire. The significance of these works lies not only in their inherent artistic and historical value, had it not been for the monastic scribes of Late Antiquity, most literature of Greece and Rome would have perished in Europe. As it was, the patterns of textual survivals were shaped by their usefulness to the severely constricted literate group of Christians, the majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages, although many survive from the Renaissance, along with a very limited number from Late Antiquity.
The majority of manuscripts are of a religious nature. However, especially from the 13th century onward, a number of secular texts were illuminated. Most illuminated manuscripts were created as codices, which had superseded scrolls, a very few illuminated manuscript fragments survive on papyrus, which does not last nearly as long as vellum or parchment. Most medieval manuscripts, illuminated or not, were written on parchment, beginning in the late Middle Ages manuscripts began to be produced on paper. Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced in the early 16th century, Manuscripts are among the most common items to survive from the Middle Ages, many thousands survive. They are the best surviving specimens of medieval painting, for many areas and time periods, they are the only surviving examples of painting. There are a few examples from periods, the type of book that was most often heavily and richly illuminated, sometimes known as a display book, varied between periods. In the first millennium, these were most likely to be Gospel Books, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Romanesque period saw the creation of many huge illuminated complete Bibles – one in Sweden requires three librarians to lift it.
Many Psalters were illuminated in both this and the Gothic period. Finally, the Book of Hours, very commonly the personal book of a wealthy layperson, was often richly illuminated in the Gothic period. Other books, both liturgical and not, continued to be illuminated at all periods, the Byzantine world continued to produce manuscripts in its own style, versions of which spread to other Orthodox and Eastern Christian areas. See Medieval art for other regions and types, reusing parchments by scraping the surface and reusing them was a common practice, the traces often left behind of the original text are known as palimpsests. The Gothic period, which saw an increase in the production of these beautiful artifacts, saw more secular works such as chronicles
Langres is a commune in northeastern France. It is a subprefecture of the department of Haute-Marne, in the region of Grand Est, as the capital of the Romanized Gallic tribe the Lingones, it was called Andematunnum and now Langres. The town is built on a promontory of the same name. The 1st century Triumphal Gate and the many artefacts exhibited in the museums are witnesses to the Gallo-Roman town, after the period of invasions, the town prospered in the Middle Ages due, in part, to the growing political influence of its bishops. The diocese covered Champagne, the Duchy of Burgundy and Franche-Comté, the Bishop of Langres was a duke and peer of France. The Renaissance, which returned prosperity to the town, saw the construction of numerous fine civil, religious, in the 19th century, a Vauban citadel was added. Today Langres is a town with numerous art treasures within the ancient defensive walls surrounding the old city, including a dozen towers. The cathedral of Saint-Mammès is a late 12th-century structure dedicated to Mammes of Caesarea, Langres is home to producers of an AOC-protected cheese of the same name.
It is a soft, pungent cows milk cheese that is known for its rind, the museum Denis Diderot´s House of Enlightenment. With it Langres pays homage to Denis Diderot, Langres was the birthplace of, Jeanne Mance, the co-founder of Montreal Claude Gillot, painter Denis Diderot, the philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment, and the editor-in-chief of the Encyclopédie